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A.D. 1100-1310 


Vndique Reptrta 







All rights reserved 



THE present volume is an attempt to write the early history of 
the family from records of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
which have come down to us ; it is composed on the principle of 
printing original documents in full, and in the tongue, Latin, 
Norman-French, or English, in which they were written. All 
dates have been reduced to the New Style, with the year commenc- 
ing on January i, and place names have been generally modernized. 

In addition to the Rolls and Charters at the Public Record 
Office and the British Museum, which have been searched, con- 
siderable use has been made of the family Muniments preserved 
at Hunstanton Hall. They are kept in a small vaulted chamber, 
originally the guard-room of the Gate-House, built in the reign 
of Henry VII. It contains a large number of early Rolls and 
Charters, many of which documents were not noticed in the 
meagre description of this collection, given in the Third Report 
of the Historical Manuscripts Commission (pp. 271-274), by 
the late Mr. Alfred Horwood, who was only able to devote two 
days to the examination thereof. They were arranged, and a 
full Repertory of them was made by the late Mr. Henry Harrod, 
F.S.A., in 1869. The series of manorial Rolls relating to the 
Norfolk estates of the family is extraordinarily ample, running 
from the reign of Henry III onwards, though of course there are 
many gaps in the series. 

During the two centuries dealt with these early Le Stranges 
took an active part in the public events of their day, and in order 


to make their actions intelligible it has been necessary to weave 
into the story a certain amount of English history. For the 
correction of the historical portions of the narrative in the light 
of modern research, I am greatly indebted to Professor T. F. 
Tout, of the Victoria University of Manchester, who has given 
me much help, particularly with regard to the March of Wales, 
which he has made an especial object of study. Reference is 
given to the original authorities for all genealogical statements, 
and nothing not susceptible of strict proof has been admitted, so 
as, if possible, to avoid the intermixture of fact and fable usually 
found in familv histories. 

H. LE S. 


April 4, 1916. 







I. ROLAND LE STRANGE, circa 1112 i 

II. JOHN LE STRANGE (I), circa 1135-1178 23 

III. JOHN LE STRANGE (II), 1178-1234 59 

IV. JOHN LE STRANGE (III), 1234-1269 99 

V. JOHN LE STRANGE (IV), 1269-1275 154 

VI. JOHN LE STRANGE (V), 1275-1309 185 

VII. JOHN LE STRANGE (VI), 1309-1317 255 



1628 324 









WELLE To face p. 3 








STANTON ....... ,, 260 



X. SEALS .......... ,, 370 

































C.Doc. SCOT. 









All numbers enclosed in a. small square refer to Press- 
marks in the Hunstanton Muniment Room. 
History of Norfolk by Francis Blomefield and Charles 

Parkin ; 8vo edition in n vols. (1805-10). 
British Museum. 

Calendar of Ancient Deeds in Public Record Office. 
Charter Rolls. 

Close Rolls. 

Documents relating to Scotland. 

,, Fine Rolls. 

,, Inquisitions post mortem. 

,, Papal Letters. 

Patent Rolls. 

' The Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of Brisley 
in the County of Norfolk,' by G. A. Carthew ; 3 
vols. 4to (1877-9). 

' The Baronage of England,' by Sir William Dugdale ; 
3 vols. in 2, fo. (1675-6). 

' Monasticon Anglicanum,' by Sir William Dugdale ; 
6 vols. New edition by J. Caley, H. Ellis, and 
B. Bandinel (1817-30). 

' The Antiquities of Warwickshire,' by Sir William 
Dugdale ; fo. (1656). 

' Antiquities of Shropshire,' by the Rev. R. W. Eyton ; 

12 vols. 8vo (1854-1860). 
Itinerary of Henry II., 8vo (1878). 

Rymer's ' Fcedera/ fo. 4 vols. (1816-1830). 

' Liber niger Scaccarii,' edited by W. Hearn ; 2 vols. 
8vo (1771-1774). 











' The Welsh Wars of Edward I,' by John E. Morris 

Publications of the Pipe Roll Society. 
Public Record Office. 

' Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066-1100,' 
by H. W. C. Davis (1913). 

' Rotuli Curiae Regis, 6 Ric. I-i John ' ; edited by 
Sir F. Palgrave (1835). 

' Rotuli Hundredorum, Henr. III. and Edw. I ' ; 

fo., 2 VOls., l8l2. 

' Rotuli Originalium, Abbreviatio ; Hen. III-Edw. 
Ill ' ; fo., 2 vols. (1805-1810). 

Up to 1232 the Patent Rolls, and up to 1242 the 
Close Rolls of Hen. Ill were printed in full by the 
Commissioners of Public Records. After those dates 
the references are to the Calendars thereof in course 
of publication in the Rolls series. 

Calendar of documents preserved in France illustrative 
of the History of Great Britain and Ireland, 918- 
1206, Record Office Publications (1899). 

' Studies in Peerage and Family History,' by J. 
Horace Round (1901). 

' Testa de Nevill,' or ' Liber Feodorum,' printed by 
the Record Commission, fo. (1807). 





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Circa 1112 

THE origin, so called, of any old family is usually founded on 
fable, and that generally attributed to the house of Strange or le 
Strange is no exception to the rule. Most of the printed genea- 
logies follow Dugdale in saying that the family sprang from a 
mythical Duke of Brittany, whose younger son, Guy, settled in 
England. The name itself evidently points to a foreign origin ; 
the Normans themselves were foreigners in England, and the 
first ' Extraneus ' was a foreigner among the Normans, both 
among those of Normandy as well as those of England. In the 
eleventh century hereditary surnames were just beginning to 
exist ; men were usually called, either by the name of the place 
in which they lived, or from their occupation ; very often they 
were simply described as the son of So-and-so, or else from some 
personal peculiarity ; i.e. they were either ' de ' somewhere, or 
Me* something, and, in each event, the father's appellation 
might or might not be suitable to or be adopted by the son. 
The account given by Dugdale is as follows : 

It is said that, at a Justs held in the Peke of Derbyshire at Castle Peverell 
(of which I have already taken notice in my discourse on the family of Fitz Warine), 
where, amongst divers other persons of note, Oweyn Prince of Wales, and a son of 


the King of Scots, were present, there were also two sons of the Duke of Bretaigne ; 
and that the younger of them, named Guy, was called Guy le Strange, from whom 
the several families of the le Stranges did descend. 1 

The wide acceptance of this legendary history of the family 
is due to Dugdale, whose authority was Leland's ' Collectanea,' 
published in 1612, while Leland's account is derived from an 
English version of the French romance of Fulk fitz Warin. 2 
The story quoted by Leland is to the effect that John, Duke of 
Brittany, had ten sons, whom he sent to a tournament, proclaimed 
at the Castle of the Peak by William Peverel of WMttington, 
whose niece and heiress, Melette, together with the lands of 
Whittington, was to be the prize of the victor ; that the lady 
was won and duly espoused by Guarin de Metz, and after the 
espousals that the nine elder sons of the Duke of Brittany re- 
turned home, while the youngest remained in England and 
acquired many fair lands by his sword, and was called ' Gwy le 
Estraunge e de ly vindrent tous les grantz seignurs de Engleterre 
qe ont le sournom de Estraunge.' 

The details of this story stamp it as a romance for instance, 
there were no ' dukes,' but ' counts ' of Brittany in the twelfth 
century, and none of them was called John, nor had ten sons. 
The legend, however, thus started into existence in the thirteenth 
century, obtained full currency and belief until the middle of the 
nineteenth. It was successively adopted by Leland, Glover, 
Dugdale, Blomefield, and the modern peerages ; it was incor- 
porated as gospel into the illuminated family pedigree, now in 
the Evidence Room at Hunstanton Hall, which was begun by 
Roger 1'Estrange of Hoe in 1686, and has been continued to the 
present time. The bubble was not pricked until the publication 
of the ' Antiquities of Shropshire ' in 1854-1860, by the Rev. R. W. 
Eyton, to whom is entirely due the credit of not only disproving 
the fabulous tale of the Trouvere, but of placing the early history 
of the family on a sure foundation of fact, as the result of his un- 
wearied and extensive researches at the Record Office and among 
many original sources of information, topographical, genealogical, 

1 Dugdale's Baronage, i. 663. * Leland's Coll. i. 261. 



and historical. Without his invaluable assistance the present 
record could not have been compiled with any approach to accu- 
racy, and the compiler desires to acknowledge to the fullest degree 
his indebtedness to Eyton's labours, which justify, and indeed 
necessitate, the ample quotations from his volumes which appear 

First, as to the story of the tournament and Guy le Strange, 
son of John, Duke of Brittany, Eyton shows * that William Peverel 
of Whittington was succeeded, not by his nieces, but by his sisters, 
and that none of them was ever wife of Guarin de Metz ; that no 
such person as ' Johan due de la Petite-Bretagne ' is known to 
any record of that period ; that the tournament, if attended by 
the persons mentioned, must have taken place between 1137 
(when Owen Gwynedd succeeded to the sceptre of North Wales) 
and 1147 (when the last William Peverel of Whittington died) ; 
while ' the advent of Guy le Strange, as yet unmarried, at such a 
period is irreconcilable with the fact that the three brothers' 
[John, Hamon, and Guy] ' whom this narrative would make his 
sons, were all enfeoffed by Henry II at a time when, according 
to the same narrative, the eldest of them could not have been 
of age/ 

Eyton has therefore looked to other sources for some probable 
theory as to the origin and rise of the house of le Strange, and 
he expresses his satisfaction that his researches have met with a 
success seldom attainable in matters of such remote antiquity. 

One of the most important evidences cited by him is the 
following deed, still existing in the Muniment Room at Hunstanton 
Hall. 2 It is written, as will be seen from the accompanying 
photograph, in the clear handwriting of the middle of the thirteenth 
century, on a piece of parchment measuring 7 inches by 5 J ; the 
seal is gone, but the strip of parchment to which it was attached 
remains. It is undated, but must have been executed before 
1275, when John le Strange (IV) died ; nearly all the witnesses 

1 Eyton, iii. 123-4. 

1 I B.L.i. | N.B. All references consisting of letters and figures enclosed in a 
small rectangle, like the above, are the Press-marks of documents in the Muniment 
Room at Hunstanton. 

B 3 


are Norfolk men, and several are from Hunstanton, or its imme- 
diate neighbourhood. It is probable, therefore, that the deed was 
executed at Hunstanton on some occasion when John (IV) visited 
his Norfolk property, and if so, this would account for the deed 
having been preserved where it was executed. 

The photograph is very legible ; but for the benefit of readers 
not used to the contractions of the period, I give a transcript 
thereof in extended form : 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod Ego Johannes Extraneus quartus, Dominus de 
Cnokyn, Concessi et hac present! carta mea confirmaui Gilberto filio Gilbert! de 
Tychewelle pro homagio et semicio suo omnes terras et tenementa que de me tenuit 
in Hunstanestun, scilicet sexaginta acras terre cum pertinentiis cum mesuagio 
in eadem terra sito in eadem villa, quas Rollandus extraneus antecessor meus 
quondam dedit Henieo de Tychewell antecessori ipsius Gilberti in liberum marita- 
gium cum Barbote cognata sua, cujus Barbote idem Gilbertus heres est. Concessi 
etiam et hac carta mea confirmaui eidem Gilberti totam pasturam in campis de 
Hunstanestun a Barbotesgate uersus austrum toto tempore anni aperto, cum 
libera falda in ilia parte campi. Ita quod idem Gilbertus nullam pasturam 
habebit a predicta via de Barbotesgate uersus aquilonem secundum formam 
conuencionis dudum facte inter Dominum Johannem extraneum patrem meum 
et Gilbertum patrem ipsius Gilberti. Habendum et tenendum omnia tenementa 
predicta et pasturam predictam, cum libera falda, cum omnibus pertinentiis illi 
et heredibus suis et assignatis de me et heredibus meis libere, quiete, et hereditarie. 
Reddendo inde annuatim michi et heredibus meis quinque solidos argenti, scilicet, 
ad festum sancti Andree xv denarios, et ad Pascham xv denarios, et ad festum 
sancti Johannis in Estate xv denarios, et ad festum sancti Michaelis xv denarios 
pro omni semicio consuetudine et exactione. Et ego Johannes et heredes mei 
Warantizabimus, adquietabimus, et defendemus totam predictam terram et 
pasturam cum libera falda et omnibus pertinentiis predicto Gilberto et heredibus 
suis et assignatis per predictum seruicium contra omnes homines in perpetuum. 
In cujus rei testimonium huic scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis Testibus, 
Domino Johanne de Lee, Domino Rogero de Tof tes, Domino Hamone de Mustroyl, 
Andrea de Syarnebrune, 1 Willelmo Tristram, Rogero des Hys de Hunstanestun, 
Galfrido Banyard, Roberto Buleman, Willelmo filio Ricardi, Johanne Bagge, 
Willelmo Coco, et allis. 

The designation ' Johannes Extraneus quartus, Dominus de 
Cnokyn/ as the punctuation of the original shows, undoubtedly 
means the fourth le Strange, who was called John, and not the 
fourth lord of Knokyn there are several instances in the family 

1 Shernbourne. 


charters in which the grantor styles himself John the third, 
fourth, fifth, or sixth, for the sake of distinction. 

Here, then, we have proof that Roland was an ancestor of the 
four successive John le Stranges, the first of whom appears in 
public life as early as 1155, so that, as Eyton points out, Roland 
must have lived at least as early as the reign of Henry I. 

Another deed, discovered by Eyton in the Castleacre Chartu- 
lary, 1 settles decisively that Roland le Strange was the father of 
John le Strange (I) and his three brothers, and also gives the name 
of Roland's wife as Matilda. This charter must have passed 
between 1160, when Hamo died, and 1179, when John died. 
It has been printed by Eyton, but is so important on genealogical 
grounds that I give a photograph of it from the copy preserved in 
the Castleacre Chartulary, 2 as well as an extended version of it. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod Ego Johannes Extraneus dedi deo et sancte 
Marie de Acra et monachis ibidem deo servientibus vi acras terre in campo de 
lucheam, 3 in fine culture de melegrene, in liberam et perpetuam elemosynam, 
pro salute anime patris mei Rollandi et Matilde matris mee et Hamonis fratris 
mei et mee et heredum meorum, et omnium parentum meorum. Hujus 
donacionis testes sunt, Willielmus capellanus de lucheam, Willielmus films 
Alani, Radulfus Extraneus, 4 Galfridus de Berlingeham, 5 Willielmus des Baus, 
Durannus Extraneus, 6 Willielmus de Burna, 7 Petrus de Hunstanston, Lefwinus 
prepositus, Walterus de Hunstanston, Hamo clericus, Gwido filius Rogeri, 
Rogerus faber. 

The Castleacre Chartulary has also preserved to us two 
more deeds, made, as Eyton thinks, early in the reign of Henry I, 
in each of which the name of Roland le Strange is found as a 
witness. The first of these is a grant by Roger son of Wimer, who 
was Steward (Dapifer) to the second William de Warenne, Earl of 
Surrey, of the church of Kempston, with other Norfolk churches, 
tithes, and lands to the Priory of Castleacre, which had been 
founded in 1085 ; the name of the first lay witness to this deed 
is given as ' Rodlando ext a neo.' 

The second charter is a grant from Alan fitz Flaald and 

1 Eyton, x. 260. Harl. MSS. 2110, fo. 34. Litcham. ^ 

1 Probably of Little Ercall, youngest brother of the grantor. 
* Burlingham, between Norwich and Yarmouth. Of Litcham. 

7 Burnham. 


Adelina his wife, the ancestors of the fitz Alan family, to the same 
priory of lands in Kempston and other Norfolk places, the third 
witness thereto being ' Ruai Ext 5 neo,' followed by ' Gorhanno ' 
and 'Oddone.' These early charters have been printed in full 
in Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' 1 and in part by Carthew, 2 so it is 
not worth reprinting them here, but I give photographs of them 
from the Castleacre Chartulary. 3 

In the fifty years which have elapsed since Eyton wrote, only one 
document has come to light which contains mention of ' Roland' 
le Strange, under a variant of the -name which, at first sight, 
might seem doubtful, but the context of the charter, both as to 
persons and localities, renders it reasonably certain that ' Riual- 
lonus ' Extraneus may be identified with the ' Ruallus ' or ' Rual- 
dus ' who attested Alan fitz Flaald's grant to Castleacre. In Mr. 
J. Horace Round's ' Calendar of Documents Preserved in France, 
Illustrative of the History of Great Britain and Ireland, 918-1206,' 
issued in 1899 among the publications of the Record Office, there 
occurs a charter, 4 undated, but considered by Mr. Round to have 
been passed before the year 1122, which belongs to the Abbey of 
St. Florent on the Loire, near Saumur, in Anjou. It is in the 
form of a notification that Alan son of Flaald has granted to St. 
Florent and his monks the church and tithes of Sporle in Norfolk 
(not far from Castleacre), with certain lands there and in the neigh- 
bouring parish of Mileham, free from all claims, specially from 
that of the monks of the Holy Trinity [Norwich Cathedral], and 
assigning to them twenty shillings a year from his ferm of Sporle. 
The testing clause is as follows : 

Testes sunt hi : Arketellus presbiter ; Ivo diaconus de laicis, Odo de Nor- 
guico ; Hamo Got Gurhant ; Riuallonus Extraneus ; Garinus de Marisco ; Urfoen 
filius Fulcherii ; Alarms Uruoni films ; Bondo ; Torkil films eius ; Riuallonus 
raonachorum famulus ; Osbertus et Arketellus frater eius. 

Two of these witnesses, viz. Odo of Norwich and Hamo Got Gur- 
hant, may perhaps be identified with the ' Oddo ' and ' Gorhannus ' 
who, as we have seen, attested the same grantor's gift to Castleacre. 

1 Ed. 1817-30, v. 51. * History of Launditch, ii. 118 and 123. 

Harl. MSS. 2110, fo. 26. P. 414, No. 1149. 

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Professor T. F. Tout, who has given me much assistance, 
especially with regard to anything connected with Wales or Welsh 
names, considers that the source of the name is the Celtic ' Rhi- 
wallon ' (mod. Welsh), not ' Rolandus,' though he suspects that the 
two may be connected ; hence the right form in Latin would be 
'Ruallus' rather than Rualdus, though 'IT often='ld/ as, e.g. 
4 vadletus ' = ' vallettus.' Round, in his ' Peerage and Family 
History,' p. 123, calls him Rhiwallon Extraneus; Professor Tout 
says that it is perhaps better to call him Riuallonus rather than 
Rivallonus, as it shows that the name was the same in Brittany, 
as the Rhiwallon of the Welsh. 

Mr. Round also cites four other charters which mention a 
' Riuallonus,' but do not give him any surname, so he cannot with 
certainty be identified with the Riuallonus Extraneus of Alan fitz 
Flaald's charter to St. Florent ; moreover, these charters are 
about forty years earlier in date. The first of them is a confirma- 
tion, dated the I4th of June 1082, by William I, of a grant by Count 
Robert of Mortain to St. Martin of Marmoutier, near Tours, of a 
church and land ; the last witness thereto is ' Geoffrey Riual- 
lonidis.' 1 The next charter is an undated grant by William I to 
the church of St. Mary, Mortain, of Puddle Hinton, co. Dorset, 
among the witnesses to which is ' Geoffrey son of Riuallon.' 2 
The third is another undated grant by William I of land at Ceaux 
to the Holy Trinity at Fecamp and St. Stephen of Caen, at the 
prayer of William, son of Riuallon of Dol, Abbot of St. Florent, and 
of his brother John, a monk in the said house. 3 Round says that 
this gift was certainly made before December 26, 1083, when an 
agreement relating to it was concluded between the monks of 
St. Florent and Mont St. Michel. 

The last of the four charters is an undated notification of a 
grant of land by Robert of Mortain to the monks of St. Martin at 
Mortain, the first witness thereto being ' Gaufredus Riuallonides ' ; 
Round dates this as circa 1095.* 

1 Round, C.D.F., No. 1201 ; Regesta, i. 39, No. 145. 

* Round, C.D.F., No. 1206 ; Regesta, i. 55, No. 204. 

1 Round, C.D.F., No. 1116; Regesta, i. 44, No. 158. 
4 Round, C.D.F., No. 1205. 


The grant of Alan fitz Flaald to Castleacre is especially inte- 
resting, in that it locates in France, and associates together there, 
the ancestor of the Fitzalans and of the Royal House of Stewart, 
with Roland, the first known ancestor of the House of le Strange. 
Concerning the latter individual nothing further has come down 
to us ; as to who he was or whence he came we know nothing, 
except that, at a period when names had a real meaning, he was 
called ' the Stranger ' or ' the Foreigner/ and was known by that 
designation in France as well as in England. Eyton 1 draws 
attention to the fact that the appellation was originally borne by, 
or applied to, more than one family in England ; he instances 
Mabel, the eldest daughter and eventual co-heiress of Warin de 
Buwardsley, himself a grandson of that Warin de Metz who figured 
in the story of the tournament at Peverel ; the Pipe Rolls of 
6 Richard I (A.D. 1194) contain a pardon granted to Adam de 
Beysin, a tenant in chief, for marrying without licence Warm's 
daughter, therein described as Mabel le Strange. From this 
Eyton draws the inference that Warin de Metz was not only akin 
to the family of le Strange, but might well be described by the 
same name. 

Eyton, though he had never seen the St. Florent charter, 
narrowly missed apprehending the Breton connection of Flaald. 
He was aware that the Abbey of St. Florent possessed several 
ancient cells in England, among them that of Sporle in Norfolk, 
with which Alan fitz Flaald had something to do, and he sur- 
mises 2 that this connection pointed to some fact in their early his- 
tory which was not patent to him. Further, he pointed out that 
Henry I endeavoured to strengthen his hold on the sceptre by 
creating a new aristocracy, selected not exclusively from among 
the Normans, but largely from others, both foreigners and English 
of doubtful origin, such as Warin de Metz and fitz Flaald, whom 
he brought into England and enfeoffed in many counties there. 
Such scanty evidence as there is seems to point to the conjecture 
that the le Stranges were ultimately Breton, as the original Celtic 
name Riuallon suggests: if so, 'extraneus' probably meant just 

1 Eyton, ii. 7. 

1 Eyton, vii. 211-232 ; Arch&olog. Journal for 1856, xiii. 333-354. 


what ' Welsh ' meant to English and Germans, viz. the man 
speaking a strange tongue. It must be admitted, however, that 
we have no evidence that Dol and its district ever spoke Breton 
but rather the contrary. 

Mr. J. H. Round * disco vered the real parentage of Flaald in the 
charters of St. Florent de Saumur. These show that he was the 
son of Alan, the dapifer of Dol, on the borders of Brittany, and 
was present at the dedication of Monmouth Priory in 1101 or 
1102. A little group of families from Dol appear to have settled 
in England, where Alan founded Sporle Priory in Norfolk as a 
cell of St. Florent, and among the Bretons who witnessed the 
charter of its foundation is seen, says Mr. Round, the name of 
Rhiwallon Extraneus, ' the founder of the Norfolk family of le 
Strange, which, more than five centuries later, was so ardent in its 
loyalty to Alan's descendants, the Stuart Kings of England.' 

The Breton connection is of further interest as indicating that 
there is a grain of truth in the Trouvere legend, quoted by Leland 
and Dugdale, that the first of the family who came to England 
was son of a Duke of Brittany. 

During the whole of the twelfth century we have evidence of 
constant and intimate association between the fitz Alans and the 
le Stranges. We have seen that William fitz Alan witnessed the 
grant of John le Strange (I) to Castleacre, and that John's father, 
Roland, witnessed Alan fitz Flaald's grant to the same priory, as 
well as his charter to St. Florent. Both families were connected 
with the counties of Norfolk and of Shropshire ; we shall see 
below that John le Strange (I) held land in Hunstanton under 
fitz Alan, and that his brother Guy had a grant of lands in War- 
wickshire from William fitz Alan. For several successive genera- 
tions it may almost be said that there is not a fitz Alan charter 
that is not witnessed by a le Strange, and vice versa. Such 
reiterated acts of intimacy and interdependence between two 
families which, as has been shown, came from oversea from the 
same corner of Brittany, seem to point to some community of 
blood. Is it not likely that Roland, known over there as 'the 

1 P.FJI., pp. 115-130. 


Stranger/ may have been kinsman to Alan, possibly also an 
' extraneus ' or foreigner, the dapifer of Dol ? This is a mere 
surmise, warranted by no proof, but a random shot may some- 
times hit the mark. 

Whether kinsmen or not, it is clear that Alan of Dol and Roland 
came from the same region, and it is somewhat curious that this 
man from the March of Brittany should have got his establish- 
ment in England from the analogous district of the Welsh March. 
It is desirable to lay special stress on the point, already mentioned, 
that le Strange belongs to a group of ' new men/ from the extreme 
west of Normandy and Anjou, with connections and names from 
the other side of the Breton border, whom the policy of Henry I 
transplanted into England with the object of counterbalancing 
the dangerous power of the Norman nobles already settled there 
by the introduction of new blood drawn from his hereditary 
possessions oversea. Early chroniclers, connected perhaps by 
family ties with the first Norman settlers, depreciate the social 
standing of the new-comers ; Orderic-Vitalis, for instance, says : * 

Alios . . . de ignobili stirpe illustravit, de pulvere, ut ita dicam, extulit. . . . 
Inde Goiffedus de Clintona, Radulfus Basset, et Hugo de Bocalanda, Guillegrip et 
Rainerius de Bada, Guillielmus Trossebot, et Haimon de Falesia, Guigan Algazo, 
et Robertus de Bostare, aliique plures. 

It was probably prejudice which made Orderic say that all the 
new men were ' de infimo genere/ 

Mr. Round 2 has called attention to the group of families from 
Dol, whom Henry I knew in his youth, when as a younger son he 
was lord of the Cotentin, and whom, when king, he endowed with 
fiefs in England. In addition to Alan fitz Flaald, he cites : 

Richard de ReViers, ancestor of the Earls of Devon, the Hayes of Haye-du- 
Puits, were given the Honour of Halnaker (Sussex) ; the Aubignys, afterwards 
Earls of Arundel, obtained from him a fief in Norfolk ; the two St. John brothers, 
from St. Jean-le-Thomas, were granted lands in Oxfordshire and Sussex, and 
founded another famous house ; while the family of Paynel also, sprung from 
the Cdtentin, owed to Henry lands in England. 

If ' Roland-Rhiwallon ' be, as is most likely, connected with 

1 Lib. xi. c. 2. P.F.H. 123-4. 

Plate IV. 

tit mrnl* tmn ra 
Htois<jnf {titizpu? raoltce fifth f 

coto irntmc mce^ InTmci 

^ jrhoi 

met ^inm jDcimi 
IrUnm ^temojtmn 

too ^ccnc fte 
owi iwmtc er|eritlp jej 

fuac)|i'twtil /torn torft 

f^m VOT flhj W&& l^tmjtenejton. ^^tmJ-pirjbofc 
tfr It Swrncf foam fil' 8unri>%fl"lc In^ojet^Q^i^w fr*c?jT 


fflbte meTncc^jnluht ftife&m'fcm %t9r anbinn ^jjr 


To face page 11. 


Rhiwallon, lord of Dol, and the other St. Florent monks, he was 
clearly a man of standing at home, and by no means a novus 
homo. King Henry's need of replacing the disloyal Robert of 
Belleme and his house would be a special reason for establish- 
ing old and tried supporters like the fitz Alans and le Stranges 
in Shropshire and its district. 

If we are unable to trace, save by conjecture, the paternal 
pedigree of John le Strange (I) further back than his father Roland 
in the early years of the twelfth century, Eyton has shown that on 
his mother's side there is good warrant for giving him an ancestry 
of three generations, through which he inherited the greater part of 
his Hunstanton estate ; and, further, that it is to this inheritance 
that we must look if we wish to account for the great ascendancy 
and territorial influence of the family during the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. Much of this proof is derived from a deed 
whereby John le Strange (I) gave a part of his Norfolk estate, viz. 
Edgefield in the Hundred of Holt, to Binham Priory ; this deed 
has been printed by Eyton, though not quite in full, so I give 
Eyton's extended version of it here, as well as a photograph of 
it from the Binham Chartulary in the British Museum. 1 It is 
headed therein by the words ' Cart a Johannis le Strange, de 
terra de Egefeld que fuit quondam terra Radulfi de Hunstaneston.' 

Notum sit omnibus tarn presentibus quam futuris Catholice fidei cultoribus 
quod Ego Johannes cognomento le Strange, assensu et voto Uxoris mee et here- 
dum meorum pro amore Dei et sancte Dei genetricis Virginis Marie, pro salute 
et remedio anime mee et domini mei regis Henrici junioris et Alienoris regine et 
filiorum ipsorum et omnium parentum eorum, et pro salute Willelmi Comitis de 
Harundel domini mei, et Adelize regine et nliorum ipsorum et parentum ipsorum 
et pro salute uxoris mee, et heredum meorum, et pro animabus patris mei et matris 
mee et omnium parentum meorum, do et presenti ferie scripto confirmo in liberam 
elemosynam Deo et ecclesie sancte Marie de Binham et monachis ibidem Deo et 
ecclesie sancte Marie famulantibus libere et quiete prorsus et ab omni accione et 
seculari servicio jure perpetuo erga me et heredes meos et erga omnes homines, 
Mum illud feodum quod Radulfus de Hanestaneston habuit in villa de Egesfeld, 
etfilius eius Simon post eum, deindej "rater ipsius Reginaldus le Brun, quibus ego ut 
legitimus her es jure hereditario successi. Trado itaque predictum ex integro feodum 
in terra etbosco et homagio et omnibus quibus libet pertinentiis et consuetudinibus 
jure elemosinario michi tarn penitus vel successoribus meis in posteram reservatis 

Cotton MS. Cland., D. xiii., fo. 87. 


nisi solum modo orncionum subsidia. Hujus donacionis testes sunt : Radulfus Le 
Strange?- Willelmus de Hunstaneston, Ranulphus clericus persona ecclesie eiusdem 
ville et films eius, Walterus Bochlandus Normannus, Willelmus filius Willelmi 
de Hunstaneston, Regerius, Simon, Nicholas, Willelmus de Baucis, Hamo filius 
Bunch, Willelmus de la More et Simon frater eius, Willelmus filius Radulfi de 
Beccam, Rueldus de Camis et filii eius Briencius et Fabianus, Audoenus Malpas, 
Galfridus de Leringsete, Michael Portarius de Binham, Alanus de Binham. 

Eyton shows that this grant must have been made not later 
than January 1174, as the Chartulary from which it is quoted con- 
tains also a recital and confirmation of it, 2 made at the petition 
of John le Strange by William Turbus, Bishop of Norwich, who 
died on January 16, 1174. The grant proves that three genera- 
tions previously Edgefield had been in the possession of Ralph 
de Hunstanton, and since then successively in that of his sons, 
Simon and Reginald le Brun, after whom it came to John le 
Strange as the direct heir. Simon and Reginald must therefore 
have died without issue, and John must have been the son of 
their sister, not named in this deed, but whose name, Matilda, 
is mentioned by John in his grant to the Priory of Castleacre. 3 
Ralph de Hunstanton, the maternal grandfather of John le Strange 
(I), is undoubtedly the same as Ralph fitz Herluin, recorded in 
Domesday as a vassal of Roger Bigod, holding land under him at 
Hunstanton and Tottington. 4 

by Ralf son of Herluin. 2 ploughs on the demesne, and it was held by i free- 
man T.R.E. Then and afterwards 12 villeins, now 6 ; then as now 6 bordars ; 
then and afterwards 3 serfs, now 2. Then and afterwards 6 ploughs belonging 
to the men, and 5 acres, now 5| ; then i mill, now 2, and i fishery. Then as now 
i rouncey, then i beast ; wood (land) for 40 swine ; then 16 swine, now 51. 
Then 80 sheep, now 50 ; 5 hives of bees. Here belong (jacent) 2 sokemen (with) 
10 acres. t The same (holds it). Then and afterwards it was worth 3 pounds, now 
4. There too (in eadem) Torn, a freeman, held T.R.E. i plough on the demesne, 
then 3 villeins, now 2. Then 4 bordars, now 5. Then and afterwards 3 serfs, 
and 2^ acres of meadow. Then as now half a plough belonging to the men, i 
fishery. Then i cow. Then 30 sheep. And 3 sokemen (with) 5 acres of land. 
Then as now it was worth 20 shillings. The whole is i league in length and i 
league in breadth, and pays 16 pence in 20 shillings of geld. 

In TOTINTUNA Ralf son of Herluin holds 4 ploughlands which Alivi he 

1 Probably the grantor's brother, of Childs' Ercall. * Ibid. fo. 87. 

Supra, p. 5. * Domesday, Norfolk fac-simile, cxxx. 


T.R.E. ; then and afterwards 15 villeins, now 4 ; then and afterwards 10 bordars, 
now 17. Then and afterwards 8 serfs, now 4 ; 24 acres of meadow ; then as now 
3 ploughs on the demesne. Then and afterwards 5 ploughs belonging to the men, 
now 3. Woodland for 30 swine, now I mill. And then as now 3 sokemen (with) 
95 acres. Then and afterwards 2 ploughs, now nothing, but they could be (re- 
stored) ; then as now I rouncey ; then 17 beasts, now 19. Then 32 swine, now 
12. Then 140 sheep, now 140 less 3 ; 24 goats. Then 63 mares, now 15. Then 
and afterwards it was worth 80 shillings, now 60. The whole is 2 leagues in 
breadth [sic : for ' length '], and i in breadth whoever may hold there, and (it 
pays) 15 pence for geld. 1 

In addition to the above Domesday shows that Ralf fitz 
Herluin had the following holdings in various parts of Norfolk. 
In Ringstead * he held of the soke under the abbey of St. Benet's ; 
in Snetterton one ploughland for a manor, worth 2os. He had a 
further holding in Hunstanton 3 of 4 freemen with 65 acres, and 
2 oxen worth 45. ; and in Sturston 4 I freeman with 60 acres 
worth Sd. At Bexwell 5 in the Hundred of Clackclose he had 
i freeman with 20 acres of land worth 2s. Sd. ; and in Downham 6 
i freeman with 12 acres, of the value of i6d. All the above were 
held of Roger Bigod, who was tenant in chief. Under William 
de Scohies Ralf fitz Herluin was mesne tenant in Massingham, 7 
where he held one ploughland, value 55. ; and under Rainald, son 
of Ivo, Herluin, held 100 acres of land in Haveringland, 8 worth 2os. 
He had also half a ploughland, worth ios., at Tortuna (afterward 
known as ' Middleton's ' in Booton and Witchingham). 9 Finally 
among the encroachments, entered at the end of Domesday, we 
find 10 that Ralf held the soke of Snetterton under Earl Roger. 

Thus it appears that, at the period of Domesday, Ralf fitz 
Herluin was in possession of a considerable estate spread over 
nine or ten parishes in the county of Norfolk. Eyton imagines u 
that Ralf's fee was afterwards greatly increased by subinfeudation 
from William de Albini, the Pincema (or Butler) of Henry I ; 
and indeed there seems to be no other way of accounting for 
the fact that Ralf's grandson, John le Strange (I), held five knights' 

1 Translation in Victoria History of Norfolk, ii. 96. * Ibid. ii. 95. 

8 Ibid. ii. 106. * Ibid. ii. 113. 6 Ibid. ii. 113. 

1 Ibid. "> Ibid. ii. 145. 8 Ibid. ii. 158. 

Ibid. ii. 159. l8 Ibid. ii. 200. u Ibid. x. 264. 


fees in Hunstanton and elsewhere in Norfolk under William de 
Albini (II), Earl of Arundel. Beside the land which Ralf inherited 
from his father Herluin, or acquired himself, he further inherited, 
through his wife Helewisa, the daughter of Hugh de Plaiz, of 
Barnham, in Suffolk, near Thetford. Eyton thinks that it is 
probable that Ralf de Plaiz, who between the years 1107 and 1120 
granted lands to Thetford Priory, 1 was son and heir of Hugh, and 
that Ralf de Plaiz was identical with that Ralf fitz Hugh to 
whom William de Albini (I) gave two knights* fees in Norfolk in 
the time of Henry I. 2 

A lawsuit in the time of Richard I furnishes much information 
as to Ralf fitz Herluin and his wife and relations. It appears from 
the pleadings that the manor of Bernham (or Barnham) in Suffolk 
had been given in the reign of Henry I by Reginald le Brun, 
the second son of Ralf fitz Herluin, to the Priory of Thetford. 
In the year 1194 Simon de Perepunt, as attorney for John le 
Strange (II), sued Ralf de Plaiz for land at Barnham held by him, 
for the purpose of warranting to the monks. Simon de Perepunt 
claimed it on the ground that it had descended to John le Strange 
through Reginald le Brun, uncle of John (I), father of the said John, 
and as being the same land as had been given by Hugh de Plaiz 
to his daughter Helewisa when she married Ralf fitz Herluin. The 
Prior of Thetford agreed to renounce all his rights in one caru- 
cate of land in Barnham in favour of John le Strange, on condition 
that the latter gave to the monks in exchange 2os. worth of 
land at Tottington in Norfolk. The entry in the Plea Rolls is 
as follows : 8 

Simon de Perepunt, positus loco Johannis extranei, petit versus Radulphum 
de Plaiz terrain de Bernham cum ejus pertinentiis, quam idem Radulphus tenet, 
tenendam de eodem Radulpho ad warantizandam monachis de Tieford sicut jus 
suum quod ei descendit ex parte Reginald! le Brun, avunculi Johannis extranei, 
patris ipsius Johannis, et ut illam quam Hugo de Plaiz dedit cum Helewisa filia 
sua in matrimonium Radulpho filio Herlewini, et post illam tenuit earn Reginaldus 
le Brun, filius predicti Radulphi filius Helewise, quam idem Radulphus le Brun de- 
dit tempore Henrici regis patris domini regis in elemosinam ecclesie et monachis 

1 Eyton, x. 261. * Liber Niger, i. 287. 

8 Abbreviatio Placitorum, Ric. I-Edw. II, p. 5, a SUFFOLC', rot. 3 ; Rot. Cur. Regis. 
i, 13, 20, 23. 


de Tieford. Et Radulphus de Plaiz venit et dixit quod non tenet earn in dominico 
set Radulphus le Neveu tenet de eo et nihil habet in terra ilia nisi servicium terre 
illius. Et Radulphus nepos dixit quod tenet terrain illam, &c. Postea ut patet 
eodem rotulo in dorso concordatum est inter Martinum priorem de Tieford et 
Johannem extraneum de una carucata terre in Bernham quam predictus prior 
clamavit versus ipsum Johannem scilicet quod predictus prior quietum clamavit in 
perpetuum de se et successoribus suis prefato Johanni et heredibus suis totum jus 
et clameum quod habuit in predicta terra. Et pro hac quieta clamancia Johannes 
dedit priori et conventui de Tieford xx solidatas terre in Totington, &c., per metis 
in recordo expressis. 

Some entries as to the progress of this suit are given in ' Three 
Rolls of the King's Court in the Reign of Richard I, A.D. 1194-5,' 
published by the Pipe Roll Society in 1891, pp. 10, 14, 60. 

Only one mention of Hunstanton in any document of earlier 
date than Domesday is known to me ; this occurs in the Will 
of iElfric, Bishop of Elmham, preserved in the British Museum. 1 
It is written in Anglo-Saxon, but a transcript with English transla- 
tion has been printed by B. Thorpe, 2 and a full-sized photograph 
is given in ' Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the B.M.' 3 The 
bishop speaks of his property as having been acquired under 
King Cnut, and afterwards lawfully holden under King Harold, 
to whom he leaves two marks of gold ; the will must therefore 
have been written between 1035, when Cnut died, and 1039, 
the year of his son Harold's death. Among the bequests is 
the following : 

' I give the land at Hunstanes tune by Eastbrook, and with the land at 
Holme to St. Eadmunds.' 

The clerks who transcribed the Norfolk Domesday exercised 
considerable ingenuity in producing variants in the spelling of 
the name Hunstanton: it appears as Hunestuna, Hunestatuna, 
Huntanestuna, Hunestanesteda, and, finally, in two words, as 
Hunesta Nestuna. 

Domesday was not compiled on the plan of taking each place 
separately and showing who held land there, but, contrariwise, 
on the plan of taking each tenant-in-chief and setting down what 
land he held, and who were his sub-tenants, in the various parishes 

1 Bibl. Cotton, ii. 85. * Diplomatarium JEvi Saxonici, p. 567. 

Part IV., fo. Lend. 1878. 


throughout the county. It is worth while, therefore, to collect 
these scattered notices of Hunstanton, and to place them together 
so as to attain to a complete view of how the land of that parish 
was held in the year 1086. 

The parish was divided between King William himself and 
three of his tenants-in-chief viz. Roger Bigod, the Bishop of 
Thetford, and John, nephew of Waleran. The part held by the 
king is entered under ' Lands of Bishop Stigand which William 
de Noiers keeps in the King's hand.' The entry is as follows : x 


HUNESTAKESTEDA was held by Stigand T.R.E. ; then 2 ploughs on the 
demesne, when W[illiam] received it i|, and now the same ; then as now 16 
villeins and 4 bordars. Then 3 serfs, afterwards and now I, and 8 acres of meadow 
Then 2 ploughs belonging to the men, afterwards and now i| ; then i mill, half a 
fishery ; then i rouncey 2 and now the same, and 2 beasts. And 14 swine and 44 
sheep, and 4 sokemen with 60 acres. Then it was worth 70 shillings, afterwards 
and now no. Here used to belong T.R.E. i freewoman with 30 acres of land ; 
afterwards Ralf the Earl had this for 3 years before he made forfeiture, and when 
he made forfeiture. Afterwards Robert Blund held this, and Godric (held it) to 
farm for 305. with other land. Siward has once more joined this to this manor, 
and does not pay Godric the farm ; and W[illiam] de Noiers has added 4 sokemen 
of St. Benet's with 4 acres of land. The whole is one league in length and half 
[a league] in breadth, and pays 6 pence [for a geld] of 20 shillings whoever may 
hold there. 

The portion of the ' land of Roger Bigot ' was all held by Ralf 
fitz Herluin, and has been transcribed above. Under the heading 
' The Fief of the Bishop of Thetford ' is the following entry : 8 


HUNESTANESTUNA was held by i sokeman of Stigand T.R.E. (as) i ploughland, 
and (there was) i plough. Then (there were) 3 bordars, now 2, and 2\ acres of 
meadow ; half a mill ; wood(land) for 24 swine. Then (there was) i fishery. 
The whole is worth 10 shillings. 

Under the heading of ' Land of St. Benet of Ramsey ' is a 
long entry 4 respecting Ringstead, which was held then in chief by 

1 liv.-lv., Viet. Hist, of Norf. ii. 62-3. * A heavy draught horse. 

8 CLXXVIII. Viet. Hist, of Norf . ii. 119. CCXIV. Viet. Hist, of Norf . ii. 139. 


that abbey. It concludes with a notice that 31 sokemen have 
been taken away from this manor who belonged to it T.R.E. ; 
of these the King's manor in Hunstanton has I with 2 acres. The 
only other entry mentioning Hunstanton is under the heading of 
1 The Lands of John, Nephew of Waleran ' : l 


HUNESTA NESTUNA is held by John [Bou], the same held it T.R.E. Then 
[there were] 2 ploughs, afterwards i, now 2. Then as now 4 [villeins]. Then and 
afterwards 5 bordars, now 7. Then and afterwards 3 serfs, now 4, and 2 acres of 
meadow then as now [belonged] to the men. Then [there was] I cow, now 8 
beasts (animalia). Now 40 swine. Then I sheep, now 40, and 3 hives of bees ; 
and i sokeman with 5 acres, then and afterwards it was worth 20 shillings, now 
40. [There is] i church without land. 

It must be borne in mind that the Domesday acre was a vari- 
able quantity, considerably larger than the acre of to-day ; the 
120 acres, commonly reputed to have constituted a hide, contained, 
according to Eyton, 2 an area at least twice as great as that of 
modern statute acres. The acre of 4840 square yards was settled 
by statute of 31 Edw. I. 

The table on p. 18 gives an analysis of the various entries 
relating to Hunstanton. 

The population there shown is : 

Freemen ..... 6 

Sokemen . . . . .16 

Villeins . . . . .28 

Bordars . . . . .24 

Serfs . . . . .10 

Multiplying these figures by 5 for the average of each house- 
hold would give a population of 420, and there must have been 
several people not included in the returns, such as ecclesiastics, 

1 CCCXIV. Viet. Hist, of Norf. ii. 187. * Eyton, xii. 152. 


saag jo SOAIJJ 






S 1 

M 1 

8 i 8 I 8 

N ^ M ' * 



I I I 


3uopq sqSnojd 

M0pt:aj\[ }0 


Lands of 
gand whi 
de Noier 
the King 


H o 



Land o 




and the mesne tenants themselves or their representatives, so the 
population of those days could not have fallen very far short of 
the twentieth century average of 490. 

The live stock was very different to the present day ; there 
were only 2 horses, i cow, and 8 ' beasts/ probably bullocks and 
heifers, in the parish, though there were 164 sheep and 105 
swine ; there must have been a good deal of woodland, as there 
was sufficient to feed 64 swine. 

The existence is recorded of 3j mills though how half a mill 
could exist by itself is difficult to understand ; there were also 
3j fisheries, but these were not held quite in the same hands as 
the mills ; the King had i mill and only half a fishery ; Roger 
Bigod's tenant, Ralf fitz Herluin, had 2 mills and 2 fisheries ; 
while the Bishop of Thetford held i fishery but only half a mill. 
It has been a matter of discussion whether any of the fisheries 
mentioned in the Norfolk Domesday were sea-fisheries. From 
the fact that in Hunstanton there were exactly the same number 
of fisheries and mills the latter being no doubt water-mills and 
having regard to the limited amount of running water in the place, 
it looks as if all the fisheries were fresh water, and situated in 
the pools above the respective mills. 

The amount of meadow land recorded was very small, only 
15 acres ; but there may have been some not included in the 
land held by the freemen and inferior tenants. Fifteen ploughs 
worked in the parish, whereof 7 belonged to the demesnes and 8 
to the men ; the oxen for these ploughs, probably a team of 8 for 
each plough, ought to be added to the head of live stock on the 
ground, as they are clearly not included in any other part of the 
returns. Eight hives of bees are thought worthy of mention, 
as they supplied the lack of sugar of those days. 

Then, as now, Hunstanton was situated in the Hundred of 
Smithdon, or Smethdon (the smooth dunes), but it is as well to 
call attention to the fact that not only has considerable readjust- 
ment of parishes in the Hundreds of the north-west corner of 
Norfolk been made since those days, but also that, in order to 
make the units for collecting the King's geld more equal, consider- 
able alterations of the primitive areas were made at the time of 

C 2 


the Great Survey. The author of the introduction to Domesday 
in the ' Victoria History of Norfolk ' x thinks that these northern 
Hundreds were originally laid out so as to give to each of them a 
proportion of salt marsh for its sheep ; possibly the arrangement 
was made so as to assign some salt marsh to as many parishes 
as possible rather than to each Hundred. Be that as it may, 
one Domesday Hundred, that of Docking, has disappeared en- 
tirely, having been absorbed by that of Smithdon . The greater part 
of Snettisham was transferred from Smithdon to Freebridge, and 
Brothercross and Gallow were arranged so that the latter ran up 
to the north coast near Holkham. The Hundred of Smithdon, 
as it existed at the date of Domesday, comprised only the following 

Holm. Secesford, with berewite of Frenge. 

Hecham. Elvestorp (Ingoldisthorpe). 

Rincsteda. Nettingnetuna (Eaton). 

Hunestatuna. Tornham. 

The Hundred of Docking contained the following : 

Docking. Frenge. 

Sutmere (Summer field). Broncestre. 

Tigeswella (Titchwell). Brecham (Bircham). 

Stanho. Niwetuna (Bircham Newton). 

Part of Snettesham. Scernebruna (Shernbourne). 

iRoland le Strange was succeeded by his eldest son John, 
and also left three other sons, Hamon, Guy, and Ralph, all of 
whom were enfeoffed in lands in Shropshire in the middle of the 
twelfth century; it will, however, be more convenient to trace 
what is known of them when dealing with their eldest brother, 
John (I), in the following chapter. It does not, of course, follow 
that, because no daughters are recorded, none existed. In feudal 
times women, unless they were heiresses, were of small account. 
If they were heiresses they were married while still of tender years, 
and when their husbands died were often remarried three or 
even four times, and may have sometimes then got a chance 


of pleasing themselves e.g. Alice de Lacy, of whom further 
on. 1 But when they were not heiresses little is recorded of them, 
even if their existence is mentioned ; filial piety sometimes has 
preserved the Christian name of a mother in cases where, not 
being an heiress, no mention of her father's name has come 
down to us. 

x Chapter VII. 









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Circa 1135-1178 

IT has been shown in the preceding chapter that Roland le Strange, 
who witnessed the St. Florent Charter circa 1122, left four sons, 
viz. (i) John, who succeeded him; (2) Hamon; (3) Guy, and 
(4) Ralph. As far as is known Roland possessed no property 
elsewhere than in Norfolk ; yet, early in the reign of Henry II, 
we find that at least three of his sons were enfeoffed of land in 
Shropshire, though, curiously enough, the eldest brother was the 
last to receive a grant there, perhaps because he already held 
five knights' fees of old feoffment in Norfolk under William, 
Earl of Arundel. How are we to account for this transfer of 
a whole family across England, from Norfolk to Shropshire ? 
Evidently it was owing to the necessities of the King. The le 
Stranges were not the only family dealt with in this way. Alan 
fitz Flaald, ancestor of the fitz Alans, and, like Roland le Strange, 
of Breton or Angevin origin, had received a grant of the Honour 
of Mileham in Norfolk before September noi. 1 After the for- 
feiture of the estates of Robert de Belleme, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
in 1 102, Henry I invested Alan fitz Flaald with the Honour of 
Warin, Sheriff of Shropshire, which not only included lands in 
that county, but also in those of Stafford, Warwick, and Sussex. 2 
Clearly Henry II pursued the policy, initiated by his grand- 

1 Eyton, vii. 217. Eyton, vii. 220. 



father, of supplanting the Domesday nobility, and strengthening 
his hold of the sceptre, by importing from his foreign province 
of Anjou new and able leaders attached to his own person. Along 
the Welsh border it was especially necessary for him to have 
loyal and trusty vassals, and here, consequently, he planted the 
fitz Alans and le Stranges, and other families of Breton or Angevin 
origin, to uphold the interests of his Crown during his frequent 
and prolonged absences on the Continent. Next to the fitz 
Alans the le Stranges became perhaps the most important family 
in the middle part of the Welsh March, and Eyton pays a tribute 
to their ability and loyalty which I cannot refrain from quoting. 
He says : 

As a race they were distinguished for their abilities in field and Council. They 
were distinguished yet more for the most steadfast loyalty. The feoffments of 
John, Guy, and Hamo le Strange by Henry Fitz-Empress and William Fitz Alan 
(I) were tributes to men of ascertained ability. For three long-lived and succes- 
sive generations the Heads of this House were indefinitely trusted by contem- 
porary Kings. For the same period no le Strange ever betrayed such trust, or 
was suspected of betraying it. 1 

This is a record of which any family may well be proud. 

The first of the four brothers to receive lands in Shrop- 
shire was, apparently, the second son, Hamon. The Testa de 
Nevill or Liber Feodorum, containing returns of those who held 
of the king in capite from Richard I to Edward I, supplies 
the earliest evidence that this Shropshire grant was made in 
the reign of Henry II ; the entry reads : 

Johannes Extraneus tenet maneria de Nesse et de Chesewortham de dono regis 
Henrici patris domini regis Johannis, et debet servicium unius militis, que sclent 
reddere ad scaccarium xi lib. xs. 2 

Further proof of this feoffment, as far as regards Cheswar- 
dine, is afforded by an abstract of a charter, preserved in the Plea 
Rolls, 8 from which it appears that Henry II before he came to 
the throne had given to Hamon land worth 7 in Wellington, 
Salop, which, for some reason that is not apparent, the King 

1 Eyton, x. 261. * Testa de Nevill, p. 56. 

8 Coram rege Rolls, 21 Edw. I, 36, dorse. 


subsequently resumed, giving him in exchange the manor of 
Cheswardine, worth only 4, to be held by the service of half a 
knight's fee. This abstract is printed by Eyton, but is so 
important, as proving the earliest feoffment of a le Strange in 
Shropshire, that it is worth transcribing here : 

Henricus, rex Anglic, et dux Normannie et Aquitanie, et comes Andegavie, 
&c. Sciatis me dedisse Hamoni Extraneo Chedewordam cum pertinenciis, que 
reddebat iv libras tempore regis Henrici avi mei, in excambium vii libratarum 
terre quas dederam [eidem Hamoni] de dominio meo de Wellintona priusquam 
rex essem ; ad tenendum ipsi et heredibus suis de me et heredibus meis, in feodo 
et hereditate per servicium dimidii feodi militis. 

John le Strange (I) lived through the whole of the troublous 
reign of Stephen (1135-54), an d during the first twenty-four years 
of the reign of Henry II. In Hunstanton he inherited two distinct 
manors, one from his father Roland, and another through his 
mother Matilda. He must have succeeded his father towards the 
close of the reign of Henry I, as his name appears as a witness 
to a grant by William fitz Alan and his wife Christiana of land 
in Sheriff Hales to Haughmond Church. Eyton 1 shows cause 
for believing that this deed belongs to the period before 1138, 
since in that year fitz Alan was exiled from Shropshire and 
deprived of his estates. At that period John le Strange held 
no fiefs in Shropshire ; the large possessions which the family 
subsequently possessed in that county all date from the reign of 
Henry II, or shortly before it, a reward doubtless for their services 
to the Empress Matilda and her son during the usurpation of 
Stephen. The Breton (or Angevin) connection of the family is 
emphasised by their loyalty to the house of Anjou ; hence the 
Cheswardine grant by Henry before 1154, and the subsequent 
solid establishment of the family in Shropshire. 

Professor Tout has drawn my attention to the fact that the 
early stages of family history often illustrate important historical 
points. The present instance brings out two points : (a) Henry Fs 
' new men' brought from his own personal possessions beyond 
sea ; and (b) Henry IFs continuation of his ' amice consue- 
tudines* as shown by his settling his father's friends in the Welsh 

1 vii. 286, n. 


March, where a loyal nobility was so particularly necessary. It 
is further worthy of note that all the great families of the Welsh 
March were also well established in some other part of England ; 
the Montgomeries in Sussex, the fitz Alans also afterwards in 
Sussex, the Bohuns were Earls of Essex as well as of Hereford, 
the Warrenes in Surrey and Yorkshire. The Mortimers alone 
were mainly Marcher, but had some lands elsewhere. The poli- 
tical and military importance of all these rests on their Marcher 
estates, and so also was it with the le Stranges ; in Norfolk they 
were comfortable barons, of local importance mainly ; in the 
March they could play a considerable military and political part. 
Many of the great movements of mediaeval history began in 
the March, and were started by Marcher barons. 

No mention of John le Strange during the nineteen years 
of Stephen's reign has come down to us. The first instance to 
which a precise date can be attached is the charter, in the Salop 
Chartulary, by which William fitz Alan, on the day of his restora- 
tion to his lands, viz. on July 25, 1155, granted the patronage 
of the church of Wroxeter to his own foundation of Haughmond 
Abbey. Not only was this donation witnessed by John le Strange, 
but about twenty years later he executed a curious certificate, 
preserved in the Haughmond Chartulary at Sundorn, notifying 
his remembrance of the original grant. 1 

Between the years 1155 and 1160 John's name occurs many 
times as a witness to charters, mostly those of fitz Alan. John 
and his brother Wido (Guy) attested a grant of fitz Alan's 
to the monks of Shrewsbury, which was included in Henry IFs 
confirmation of 1155. 2 A confirmation by William fitz Alan 
of a grant by Gilbert de Hadnall to Haughmond of 1155-58 is 
tested by ' Johanne Straunge cum duobus fratribus ejus, Wydone et 
Hamone* 3 John and Wido were the two first witnesses to William 
fitz Alan's grant of land in Downton to the same abbey ; 4 and 
the same two le Stranges similarly attested fitz Alan's confirma- 
tion of their brother Hamo's grant of Naginton to Haughmond. 6 

1 Eyton, i. 73 n., 251 ; vii. 312. * Ibid. vii. 236. 

* Ibid. x. 45. * Ibid. vii. 275. * Ibid. viii. 8. 

Plate V. 

Grant of ALVELEY. 

To face page 2/ 


All these charters passed during the period between 1155 and 1160, 
and many similar instances might be given. 

We now come to the period in which evidence as to the 
successive enfeoffments of the family is derived from public 
documents preserved at the Record Office : the earliest that have 
survived are known as the Pipe Rolls. These invaluable records 
contain the annual accounts current of the King with the Sheriff 
of each county, whose duty it was to collect the taxes paid by 
the tenants in capite, in the shape of fines, reliefs, the farm of 
the county, and other payments due to the Crown ; while the 
disbursements include sums paid by the Sheriff for repairs to 
the King's castles, the purchase of ammunition and necessaries, 
and special items expressly ordered by the King's writ. Many 
of these Rolls have been printed and edited ; a few of the earlier 
ones were printed by the Record Commission, and those before 
1 200 are now in course of publication by the Pipe Roll Society. 

The Pipe Roll for the first year of Henry II is lost ; the earliest 
entry relating to a le Strange is as follows : 

2 Hen. II. [A.D. 1155]. 

SALOPESCIRA. Willelmus films Alani reddit compotum de firma de . . . 
In terris datis . . . Widoni Extraneo C. et x. s . 

The ' terra data ' were lands granted by the King to private 
individuals out of the royal domain in the county ; and, as the 
profits of such lands were no longer received by the Sheriff, he was 
allowed for them when rendering his account at the Exchequer. 
The above entry, therefore, shows that, in or before 1155, Guy le 
Strange had had a grant from the King of some manor worth 
5 ios., allowance for which was made to the Sheriff, William 
fitz Alan. A similar entry appears in the Rolls for 1156 and 1157. 
The name of the manor held by Guy does not appear in the Pipe 
Roll, but, fortunately, the original grant itself, showing that it 
was the manor of Alveley in Shropshire, has survived, and is 
preserved in the British Museum ; 1 as will be seen from the photo- 
graph opposite it is beautifully written in bold letters, and still 
has attached to it a considerable portion of the great seal of green 

1 Cart. Cotton, xi. 14. 


wax, showing on the obverse the King seated, holding in his left 
hand an orb, surmounted by a dove on a cross, while on the reverse 
is the King on horseback, armed with sword and shield, and 
wearing a conical helmet. An English translation of this impor- 
tant charter has been given by Eyton, 1 but the original has not, 
I believe, been printed before, so I give an extended version which 
may be collated with the photograph : 

Henricus Rex Anglie et Dux Normannie et Aquitanie et Comes Andegavie. 
Episcopo Cestrensi et Justiciariis et Baronibus et Vicecomitibus et ministris et 
omnibus fidelibus suis de Salopescyra Salutem. Sciatis me dedisse Widoni 
Extraneo in feodo et hereditate Aluinelegham que solebat mihi reddere in firma 
mea. c. et x. solidos. Quare volo et nrmiter precipio quod ipse et heredes sui 
eandem terrain teneant cum omnibus pertinentiis suis de me et de heredibus meis 
bene et in pace libere et quiete et honorifice per seruicium dimidii militis. Testibus 
Waltero Episcopo Cestrensi. Ricardo de Humez, Conestabulario. Manasse Biset 
Dapifero. Ricardo de Luci. Ricardo de Campvilla. H. de Oilli Conestabulario. 
Apud Notingeham. 

Eyton shows 2 that the King was at Nottingham about Feb- 
ruary 1155, which gives us the approximate date of the charter. 

The same Rolls for the 2, 3, and 4 Hen. II contain similar 
entries with regard to Hamo Extraneus, showing that among 
the 'terra data* he held lands worth 4. That the land thus 
held by Hamo was the manor of Cheswardine has been shown by 
the entry in the Plea Rolls, quoted above. 3 

As Hamo only survived for about three years, it is as well to 
set down here what other mention there is of him. In conjunction 
with his eldest brother John he witnessed the deed of Roger Powis, 
attesting William fitz Alan's reinstatement in his Shropshire 
estates on July 25, 1155, and the latter's donation of Wroxeter 
church to the canons of Haughmond. 4 Between 1155 and 1158 
William fitz Alan (I) confirmed a grant made by Gilbert de 
Hadnall to Haughmond Abbey, and this confirmation is attested 
by ' Johanne Straunge, cum duobus fratribus ejus, Wydone et 
Hamone.' 5 

Besides Ness and Cheswardine, which he held in chief, Hamo 

1 iii. 122. * Itinerary of Hen. II, p. 6. ' Supra, p. 25. 

Collect. Top. et Gen. v. 176 ; Chartulary of Haughmond, fo. 236-7. 
6 Haughmond Chartulary, quoted by Eyton, x. 45. 


possessed as mesne tenant at least three other manors in Shrop- 
shire, Little or Childs' Ercall, Betton Strange, and Osbaston with 
Kynaston. Eyton supposes that William fitz Alan, on his 
restoration to his Shropshire estates in 1155, enfeoffed Hamo in 
the manor of Little Ercall ; x at all events after the death of Hamo, 
fitz Alan confirmed a grant of a member thereof called Nagington, 
made by Hamo to Haughmond Abbey ; this confirmation, witnessed 
by John and Guy le Strange, is printed in full by Eyton. 2 An 
inquest held in the year 1200 also proves Hamo's possession of the 
manor of Little Ercall. An Assize of the Curia Regis was held 
in the quinzaine after Easter in the ist of John to ascertain whether 
Hamon, the uncle of John le Strange, was seised in his demesne as 
of fee of the fourth part of a knight's fee in ' Arkelaw ' on the 
day of his death, and whether the said John was his heir ; which 
land was then held by Fulk de Oirri and Matilda his wife ; the 
jury found that Hamon was in seisin thereof, and that John 
was his heir. 3 

It may be well to set down here that a knight's fee denoted 
so much land of inheritance as was roughly sufficient to maintain 
a knight with suitable retinue, which, in the time of Henry III, 
was often reckoned at about 15 per annum ; as money was then 
worth about forty-five times its then value, a knight's fee would 
be the equivalent of an annual income of 675 in the twen- 
tieth century. The value of knights' fees varied, however, within 
wide limits. There are many cases in which grantees of land were 
treated with special liberality by the Crown. It is safest, therefore, 
to call a knight's fee the amount of land held by the service of 
finding a fully equipped knight to serve in the lord's wars. The 
subject is too complex to summarise in a paragraph. Briefly, it 
may be considered as the amount of land, whatever it was, that 
paid as rent a knight's service. 

The evidence as to the manor of Betton is not very clear ; 
apparently Hamo was a tenant of the abbot of Shrewsbury in 
respect of a part of the manor. It appears that, shortly before 
his death, in making a final disposition of his property, Hamo 

1 Eyton, viii. 8. Ibid. 9 ; and Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 148. 

8 Rot. Cur. Reg. ii. 187, m. 6. 


gave a strip of land, called Bulerugge, in Betton, to Haughmond 
Abbey, in order that the canons might possess both sides of a 
mill-stank on Condover brook. Eyton 1 believes that ' Hamo le 
Strange was able to make this grant as Lord of Betton Strange 
by feoffment of the monks of Shrewsbury, who had alienated to 
him that part of the manor, which was thenceforth called Betton 
Strange in distinction from Abbot's Betton the part which the 
monks retained.' 

Osbaston and Kynaston, originally two distinct manors, 
were united at Domesday, but separated later on when they came 
to the fitz Alans. Osbaston included the territory afterwards 
called Knockin, and had been given by the fitz Alans to the 
Haughtons, by whom it was alienated about the time of the 
accession of Henry II to Hamo le Strange. The descent of the 
manor is best given in the words of Eyton : 

The said Hamo died within five years after Henry II became King, and. 
leaving no lawful issue, his eldest surviving brother, John, became his heir-at-law. 
However, by some arrangement, before or soon after Hamo le Strange's death, 
Osbaston passed to the second brother, Guy le Strange, and Guy is said by tradi- 
tion to have founded Knockin Castle. Thus I understand the site of Knockin 
Castle to have been originally in the manor of Osbaston ; but a castle, wherever 
founded, naturally became the caput of the manor which included it ; so that, 
thenceforth, we hear little of Osbaston, but much of Knockin. 2 

Hamo le Strange must have died without issue before Michael- 
mas 1160, as we shall see below that, in the Pipe Roll for the sixth 
year of Henry II, his elder brother John appears for the first time 
as tenant in capite of the manor of Ches war dine in the place of 
Hamo. 3 

John's name appears for the first time in that Roll for the 
year 1158, the entry being as follows : 

4 Hen. II [Xmas. 1158]. 

SALOPESCIRA. Willelmus films Alani reddit compotum de . . . in terris datis 
Johanni Extraneo vij ii et x s de prestito Regis per breve Regis. 

Prastitum, or imprest, was an advance of money out of the 
Exchequer, for which the Sheriff had to render account ; e.g. for 
prepayments towards expenses of carrying on the King's service. 

1 ii. 174, 183. * Eyton, x. 366. * Eyton, x. 366. 


The expression seems to be sometimes used as implying a grant 
of a temporary nature. 

Here again it will be noticed that the name of the manor worth 
7 los. is not given in the Roll, nor is it entered in that for 1159, 
but the omission is supplied in the following year ; it was, as we 
have seen, 1 the manor of Ness. This was the last account of 
William fitz Alan (I) ; it was passed at Michaelmas 1159, and 
he died about six months afterwards, being succeeded in the 
shrievalty of Shropshire by Guy le Strange of Alveley. It is 
interesting to find that John and Guy le Strange were among 
the personages assembled round the death-bed of their illustrious 
comrade in arms ; a deed in the Salop Chartulary, 2 whereby he 
gave certain lands, together with his body, to Shrewsbury Abbey, 
is tested by four ecclesiastics and twelve well-known laymen, 
the two brothers heading the list of these last. 1 

Great Ness, the Shropshire fief conferred by Henry II on 
John le Strange, lies eight miles to the north-west of Shrewsbury, 
a little to the north of the road to Oswestry, which is overlooked 
by the red sandstone rocks of Ness cliff. The stronghold still 
exhibits considerable, but not very perfect remains of ancient 
earthworks, which, owing to their being overgrown with under- 
wood, are not very easy to trace. It occupies the highest part of 
a short rocky range, 500 feet above sea-level, and 200 to 250 feet 
above the surrounding country, except on the north-east, where the 
high land continues. The entrenchments appear to have consisted 
of one ditch and two ramparts, cutting off the extreme north-west 
corner to the edge of the hill, and there are remains of outer en- 
trenchments on the south-east, but no trace exists of the defences, 
which must have once enclosed the northern side. 8 The position 
thus commands the direct road from Shrewsbury to North Wales, 
while it lies only two miles above Shrawardine, an important ford 
on the Severn, where a castle of the fitz Alans had been built 
to check forays from the direction of mid- Wales. The fief had 
originally been given by Henry to Cadwallader, brother of Owen 
Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales from 1137 to 1169. Cadwal- 

1 Supra, 24. a No. 285. See Eyton, vii. 237. 

8 Survey by E. A. Downman in B.M. Add. MSS. 37678. 


lader, who was married to a sister of Gilbert, Earl of Clare, 
having quarrelled with his brother and been deprived of his 
lands in Wales, had taken refuge in England; the King made 
use of him when he invaded Wales, and the Shropshire Pipe 
Rolls show that in 1156 and 1157 the Welsh prince enjoyed 
possession of the manor of Ness. The campaign ended in a paci- 
fication with Owen Gwynedd, who restored his brother again 
to favour and the possession of his lands in Wales ; there was, 
consequently, no longer any necessity for Cadwallader to accept 
the bounty of the English king, who resumed possession of Ness, 
and in the Pipe Roll for 1158 Cadwallader 's name disappears, 
and in place thereof we have the following entry: ' Johanni 
Extmneo vij li. X s prestito Regis per breve Regis' A fuller entry 
two years later runs : 'Johanni Extraneo vij li. X s de prestito 
Regis in Nesse. Et eidem iv. li. in Chesewarda.' Compare ' Testa de 
Nevill/ quoted above, 1 which shows this valuation long continued. 
This means, as we have seen, that John had succeeded to Ches- 
wardine in 1160 as heir to his brother Hamo. The returns of 
fiefs made in 1166, and put together during the reign of King 
John in the Liber Niger of the Exchequer, the earliest extant 
Feodary compiled for the use of the collectors of the King's Aids, 
shows that John held Ness by the service of one knight's fee, 
while Cheswardine constituted a half fee. Later, the two seem 
to have been only valued at one knight's fee, 2 but in the thirteenth 
century it was in most cases found impossible to exact the full 
service owed. 3 

It was after midsummer 1160 that John made the grant to 
Castleacre, quoted in the last chapter, 4 in which he mentions 
his father Roland and his mother Matilda, and speaks of his 
brother Hamo as dead. 

During the years 1155-60 large additions were made to the 
lands acquired by John le Strange, nearly if not quite all of them 
by subinfeudation from William fitz Alan (I). The Liber Niger 
shows that John had acquired before 1166, and was then holding 
two knights' fees in the barony of fitz Alan, though there is 

i Supra, 24. * Testa de Nevill, p. 56. 

8 See Morris, Welsh Wars of Edw. I, 46-48, on the quota of service. * Supra, 5. 


no evidence to show the exact dates at which they were given. 
These lands, which are often spoken of in contemporary docu- 
ments as knights' fees of the new feoffment i.e. made since the 
death of Henry I comprised the following Shropshire manors : 
Middle, 1 which, as we shall see, was afterwards castellated ; 
Ruyton-of-the-eleven-towns ; 2 Wykey, now part of Ruyton, 
but at that time independent ; 3 Moreton ; 4 Maesbrook ; 5 Mel- 
verley ; 6 Acton-Scott ; 7 Abdon ; 8 Berrington ; 9 Glazeley ; 10 
and Longnor. 11 

The Pipe Roll for n Hen. II (1165), in addition to the usual 
entry respecting John le Strange as to Ness and Ches war dine, 
contains the following : 

et Johanni Extraneo iiij ii et ii* et vjd in Alwelt. 12 

Like the other entries for the n Hen. II the payments are for 
three-quarters of a year only, as there had been a new Sheriff 
recently appointed ; but I am at a loss to identify ' Alwelt ' ; 
it can hardly be Alveley, as that manor had been granted to Guy 
le Strange, yet I know not what other place it can be. The entry 
does not recur in any of the succeeding years. 

On the death of William fitz Alan (I), about Easter 1160 
Guy le Strange had been appointed to succeed him as Sheriff of 
Shropshire, and further had the valuable and important custody 
of his barony during the long minority of his son. 13 Guy held 
the shrievalty until 1165, when the Pipe Rolls show that the 
office was transferred to Geoffrey de Vere, probably because he 
had married Isabel de Say, widow of William fitz Alan, who 
had carried to her new husband, as her dower, nearly a third of 
the fitz Alan estates. On the death of de Vere in 1170 Guy 
le Strange was reinstated in the shrievalty, and continued to 
hold it for the rest of his life. 

In the Red Book of the Exchequer 14 John le Strange is returned 
as in debt to the Crown for the whole period, 1165-71, the result, 

1 Eyton, x. 65-66. * Ibid. 113. s Ibid. xi. 23. 

4 Ibid. x. 364. 8 Ibid. x. 377. ' Ibid. x. 377. 

7 Ibid. xi. 375-6. 8 Ibid. iv. 128. * Ibid. vi. 34. 

10 Ibid. i. 211. u Ibid. vi. 49. " Pipe Roll Soc.. viii. 89-90. 

" Eyton, iii. 126. M ii. cxx. (Rolls Series). 


no doubt, of his having to pay the expenses of border garri- 
sons on the Welsh March. The names of the two brothers, John 
and Guy, constantly appear in the Sheriff's accounts associated 
together, and there are entries of sums being remitted to them 
by the King, and of gifts of money being made to them as a 
reward for their services. Thus in the Pipe Roll of 14 Hen. II 
(1168) for Norfolk and Suffolk we have : 

In perdona per breve Regis Johanni et Widoni Extraneis xl* et quietum est. 

And in the same year they have pardon for 2os., 20$., and i6s. Sd. 
in Norfolk, 1 as well as an allowance in the Shropshire account 
of 70 out of the lands of William fitz Alan (II), then in the 
custody of Guy. 2 From the Staffordshire Pipe Roll for the 
following year, 1169, it appears that the King had granted to 
John le Strange out of the farm of Trentham pasture worth 
8s. 8d. a year. 3 In 1171 the Sheriff of Staffordshire accounts to 
Guy and John for 20 spent by them in payment to men serving 
in the Welsh Marches. 

In estimating the value of the above grants and expenses, it 
must be borne in mind that the purchasing power of money in 
the twelfth century was at least forty-five times as much as it is 
at the beginning of the twentieth i.e. one shilling then would 
be the equivalent of 2 55. now, and one penny of 35. gd. 

Advancing years, and the piety or superstition of the age, 
had the usual effect of inducing the owner of numerous fiefs to 
make liberal eleemosynary grants. Two made by John le Strange 
out of his Norfolk inheritance have already been mentioned, viz. 
his grant of six acres of land at Litcham to the monks of Castle- 
acre, 4 and that of his maternal fief of Edgefield to Binham Priory. 5 
His donations in Shropshire were nearly, if not quite all of them, 
made to the Augustinian Abbey of Haughmond, three miles east 
of Shrewsbury, which had been founded and endowed by his great 
friend, William fitz Alan (I). Before the year 1172 John had 
made three grants to that abbey viz. (i) the advowson of the 
church of Cheswardine, of which Eyton has printed the original 

1 Pipe Roll Soc., xii. 19. * Ibid. xii. 124. * Ibid. xiii. 68. 

4 Supra, i. p. 5. * Supra, i. p. n. 


grant from the Haughmond Chartulary ; * (2) the mill of Middle ; * 
and (3) the mill of Ruyton ; 3 these three grants were all included 
in a Bull of Confirmation by Pope Alexander III, dated May 14, 
1172. The Haughmond Chartulary, quoted by Eyton, 4 records 
that the advowson of the church of St. Mary at Hunstanton was 
also given to the same Shropshire Abbey, the grant being attested 
by the abbots of Wigmore and Buildwas, and by John le Strange, 
a canon ; it was confirmed by Henry II, along with many other 
grants, in a charter passed by that king at Shrewsbury towards 
the close of the year ii76. 5 Eyton cites a deed 6 made by William 
fitz Alan (II) on his coming of age, which is particularly useful 
as establishing the relationship of several le Stranges at this 
period, inasmuch as it is tested by no less than five members of 
the family ; it is a grant to Buildwas Abbey, of about 1175, 
confirming a previous donation made by the grantor's father ; 
among the witnesses are John le Strange and John his son ; Wido 
le Strange and Wido and Hamo his sons. A fine seal, with the effigy 
of a knight on horseback, of which Eyton gives an engraving, is 
attached to this document. 7 

The last eleemosynary grant of John le Strange which has 
come down to us is one giving half a virgate in Webscott, a member 
of the manor of Middle, to Haughmond Abbey. 8 It is of especial 
importance, as being the only one in which he mentions the name 
of his wife. The offering is stated to be for the soul of Hawise, 
the grantor's wife ; it was attested by William son of William 
fitz Alan, Guy my brother, Ralph his son, Hugh le Strange and 
others. Eyton writes 9 : 

It is probable that it was made on the death of his said wife, which will have 
shortly preceded his own death. The latter event took place in 1177-78. At 
Michaelmas 1178 Guy le Strange, Sheriff of Shropshire, had in hand the reputed 
issues of Ness and Cheswardine, obviously because his brother's son had not 
obtained livery, but before Michaelmas 1179 he had handed over the sum to 
' John son of John le Strange.' 

1 Eyton, x. 29, fo. 43 of Chartulary. * Ibid. x. 66. * Ibid. x. 113. 

* Ibid. x. 266, fo. 121 of Chartulary. 5 Harl. MSS. 2188, fo. 123. 

8 Eyton, vii. 245. 7 Harl. Charter 50, A, 2. 

8 Original deed at Trentham, and Lilleshall Chartulary, ff. 55 and 93. 

9 Eyton, x. 266. 

D 2 


The following entries in the Red Book of the Exchequer relate 
to John le Strange's Norfolk fiefs ; they are from the Norfolk 
Inquisitions for scutage of 1166-70, and must belong to the year 
1 1 66, as the King embarked at Southampton for Normandy in 
March of that year, and did not return for four years : 

Hsec est inquisitio de manerio Comitis Arundeliae in Snetesham, s[cilicet] quod, 
homines sui dederunt postquam dominus noster Rex Angloram extreme trans- 
fretavit in Normanniam, quando Comes perexit ad servandas les Marches de 
Wales pluribus vicibus . . . 1 

Postquam dominus Rex transfretavit, dederunt homines Johannis Extranei de 
Hunestanestunia et de Ringstadia Ixf Comiti Arundeliae de feodo trium militum. 2 

Veredictum hominum de Mileham. Quando villa cecidit in custodia Johannis 
Extranei et Radulphi f ratris sui non fuerunt in praedicta villa praeter xvj Caracas, 
et nunc, testimonio eorum, sunt in villa xxviij. Super hoc dicunt homines villas 
quod de hominibus de novo feodatis et de boscho, et aliis rebus in custodia 
Johannis Extranei et Radulphi f ratris ejus villa emendata est plusquam xl marcis 
argenti. Hoc [autem] testificant omnes homines villae super sacramentum suum. 
Super hoc dicunt homines ejusdem villae dederunt domino suo Johanni Extraneo 
jx libras de auxilio, gratis, in uno anno, et in altero anno xlv s gratis. 3 

Veredictum militum Johannis Extranei de donis suis quae dederunt domino suo 
Johanni, postquam dominus Rex novissime transfretavit in Normanniam. Her- 
bertus xxx solidos. [Brien Canis] iij marcas et dimidiam. Willelmus de Pagrave 
dedit Gaufredo de Ver i m. ad exercitum de Sparle. 4 


I have already had frequent occasion to mention Guy (Eudo 
or Wido), the third son of Roland and Matilda le Strange, as 
associated with his brothers in attesting charters, as having been 
enfeoffed by the King, in or before 1155, in the manor of Alveley, 
as having inherited the manor of Osbaston from his brother 
Hamo in 1160, and as having been appointed Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire on the death of William fitz Alan (I), of whose son and his 
extensive estates he had the wardship and custody. In this latter 
capacity Guy was Gustos or Warden of Oswestry, which belonged 
to the fitz Alans, the most advanced post on the north-west front 
of the Welsh March, and during the many and prolonged absences 
of the King at his continental possessions was responsible for the 

1 Rolls Series gg, vol. ii. p. cclxvii. * Ibid. p. cclxix. 

8 Ibid. p. cclxxix., No. 51. * Ibid. p. cclxxx., No. 56. 


peace and safety of that debatable land. In September 1165 
we find Guy charging the Crown with ' 103 sol: et yd. in liberatione 
cc. servientium apud Blancmoster (Oswestry) ' ; these were stipen- 
diary soldiers, probably from Henry's continental possessions ; * 
as Sheriff, Guy was usually keeper of the two royal castles of 
Bridgnorth and Shrewsbury, and had to maintain them for their 
threefold use as garrison, prison, and royal residence. The Liber 
Niger shows that Guy held Alveley by service of half a knight. 
He had a further tenure of half a knight's fee of new feoffment 
granted to him by William fitz Alan (I) at Stretton-upon-Avon 
in Warwickshire. 

An undated charter in the British Museum 2 shows that R., 
abbot of Haughmond, confirmed to Peter le Strange the mill of 
Stretton-upon-Avon on the same tenure as his father Hamo le 
Strange held it from the abbot's predecessor Alured, viz. 20S. 
annual rent. It is attested by William le Strange. Hamon, one 
of the sons of Guy of Alveley, died v.p. (i.e. in or before 1179), 
and Guy was succeeded by his daughters as co-heiresses ; conse- 
quently Peter, if the son of Hamon, must also have died in his 
grandfather's lifetime. 

In 1165 Henry unsuccessfully invaded Wales with a large 
army, and barbarously hanged certain hostages who had been 
placed in his hands ; the charges for the maintenance of these 
hostages are entered in Guy's account as Sheriff for the quarter 
ending at Christmas 1164, and his successor in office, Geoffrey de 
Vere, charged for them up to about April 1165, after which time 
no further mention is made of these unfortunate men. 

The Shropshire Pipe Roll, 18 Hen. II, has an entry made by 
Guy le Strange as Sheriff, wherein he renders his account for 400 
hogs sent to Ireland, 31 155. zd., 60 axes, and los. 6d. by the 
King's writ. These supplies were for Henry's invasion of Ireland 
in October 1171. 

In the year 1173 the King's eldest son Henry who, after his 
coronation on June 14, 1170, was styled by chroniclers ' the young 
King,' and often Henry III, having rebelled with his brother 

1 Liber Niger, 144, 147. B.M. III., C. 29. 


Geoffrey and Richard against their father, were compelled to flee 
to the Court of the King of France ; their cause had been espoused 
by Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, amongst others, and 
Guy le Strange had to victual and defend the castles of Bridg- 
north and Shrewsbury ; he had the King's warrant of 42 for 
livery of ten knights, who were to be with him for this purpose. 
The Earl of Leicester was captured on October 16, and the rebellion 
was crushed. Guy had raised a considerable contingent on behalf 
of the Crown for what he describes in his accounts as the ' army 
of Leicester,' * and he served personally in the summer of 1173 at 
the storming and capture of the town of Leicester. 2 The King 
afterwards made a progress through the lately disturbed counties 
in order to exact fines by way of punishment from those who had 
been guilty of rebellion or trespass ' Assiza super terras eorum 
qui recesserunt.' Guy's personal attendance on the King is proved 
by his having attested a royal charter dated at Bridgnorth, c. 
January Hj6, 3 and another at Shrewsbury about the same time. 4 
His trust as Custos of the Honour of fitz Alan had come to an end, 
as is shown by his accounts as Sheriff, rendered at Michaelmas 1175 ; 
he had received the issues for only three-quarters of the pre- 
ceding year, so the heir, William fitz Alan (II), must have come 
of age about midsummer. 5 

Guy le Strange appears to have played a very useful part as 
a faithful official in serving Henry II in his great need during 
the feudal revolt of 1173-4, the most formidable opposition in 
England which the King ever had to face. Guy had ceased to be 
Sheriff of Shropshire about Christmas 1164, but was reappointed 
at Michaelmas 1170, as one of the trustworthy royal servants put 
in office after the ' Inquest of Sheriffs ' of 1170 had revealed the 
faithlessness of many of the ' baronial Sheriffs, and had brought 
about their removal.' 6 As some requital for these services Guy 
received from the King a grant of the manor of Weston-under-Red- 
castle, Warwickshire, worth loos, a year, to be held with Alveley 

1 Pipe Roll, 19 Hen. II. Eyton, i. 263. 

3 Monasticon, v. 73, note 3 ; Eyton's Itinerary of Hen. II., p. 198. 
1 Haughmond Chartulary at Sundorne Castle. 6 Eyton iii. 127. 

P.R.O. List of Sheriffs, p. 117. 


by the service of half a knight's fee each : an enrolment of the royal 
charter passed on this occasion is preserved at the Record Office. 1 

The last public occasion at which Eyton can find mention of 
the presence of Guy le Strange was at the Great Court and Council 
which was held by Henry II at Northampton in January 1177, 
at which the whole of England was divided, for judicial purposes, 
into six districts, nearly corresponding with the judges' circuits 
of the present day ; Guy's presence is shown by his attesta- 
tion of a general charter of confirmation, expedited there by the 
King, to Thomas Noel, who had married Guy's eldest daughter 
Margaret. 2 Guy attested many other charters at various times, 
mostly in conjunction with his brother John. Like that brother 
he made giants to Haughmond Abbey. Eyton mentions two. 8 
' The first, in which his wife Mary joined, was of his mill at Stretton - 
upon- A von, and also of his mill at Alveley ' ; among the witnesses 
are : ' Willhelmus filius Willhelmi filii Alani, Johannes Extraneus, 
et Johannes et Hamo filii ejus, Adam filius Hamonis Extranei ' ; 
this was confirmed by Pope Alexander in his Bull of May 14, 1172, 
cited on p. 35.* The other grant was of the mill of Osbaston, 
near Knockin. Mr. John Higginson, M.R.C.V.S., of The Hollies, 
Knockin, who has allowed me to see a MS. history of that parish 
which he has compiled, states that this mill was situated on 
Morton brook, and that some remains of it can still be traced 
where the bridge now stands. 

An undated charter in the Castleacre Register (fo. 90), con- 
cerning an ' exchange between the monasteries of Castleacre and 
Westacre, is witnessed by Eudone Extraneo ' and ' Rogero filio suo ' , 
if this be Guy of Alveley, it records a son of his unknown to Eyton, 5 
and Roger ,like his brothers Guy and Hamo, must have died during 
his father's lifetime. Another charter, quoted by Carthew from 
the same folio of the Castleacre Register, is tested by ' Domino 
Rogero Extraneo.' 

The following entry in the Pipe Rolls of 24 Hen. II (1178-9) 
refers to Guy of Alveley : 

1 Cartae Antiquae, Roll EE, No. 13. Dodsworth's MSS. vol. 130, fo. 1196. 

8 Eyton, iii. 128. Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 6, and Harl. MSS. 3868, fo. u. 
5 Carthew, i. 129. 


Guido Extraneus reddit compotum de vij 1. de veteri firma tertii anni que 
reman serunt super terram que fuit lone de Powis . . . et Guidoni Extraneo 
c. et X s in Aluedelea. 1 

Guy did not long survive his elder brother John, with whom 
he had been so closely associated through life ; John, as we have 
seen, died before Michaelmas 1178, and Guy must have followed 
him in little more than a year. Eyton shows 2 that Guy's last 
account as Sheriff was rendered at Michaelmas 1179, and that 
at the date of the next account the manor of Alveley had been 
' in manu Regis ' for the preceding fiscal year, till livery should be 
given to the heir ; this did not take place until Michaelmas 1182. 
The Pipe Roll of the next year shows that the Sheriff, in account- 
ing for ' terris datis' in Alveley, had paid nos. to Ralph son 
of Guy le Strange. 3 Eyton thinks 4 that Mary, widow of Guy, 
cannot have been the mother of all his children, as she had two 
other husbands before she married Guy, and was still living in 
1186, being then only forty years of age. Part of her dower was 
derived from North Runcton in Norfolk, which she held of the 
fief of Warren of Wormegay : this must have been from one of 
her previous husbands, as Guy le Strange held no lands there in 
n65. 5 Mention has already been made of three, if not four, sons 
of Guy, who have appeared as attesting witnesses, viz. Ralph, 
Guy, Hamon, and perhaps Roger. The following entry in the 
Pipe Roll of 23 Hen. II (1177) probably refers to Hamon son of 
Guy of Alveley : 6 

Hamo Extraneus reddit compotum de v. marcis quia non habuit quern plegiavit. 

Guy and Hamon must have died two or three years before their 
father, though we have seen that they were living and attested 
fitz Alan's grant to Buildwas, c. 1175. Besides these sons Guy 
le Strange left three daughters, Margaret, Joan or Juliana, and 
Matilda, who eventually became co-heiresses to their brother 

For some unexplained reason Ralph was obliged to pay to 

1 Pipe Roll Soc. xxvii. p. 83. * iii. 128. 

8 Rot. Pip. 28 Hen. II, Salop. * iii. 129. 

6 Liber Niger, p. 288. * Pipe Roll Soc. xxvi. 32. 


the King a fine of 15 marks, accounted for by the Sheriff in 1190. 1 
During his short life he can hardly have been more than thirty- 
four at his death he followed the example of his father in making 
charitable donations. For the relief of poor wayfarers he founded 
the Hospital of the Holy Trinity at Bridgnorth, placed close to 
the bridge over the Severn, by which all travellers from the east- 
ward must approach, and he endowed it with 3^ virgates of land 
in Alveley. 2 His memory as founder was annually commemorated 
for more than 300 years, for the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535 records 
that, on the anniversary of Ralph le Strange as founder of this 
hospital, the abbot distributed a sum of i6s. Sd. to the poor. In 
the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery is preserved the latten 
matrix, with plain handle on the back pierced with a hole, of a 
round seal 2J- inches in diameter, belonging to this hospital ; 
it is of early thirteenth-century date, having for device a seated 
representation of the Holy Trinity, with panelled sideshafts 
but no canopy; it bears the legend : 'S. Henricus: ffranceys: 
magister : ospitalis : t : sanct : Sea (?) : trinitatis : de : bregenorth.' 3 
The Haughmond Chartulary shows that Ralph gave the right of 
patronage of the chapel of Knockin, which had probably been 
founded by him, to the abbey of Haughmond. The grant is 
witnessed by William fitz Alan, John le Strange, and William 
le Strange. Some remains of Ralph le Strange's chapel are still 
to be seen in the present church. Mr. D. H. S. Cranage, in his 
* Churches of Shropshire/ 4 says : 

Seeing a fair amount of late Norman work in the present building, we may fairly 
conclude that the original building remains to some extent. The chapel con- 
sisted of at least chancel, nave, and north aisle of 4 bays. . . . There are good 
capitals, with early foliage, and a bold row of zigzags. 

During the years 1194 and 1195 Ralph was employed in the 
King's service with his cousin John le Strange (II) of Ness as 
Castellans of Carreghova, near Llanymynech, south of Oswestry, 
in the modern county of Denbigh, for the protection of some silver 
mines which were worked for the Crown under the superintendence 
of one Joseph, a clerk of Archbishop Hubert, who was acting as 

1 Pipe Roll, 2 Ric. I. * Rot. Hundred, pp. 73 and 102. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq., 2nd Series, xv. 17. P. 796. 


Viceroy of England during Richard's absence abroad. The ex- 
penses of working are accounted for in the Pipe Rolls of 1194-5 ; 
the experiment proving unprofitable was ultimately abandoned. 
An entry in the Plea Rolls 1 shows that on May 12, 1195, excuse was 
made for the non-appearance of John le Strange in a suit to which 
he was a party, on the ground that he was certified to be in the 
King's service in place of Ralph le Strange, who was sick ; the 
latter must have died about midsummer 1195, as at Michaelmas 
the King's Escheator had received three months' issues of the 
manors of Alveley and Weston, then in the King's hands. 2 His 
estates were divided among his three sisters ; Margaret was wife 
of Thomas Noel, a man of considerable importance in Staffordshire, 
of which county he was Sheriff from 1184 to 1189 ; Juliana, or 
Joan, who was apparently the second sister, married Richard de 
Wappenbury, who held five fees of old feoffment in Warwickshire 
under the barony of Mowbray ; and the youngest sister, Matilda, 
married a Welshman, Gruffydd de Sutton, son of Gervase Coch 
(Gervase is probably the Welsh lorwerth). It seems that their 
cousin, John le Strange (II) of Ness, put in a claim to the succession 
of Knockin as the right heir of Hamo, the original feoffee thereof ; 
the matter was, however, arranged amicably, for, as Eyton judi- 
ciously points out, 3 it was ' evident that a border fortress and 
estate was recognized as no fit matter of coparcenary among 
females.' Within three years of their succession the three co- 
heiresses, together with their husbands, came to an arrangement 
for surrendering Knockin to John le Strange, and receiving a 
valuable consideration in return. The Fines by which this transfer 
was effected are interesting legal documents, but as they are printed 
in full by Eyton 4 1 do not give them here. Margery Noel received 
for her third share of Knockin all John's lands of Myxle (Mixen) 
and Bradnop in Staffordshire, or in exchange land to the value of 
30 solidates from his lands in Norfolk. 5 Juliana de Wappenbury 
got 20 solidates of land in Gesewde, or in exchange 30 solidates 

1 Placita incerti temporis Regis Johannis, No. 60. Internal evidence proves it 
to be a roll of Easter Term, 6 Ric. I ; Eyton, iii. i$on. 
1 Eyton, iii. 130. * iii. 131. 

* x. 367 ; Feet of Fines, 8 and 9 Ric. I., Salop, P.R.O., Case 193, File No. i. 
6 C. Ch. R,, Hen. Ill, vol. i. 36. 



in Norfolk ; while Matilda de Sutton accepted, in exchange for 
her third share of Knockin, John's feoffment in the whole vills of 
Dovaston and Kinaston. 1 It is worth noticing that the husbands of 
these three ladies had already, in the year 1196, fined 200 marks 
with the King, ' for having all the land which was before Ralph 
le Strange's, together with the fortress (municione) which is called 
Cnukin.' z The amount thus paid to the King, equivalent to about 
6000 nowadays, gives some measure of the value of Ralph le 
Strange's estate. It must be remembered that, at this period 
and for more than three centuries after it, Knockin formed, part 
of Wales and not of England ; perhaps it would be more correct to 
say that it then belonged to neither, but was in the Welsh March. 
It was not until 1535 that Oswestry, Whittington, Ellesmere, and 
Knockin were severed from Wales and annexed to England 
(Salop) by Act of Parliament. It would be interesting, but not 
easy, to work out the status of the le Strange lands in the March, 
whether they were independent lordships, or part of the Arundel 
fief of Oswestry. In all probability the original holdings were sub- 
infeudations, subject to the ordinary services of feudal tenure, 
but gradually accreted large additions from the Welshry, which 
under the ' custom of the March,' tended towards practical inde- 
pendence of English law, and even of royal authority. 


It only remains now to deal with Ralph, the fourth son of 
Roland le Strange and Matilda le Brun. We have seen 3 that he 
attested, c. 1160, his brother John's charter to Castleacre, in which 
mention is made of the names of their father and mother ; also 
that he was the first witness to John's grant of Edgefield to Binham 
Priory, made before H74. 4 On the death of Hamo le Strange in 
1160, although his eldest brother John was undoubtedly his 
heir-at-law, Ralph, the youngest of the four brothers, was allowed 
to succeed to Little Ercall, and he consequently appears in the 
Liber Niger 5 as holding half a knight's fee of new feoffment 

1 Rot. Fines, 9 Ric. I, Salop. Rot. Pip., 8, 9, 10, Ric. I. 

* Supra, 5. * Ibid. 12. i. 144. 


immediately under fitz Alan. 1 A similar entry appears also 
in the Red Book of the Exchequer, I have already mentioned 2 
the charter by which William fitz Alan confirmed to Haughmond 
Abbey the manor of Nagington, a member of Little Ercall : this 
grant was subsequently confirmed by Ralph as heir of his brother 
Hamon. 3 Eyton has called attention to the importance of keeping 
distinct what little is known of the different individuals who bore 
the name of Ralph le Strange during the last half of the twelfth 
century. Two I have already distinguished, Ralph of Ercall, 
the youngest brother of John (I), dead in 1194, from his nephew 
Ralph, son of Guy of Alveley, ob. 1195. The third is Ralph of 
Litcham, in Norfolk, of whom I shall have something to say later, 
but may mention here that considerable confusion arises be- 
cause the elder branch of the le Stranges, that of Hunstanton and 
Ness, also possessed a considerable estate in Litcham, and it even 
appears that Ralph of Ercall must have held some interest there, 
as, after his death, his daughter and co-heir Emma impleaded 
her sister Maud for certain messuages in Litcham and Ringstead. 4 

The following deed, quoted by Eyton from the Haughmond 
Chartulary 5 as passed between 1182 and 1194, confirms so much 
of the early genealogy of the family that it is worth reproducing 
in full : 

Omnibus sancte Dei ecclesie filiis tarn presentibus quam futuris Radulphus 
Extraneus Salutem. Notum sit omnibus vobis me concessisse et dedisse et pre- 
senti carta confirmasse Deo et ecclesie Sancti Johannis Evangeliste de Hagmon et 
canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus in perpetuam elemosinam, pro salute anime 
mee et patris mei et matris et Johannis fratris mei, qui feudum mihi dedit, et filii 
mei Rolandi, omniumque antecessorum meorum et successorum meorum, molen- 
dinum de Hunstanston, quod est de hereditate patris mei, cum sede sua et omnibus 
pertinentiis suis, libere et quiete de me et heredibus meis ab omnibus terrenis 
consuetudinibus et exactionibus, tenendum et habendum in perpetuum. Hiis 
testibus, Widone de Thichwelle, Willielmo de Bruna, 6 Radulpho, Widone de 
Schawburia, Roberto fratre ejus, Elia fratre Jone sacerdotis, &c. 

It is evident from the above that Ralph's son Roland had 
predeceased his father ; that Ralph had been enfeoffed in some 

1 Eyton, viii. 8. 2 Supra, 29. 8 Eyton, viii. 9. 

' Blomefield, ix. 149. 8 Eyton, viii. 10. 

Rector of Hunstanton church when John gave the advowson to Haughmond in 1 178. 


land at Hunstanton by his brother John (I) ; and that after 
John's death (1178) Ralph granted to Haughmond Abbey one 
of the two mills which, as we saw in Chapter I, Roland le Strange 
had inherited from his father-in-law, Ralph fitz Herluin. The 
verdict of the Mileham jury, cited when dealing with John (I), 1 
shows that that manor was then in the custody of the two brothers. 
There is a second entry to the same effect in the Red Book of the 
Exchequer ; 2 also an earlier entry in the same book 3 concerning 
Ralph le Strange, but whether it relates to Ralph of Ercall or 
Ralph of Litcham is as uncertain as is the barony cited in the 
Exchequer accounts. The entry runs as follows : 

Baroniae incertae. 

Radulphus Extraneus dedit Hugoni de Creissio de feudo duorum militum, 
quod tenet de eo, de dote suse uxoris x marcas ad scutagium ; et de relefio, c* 
dedit dominae Alae Willelmus de Watton et ilia Comiti de Warenna. 

Ralph of Ercall was dead in June 1194, and was succeeded 
by two daughters, the elder of whom, Matilda, married Fulk de 
Oirri, of Gedney, in Lincolnshire, and the younger, Emma, was 
the wife of Philip de Burnham. A long litigation, lasting from 
1194 to 1217, ensued as to their respective shares of Ralph's in- 
heritance both in Norfolk and Shropshire ; the details are given 
by Eyton 4 from the Plea and other Rolls, but, for genealogical 
purposes, they are scarcely worth reproducing here. One of the 
main points of interest I have already mentioned, viz. that 
Ralph of Ercall possessed land in Litcham ; and another is that 
John le Strange (II) seems to have established his rights as 
mesne lord at Ercall as heir to his uncle Hamo, in spite of the 
fact that his father had never insisted on these rights. 


In his valuable monograph on Carrow Abbey, near Norwich, 
issued at the sole cost of the late Mr. J. J. Colman, Mr. Walter 
Rye gives the name of Matilda le Strange as the first prioress of 
whom he has been able to find mention ; she occurs from 1198 

1 Supra, 36. ' ii. cclxxx. 

1 Ibid, cclxxix. * viii. 10-12. 


to 1222. 1 Unfortunately nothing is recorded to show who she 
was ; she might have been a daughter of John (II), of whose 
family we only know the name of one daughter, viz., Margery, 
who married Ralph de Pichford ; but it seems rather unlikely 
that a baron living on the Shropshire March would have sent 
a daughter to a priory so far off as Norwich ; more probably 
Matilda was one of the Litcham or Fransham le Stranges. There 
must have been many daughters in the pedigree whose names 
have not come down to us because they were not heiresses, or 
did not make brilliant marriages. 

Blomefield says 2 that Ralph le Strange, fourth son of Roland, 
held the lordship of East Winch, and gave the rectory of the 
church thereof to Carrow Priory ; Mr. Rye mentions this, and 
also that the donor had a daughter Matilda, who married Fulk 
de Oirri ; on this he founds a conjecture that she was aunt to 
Matilda le Strange, the prioress of Carrow ; I am unable to accept 
this. Matilda, the daughter of Ralph, had, as far as is known, 
only one brother, Roland, who died without issue during his 
father's lifetime ; and her only sister, as I have mentioned above, 3 
married Philip de Burnham. 


That a considerable degree of confusion should exist between 
the le Stranges of Hunstanton and Ness, and those of Litcham, 
is not to be wondered at, considering that, in the latter half of 
the twelfth century, both held under Fitz Alan, both had an 
interest in Litcham, and that the name of Ralph was used by 
both families. Whether any, and if any, what degree of relation- 
ship existed between them, has been a puzzle which even genea- 
logists as painstaking as Eyton and Carthew have been unable 
to solve. Indeed, not much has been added to what was known 
to Blomefield, or rather Parkin, his continuator, who, writing in 
1775,* says that the manor of Netherhall in Litcham was granted 
by Alan fitz Flaald to Sewald, from whom John le Strange 

1 Carrow Abbey, by W. Rye (1889), p. 38. * Blomefield, ix. 149. 

Supra, p. 45. * x. 9. 


descended ; that in the 55th of Henry III he held a fee here and 
impleaded the rector for keeping the evidences of his lordship 
from him, but released the action by deed dated at Knockin, 
which shows that this family was related to that of Knockin ; 
and, further, that by Isabella his wife he had two sons, John 
and Ralph, whereof the elder, John, married dementia, relict of 
Jordan de Sackville, and daughter of Sir William de Burgh. 

Let us see how much of this will stand the test of strict proof, 
of which Blomefield, of course, gives none, and even Eyton relegates 
his account of these le Stranges to two notes, 1 and, contrary to his 
usual custom, does not give his authorities. He does, however, 
in another place 2 quote a deed from the Haughmond Chartu- 
lary, 3 whereby John le Strange (II), between 1178 and 1180, con- 
firmed half a virgate in Webblescowe to Haughmond Abbey. The 
second and third witnesses to this are ' Wido le Strange ' (clearly 
Guy of Alveley), ' and Ralph le Strange of Lucheham.' It is a 
somewhat suspicious circumstance that, in a copy of this deed 
in the British Museum, 4 these two witnesses are described as 
' Wido my brother and Ralph his son/ i.e. not Ralph of Litcham. 
The confusion as to the two Ralphs is not confined only to the 
twentieth century. 

Eyton's note as to the descent of le Strange of Litcham is as 
follows : 5 

Siward, living in Henry Ps time, was succeeded by a son Ralph, and Ralph 
by a son Durandus, living about 1155-60. Durandus le Strange, by his wife 
Agnes, had a son Ralph, who was also called le Strange, and was living from 1180 
to 1217. John le Strange, son of Ralph, occurs from 1240 to 1292. He had by 
his wife Isabella two sons, John and Ralph. John, the elder son, died May 31, 
1305, without issue. Ralph his brother and heir was living in 1310. 

Durannus le Strange was one of the witnesses to the grant 
of John le Strange (I) to Castleacre, in which the latter mentioned 
his father Roland and his mother Matilda, the date of which, as 
we have seen, 6 is after midsummer 1160. He appears as 'witness 
to a confirmation of a grant by William de Lisewis of land at 
Gately ; 7 and Carthew quotes from the Castleacre Chartulary 8 

1 viii. gn. ; x. 26o. * Ibid. x. 76. 8 fo. 225. 

* Hart. MSS. 2188, fo. 123. B x. 260. Supra, 5. 

7 Carthew, i. 133. 8 Ibid. i. 126. 


a grant of rents in Wesenham by Durannus himself, which is 
attested by ' Radulfo filio Duranni, Prudentia matre ejus.' This 
proves that Eyton was mistaken in saying that the name of the 
wife of Durannus was Agnes : Agnes was the wife of his son Ralph, 
and survived her husband, as is shown by a charter quoted by 
Eyton, 1 which describes her as 'Agnes uxor Radulphi Extranei de 
Lutcham jam defuncti.' 

This branch of the family were possessed of very consider- 
able property in Norfolk ; they were lords of the two Hundreds of 
Launditch and South Greenhow, and their grants show that they 
held land in the adjoining parishes of Litcham, Mileham, Stan- 
field, Titteshall, Wellingham, Sutton, Bittering, and Wesenham. 

Blomefield, in his account of Wellingham, 2 says that Alan fitz 
Flaald granted that manor, which was part of his Honour of 
Mileham, with the Hundreds of Launditch and South Greenhow, 
to Seward, ancestor of a family who assumed the name of le 
Strange ; and that William, son of Alan, by deed sans date, con- 
firmed to Durand, son of Ralph, son of Seward, the land of Welling- 
ham, Bittering, and Sutton, for the payment of 8s. per annum, 
three of the attesting witnesses being John, Hamo, and Guy 
Extraneus. Blomefield does not say where he saw this charter, 
but it must have been passed before Michaelmas 1160 when Hamo, 
brother of John (I), died. 

Several generations of the pedigree of the Litcham le Stranges 
are proved by the inquisition on the death of John le Strange (II) * 
of Litcham in 1305. The jurors say that he died on May 21 of that 
year, leaving as heir his brother Ralph, then fifty years old ; that 
John and his wife dementia held jointly certain lands in Welling- 
ham, with the Hundreds of Launditch and South Greenhow of 
the heir of Richard fitz Alan, as well as certain rents in Fransham ; 
that they had been enfeoffed of the two Hundreds by John le 
Strange (I) in the year 1294, and held them in common until the 
death of John on May 21 last ; that John his father had acquired 
them from an ancestor named Durandus le Strange, who, before 
time of legal memory, had acquired them from Flandus, son of 

1 Eyton, i. 125. x. 73. 

P.R.O. Chancery Inq., Edw. I, File 118, No. 13. 


Alan, formerly lord of Mileham, to be held of him by service of 
6 a year ; that the said Hundreds descended by hereditary suc- 
cession from Durandus to his son and heir Ralph ; from this 
Ralph to another Ralph as his son and heir ; and from the last- 
named Ralph to John le Strange, who had enfeoffed John and 
dementia. The Fine Rolls contain an order to the King's Es- 
cheator, dated June 24, 1305, to take into the King's hands the 
lands late of John le Straunge of Lutham, deceased, tenant by knight 
service of the heir of Richard fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, a minor. 1 

An undated charter in the Hunstanton Muniment Room 2 
of Thomas de Aleby, granting fifteen acres of land in Fransham 
to William de Stuteville, is attested by Johanne Extraneo de 
Luxham. This must have been John the husband of Isabella 
and son of Ralph, as William de Stuteville died in 1259. Another 
undated grant to William de Stuteville exists at Hunstanton, 3 
and is witnessed by Ralph and Roger le Strange. This Ralph, 
if one of the Litcham family, must have been the father of John 
who married Isabella. There are several undated charters quoted 
by Carthew from the Castleacre Chartulary, 4 witnessed by ' Radul- 
pho Extraneo,' who was probably the son or the grandson of 
Durannus of Litcham, as the Hunstanton Ralphs, brothers of 
John (I) and John (II), only occur during the twelfth century, 
while their Litcham namesakes are considerably later. Of these 
charters the only one to which an approximate date can be assigned 
is one tested by 'Domino Rogero Extraneo,' and 'Domino Radulpho 
Extraneo' being an exchange between Robert, Prior of Castleacre, 
and Willelmus films Sewardi. Robert Alanson was prior there 
about the year 1220. 

The following entries in the Rolls of the period probably relate 
to the Litcham family. In the ist year of King John (1199-1200) 
Ralph le Estrange was attorney for William fitz Alan in a Suffolk 
suit of mort d'ancestre against the abbot of St. Edmund's, but 
Ralph failed to appear or to excuse himself. 5 On October 30, 
1217, Henry III wrote to the Sheriff of Norfolk that 

1 Col. of Fine Rolls, i. 522. | N.K.i. | | N.A.i. | 

Carthew, i. 126-30. Rot. Cur. Regis, edited by Sir F. Palgrave, ii. 38. 


Ralph le Strange has returned to our fealty and service ; he is to have seisin 
of all lands in your Bailiwick which he had on the day when he departed from 
the fealty and service of King John our father. 1 

This shows that Ralph had sided with the barons against the 
King. I conclude that this Ralph was the son of Durannus and 
the husband of Agnes. On March 20, and April 8, 1225, there 
are two writs stating that the King has given respite of knight- 
hood to Ralph le Strange until Michaelmas next. 2 These I take 
to refer to Ralph, son of the previous Ralph, and grandson of 
Durannus. An undated grant of land in Weasenham by Adam, 
son of Alan de Wesenhamtorpe, to Roger de Freville of Welling- 
ham, has for its first witness ' Radulpho Extraneo ' ; this may be 
either the son or grandson of Durannus. 3 

The Hundred Rolls contain inquisitions concerning the Hun- 
dreds of Launditch and South Greenhow taken in 3 Edw. I 
(1274-75). As to Launditch, the jurors say that it is in the hand 
of John le Strange of Litcham, by gift of the ancestors of John 
fitz Alan of Mileham, who held the said Hundred which had 
belonged to the manor of Mileham since the Conquest, and that 
John le Strange paid therefrom ' ad albam firmam ' 235. 4^., 
and that beyond that the said Hundred was worth 405. They 
further said that John le Strange claimed to have the royal Liber- 
ties, such as assize of bread and ale, and other things which 
belong to the Crown in Litcham, by gift of the ancestors of John 
fitz Alan, who now is heir of the manor of Mileham and in the King's 
custody. Also that John le Strange, Lord of Litcham, claims to 
have the said liberties and view of frank pledge therein, since at the 
time of the Conquest it was a member of Mileham. 4 As to the Hun- 
dred of South Greenhow, the jurors say that it is also in the hand of 
John le Strange, and has been for many years back ; that it renders 
yearly to the King 245. 4^., and is worth five marks a year. 5 

By a Fine, dated February 16, 6 Edw. I. (1278), John, son of 
John le Strange of Litcham, granted to John, son of Ralph le 
Strange of Litcham, certain lands, rents, &c., in Wellingham 
and Weasenham for the life of John son of Ralph at a rose 

1 Rot. Lit. Claus., 1204-24, i. 3386. 2 Ibid. ii. 716, and 266. 

8 Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on Lord Middleton's papers, p. 50. 
^* Rot. Hundr., Hen. III. and Edw. I, i. 434. B Ibid. i. 5176. 


rent. 1 On October 13 of the same year Richard de Perers and Joan 
his wife granted a messuage and certain lands in Longham to John 
le Strange and Isabella his wife for the rent of a clove of gilly- 
flower, receiving as consideration a sparrow-hawk. 2 By a Fine 
of July 8, 1285, Richard le Rule of Snoring and John le Strange 
of Litcham granted the advowson of the church of Testerton to 
Henry de Wirham and Richard le Rus, for which they paid a soar 
sparrow-hawk ; and by another Fine of the same date the two 
last named granted to Richard le Bule and John son of John le 
Strange of Litcham the advowson of Little Snoring for the same 
consideration in fact, the two livings were simply exchanged. 8 
John son of John le Strange granted by Fine of May 12, 1286, to 
Richard Bule that when the church of Little Snoring should fall 
vacant, Richard or his heirs should present to it alternately with 
John and his heirs for ever, Richard to have the next presentation. 4 
On October 27 of the same year John son of John le Strange called 
Robert de Tateshall to warrant for the custody of William, son 
and heir of William de Gerners, because William held of him by 
knight service. John quitclaimed to Robert for 10 sterling. 5 

A Fine of April 24, I289, 6 shows that John de Stonham and 
Roger de Necton granted to John son of John le Strange and 
dementia his wife a messuage and 31^ acres of land in Little 
Snoring, together with two serfs (nativi) and their issue (cum tota 
sequela sua) for the consideration of one sparrow-hawk. By a 
Fine, dated November 3, 1292, John son of Ralph le Strange of 
Litcham and Isabella his wife granted the following lands and 
tenements to John de Walsham, parson of the church of Little 
Snoring, and Richard de Sutton, with reverter to the grantor's 
son John and Isabella his wife ; viz. one messuage and 140 acres 
of land, a mill, 15 acres of meadow, 15 of marsh, 5 of heath, 
and 295. 8%d. of rent, in Litcham, Mileham, Titteshall, Stanfield, 
and Little Bittering. 7 

P.R.O. Feet of Fines, Case 159, File 107, No. 115. 

Ibid., Case 139, File 108, No. 138. 

Ibid., Case 160, File 113, Nos. 325 and 326. 

Ibid., Case 160, File 114, No. 356. 6 Ibid., Case 160, File 115, No. 496. 

Ibid., 17 Edw. I, No. 542, dorse. 

P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 20 Edw. I, Case 160, File 116, No. 619, dorse. 

E 2 


A deed in the Hunstanton Muniment Room, 1 whereby Jordan 
ffolyot on May 28, 1285, grants a rent for life out of the manor 
of Lechesam, is witnessed by ' Johanne le Estrange milite,' and 
also by ' Johanne le Estrange ' ; these are probably the father and 
son, who married Isabella and dementia respectively. 

The Feudal Aids for 1302 mention that Robert de Felton held 
half a knight's fee in Litcham of 'Johanne Extraneo de la March' 
i.e. of John (V) of Knockin, who held under the Earl of Arundel ; z 
and, in the same year, that Isabella le Strange, Richard le Deneys, 
and their parceners held a knight's fee in Longham and Cotes 
of the Earl of Arundel ; apparently therefore Isabella's husband, 
John le Strange of Litcham, was then dead. In the Feudal 
Aids for 1316 John de Felton and Isabella Lestraunge are entered 
as the lords of Lucham ; 3 she was deceased before 1346, as the 
same authority for that year mentions that John de Gun ton and 
others then held the knight's fee in Longham and Cotes which 
Isabella le Straunge and her parceners formerly held. 4 

A Fine of February 9, 1305, shows that John and dementia 
granted to John de Stonham and Roger de Nee ton 44 messuages, 
70 acres of land, 12 of meadow, 6 solidates, and the rent of 3 
quarters of barley and 3 quarters of oats, in Wellingham, Weasen- 
ham, and Fransham, with the advowson of Wellingham church, with 
half the manor of Little Snoring, and the advowson of a moiety of 
the church of that manor ; all of which the said John and Roger 
gave back to John and dementia and their heirs. 5 This was 
shortly before the decease of John le Strange ; the inquest on 
him, already quoted, 6 shows that he died s.p. on May 21, 1305. 
His widow dementia held for her life the manor and church of 
Wellingham, and the Hundreds of Launditch and Greenhow. 7 
It is evident from the above Fines that the le Stranges of Litcham 
were possessed of a considerable estate in nine or ten different 
parishes in that neighbourhood. 

The subjoined pedigree is deducible from the foregoing 

N.A. 35. I * Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. 416. * Ibid. p. 454. 

4 Ibid. p. 539. B Ibid., 33 Edw. I, Case 161, File 120, No. 956, dorse. 

Supra, p. 48. > P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 2 Edw. II, Case 162, File 125, No. no. 



SIWARD, or SEWARD = * * * 

mentioned in 
charter quo- 

* * 

Durannus le Strange, = Prudentia 

* * * 

acquired Hundreds 
of Launditch and 
S. Greenhow from 
Alan fitz Flaald. 
Witnessed grant by 
John le S. to Cast- 
leacre, c. 1160. 

witnessed her hus- 
band's grant in 
Castleacre Char- 

Ralph le Strange (II), = Agnes 
witnessed his father's 
grant to Castleacre 

* * * 

survived her 

Ralph le Strange (III) = * * * 
had respite of knight- 
hood, 1225 

' Roger le Strange 
occ. N.A. i. | 

John le Strange (I) ; : 
occ. in or before 
1259. Enfeoffed 
John his son and 
dementia of the 
Hundreds of Laun- 
ditch and S. Green- 
how in 1293-4 ; d. 
in 1302. 

Isabella * * * 
occ. 1278, 
1296 ; su- 
perstes 1316; 
d. before 

John le Strange (II) ; = dementia * * * 

enfeoffed by his 
father, 1293, 1294; 

relict of Jor- 
second dau. of 
Wm. de Burgh ; 
occ. 1316. 

Ralph leS. =* 
and heir. 
Age 50 
at d. of 


Several other le Stranges, whose names occur in rolls or charters 
of this period, are difficult to connect with known branches of 
the family. 


In the Pipe Roll of 23 Hen. II (1177), Guy le Strange (of 
Alveley), then Sheriff of Shropshire, accounts for 15 marks 
paid by him, in accordance with the King's writ, to Adam le 
Strange. Two charters of this same Guy are tested by Adam ; 
one, still preserved at Badger in Shropshire, to which Eyton 
assigns the date c. H74, 1 mentions no less than five le Stranges ; 
Guy of Alveley confirms a sale of land at Badger, the two first 
witnesses are ' Johannes Extmneus ' and ' Hugo Extraneus,' and 
among the others are ' Adam filius Hamonis Extranei,' and ' Johannes 
frater Hugonis Extranei.' Carthew z says that Hugh, who was one 
of the above witnesses, was dead in 1240, and that his inheritance 
in Shropshire was divided among females, being held under John 
le Strange of the fitz Alan fief. The second charter in which 
Adam appears is in the Haughmond Chartulary, and is placed 
by Eyton at about the year H79. 3 It is a grant by Guy, shortly 
before his death, of the mill of Osbaston to Haughmond 
Abbey, and is witnessed by Ralph, the grantor's son, and by 
Adam, son of Hamo Extraneus. Who was this Hamo ? It 
can scarcely have been the son of Guy of Alveley, who died in 
his father's lifetime, as he could not have had a son old enough, 
and the only other Hamo that we know of at that period was 
Guy's elder brother, who, as we have seen from the Pipe Rolls, 
died before Michaelmas 1160, leaving no legitimate issue. Adam 
may possibly have been an illegitimate son of his. About this 
same period an Adam le Strange, who may or may not have been 
the same individual, appears at Loppington, near Ellesmere. 4 
Alexander de Loppington, who lived in the reigns of Richard I 
and Henry III, is recorded to have given half of that manor 
in frank-marriage to Adam le Strange, who married one of his 

1 Eyton, ii. 66. i. 157. 

Eyton, x. 366. * Ibid., x. 224-5. 


daughters. 1 They had a son named William who, at the Assizes 
of November 1221, had and won several suits against his brother- 
in-law, Richard de Loppington, as to the validity of the above 
gift. William le Strange appears to have had a son named John, 
as the Pimhill Hundred Roll for 1225 shows that William was 
living in that year ; while the Roll for 1274 records that the half 
of Loppington, which had originally gone to Adam le Strange, 
had been given in fee by John le Strange of Loppington to the 
abbot of Lilleshull. 2 

I have already mentioned 3 that the grant by John le Strange 
(I) of the church of Hunstanton to Haughmond Abbey, between 
1172 and 1 177,* is witnessed by a canon, also named John le 
Strange. Of this canon I find no further mention, unless he be 
the same individual as John, son of Thomas le Strange, who 
attested a charter of William Banastre to Haughmond Abbey 
c. 1216 ; 5 but even so, it does not help the identification much, as 
I do not know who this Thomas le Strange was. 


Another le Strange who, as far as I am aware, is mentioned 
once and once only, is Reginald, whose name is supplied by the 
Haughmond Chartulary 6 as the first witness to a confirmation 
of a grant made to that abbey before 1157 by Richard de Pichford. 


The Pipe Roll for 5 Hen. II (1159) gives a trace of a le Strange 
in Devonshire in the following entry : 

DEUENESCIRA. Ricardus filius Estrangi reddit compotum de c. marcas pro 
se redimendo. 

A grant * of March I, 1160, from the canons of Exeter to the 

1 Rot. Hundr., temp. Hen. Ill and Edw. I, ii. 1046. 

* Eyton, x. 227 ; Cal. Charter Rolls, Hen. III-Edw. I. 1257-1300, p. 59. 

8 Supra, p. 35. ' Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 121. * Eyton, x. 46. 

Fo. 40; Eyton, x. 201. 7 Hist. MSS. Comm. iv. 49. 


nuns of Polslo of a burial ground, is witnessed by ' Richardo filio 


The only other le Stranges of this period of whom I have 
found mention are two ladies who held property, recorded in 
the Pipe Roll of Henry II, one of them in Kent, the other in 
Gloucestershire. These are not single entries, but recur year after 
year. In the case of Kent the first entry is as follows : 

GHENT. 3 Hen. II (1157). 

In tends datis. In Eilesford [Aylesford] xxxij libras blancas quas Estrangia 
habet. 1 

' Blancas ' signifying blanched money tried by fire. Nearly 
similar entries follow for each year up to the 17 Hen. II, except 
that the name is sometimes spelt ' Extranea/ and that she is 
usually styled ' Domina,' but in no instance is any Christian name 
given. The latest entry which shows the date of her death is 
as follows : 

GHENT. 17 Hen. II (1171). 

Domine Extranee iiij libras blancas in Ailesford de viij a parte anni dum 
vixit. 2 

An inquest of a century later on William de Dunstan (Ex. 
No. 19, 55 Henry III) says that one Strangea, who sometime 
held the manor of Aylesford, gave a rent therefrom to William in 
frank-marriage with a domicella of her household. 3 

Hasted in his 'History of Kent' makes no mention of any 
le Strange having held property in Aylesford. 

In the Gloucestershire instance the Pipe Roll gives the Christian 
name of the lady, viz. ' Heiliwisa' but she cannot be identical with 
the Kentish tenant, as the entries run on to 23 Hen. II, without 
any mention of her death. 

1 Pipe Roll Soc., Hen. II, p. 77. * Ibid. p. no. 

8 Archceologia Cantiana, vi. 238, 246. 


The earliest entry is : 

In liberationibus constitutis Heiliwise Extranee xxx.s. et v.d. 

Libemtiones constitute being certain fixed payments charged 
on the King's lands, for which the Sheriff was allowed when 
rendering the account of his farm of the county. In the 9 Hen. II 
the amount paid to Heiliwisa was increased to ' xlv.s. et vij.^. 
et ob.,' and it remained at that figure in each year up to the latest 
entry in 24 Hen. II (1178). 

.*" T j/5 E 1 

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JOHN LE STRANGE (II) succeeded his father in his possessions in 
Norfolk and Shropshire in 1178-79, and as there is no mention 
of his lands having been taken into the King's hands, it is evident 
that he was already of full age. In fact, he had been in public 
life for some years, as we have seen in the last chapter J that he 
was associated with his father, c. 1175, as a witness to that grant 
made by William Fitz Alan (II), on his coming of age, to Buildwas 
Abbey, which was attested by no less than five le Stranges. 
For a period of fifty-six years he served under four successive 
sovereigns, through the last eleven years of Henry II, the whole 
of the reigns of Richard I and John, and through eighteen years 
of that of Henry III. The principle which guided him in public 
life appears to have been that of steadfast loyalty and unshaken 
fidelity to the occupant of the throne, totally irrespective of the 
merits of the individual : he was the ideal of a feudal tenant, the 
King's ' man/ and never swerved during that troubled half-cen- 
tury from the homage which he had sworn and the fealty which 
he owed to his lord, whoever he might be. 

Though his duties and necessities as a Lord Marcher kept him 
mostly employed on the Welsh border, he did not neglect his Nor- 
folk possessions; almost his first appearance after his father's 
death was in connection with the manor of Holme-next-the-Sea, 

1 Supra, p. 35. 


which he held under the Earl of Arundel. A dispute as to the 
advowson of the church had arisen between the abbot of Ramsey 
and John le Strange. The chartulary of that abbey, published 
in the Rolls Series, contains several pages of close print, detailing 
an inquisition held at Holme as to the rights of the case. The 
jury found : 

Ecclesia de Hulmo est in donatione Johannis le Straunge. Terrae de Hulmo 
non sunt distinctae per hydas, vel per virgatas, et ideo nescitur quot hydae vel 
quot virgatae sunt ibidem. 1 

The matter was settled by a fine levied at Westminster on 
November 13, 1188, whereby the abbot quitclaimed the advow- 
son to John le Strange, receiving in return a yearly pension of one 
mark from the parson of Holme. 2 The arrangement was con- 
firmed by the Bishop of Norwich (John of Oxford), who laid down 
the law in the following terms : 

Since there has been a controversy between the abbot and convent of Ramsey 
and ' nobilem viram Johannem Extraneum ' about the advowson of Holme, in 
order to make peace we grant that the said abbot and convent shall have a mark 
of silver annually from the cleric instituted into the said church on the presenta- 
tion of the said John, but no other rights in the said church ; and John shall 
present a cleric to the Bishop whenever a vacancy occurs. 3 

John executed a charter granting the pension to the abbot 
as stipulated, 4 and everyone was pleased, except perhaps the poor 
parson, who had to pay his bishop the equivalent of 30 a year 
in money of to-day. The Lilleshall Chartulary 5 shows that 
the bishop instituted William le Brun into the church of Holme 
on the presentation of John le Strange, the patron. William was 
already rector of the church of St. Mary at Hunstanton, which, 
as we have seen above, 6 John le Strange's father, who was perhaps 
the rector's cousin on the mother's side, had granted to the abbey 
of Haughmond. Eyton 7 says that this grant was confirmed by 
the Bishop of Norwich in 1178, and that in another charter he 
allowed the canons of Haughmond to appropriate the rectory; 

1 i. 401. * Ibid. ii. 383. 

8 Chronicon Abbatia Ramesiensis (Rolls Series), p. 313. 

* Chartulary of Ramsey, i. 100. 6 Ff. 55 and 80 ; Eyton, x. 266. 

6 Supra, p. 55. 7 x. 266. 


this transaction explains how it is that the benefice is at the 
present day a vicarage. Not long afterwards John le Strange (II) 
gave the church of Holme to Lilleshall Abbey for the soul's 
health of himself and Amicia his wife, ' Master William le Strange,' 
the grantor's brother, attesting the gift. This charter is printed 
in Dugdale's ' Monasticon.' 1 

Immediately on his accession John (II) confirmed his father's 
grant of the church of Ches war dine to Haughmond, 2 and, not 
long afterwards, confirmed William fitz Walter's charter, granting 
to the same abbey land at Middle, in which the latter had been 
enfeoffed by John's father. 3 Another early deed of his, which I 
have mentioned in dealing with le Strange of Litcham, 4 confirms 
a grant by his father of some land at Webblescowe to Haughmond. 

The Pipe Rolls for 27 Henry II (1180-81), and succeeding 
years, show that the Sheriff of Shropshire had the same allowances 
in respect of Ness and Cheswardine as had been made during the 
time of John (I), viz. 7 los. for the former, and 4 for the latter; 
and, similarly, the Sheriff of Staffordshire continued to be allowed 
8s. 8d. for the pasture at Trentham originally given to John (I). 

The foregoing are the only transactions that I can find asso- 
ciated with the name of John (II) during the closing years of the 
reign of Henry II. That king died at Chinon on the Vienne, near 
Tours, on July 6, 1189, and Richard was crowned on September 3 
following. Richard cared little for the administration of his 
realm of England, his heart was entirely set on military glory ; 
of the ten years of his reign he only passed about ten months in 
England, which gave small opportunity for John le Strange to 
become personally associated with his new sovereign ; he was 
fully occupied with looking after that absent sovereign's interests 
on the Welsh March, and in prosecuting several lawsuits in which 
he became engaged. 

One of these, which was concerned with the manor of Great 
Withyford in Shropshire, was begun in the year 1194, and lasted 
for ten years. The proceedings are recorded in the Pipe Rolls of 
Richard I, ascribed to Trinity term 1194, and the Plea Rolls of the 

1 vi. 263, No. viii. Eyton, x. 30. ' Ibid. p. 72. Supra, p. 47. 


same King. 1 It appears that about the year 1191 Robert Fitz Aer, 
who then held the manor of Withyford under Fitz Alan, was 
indicted for the murder of Richard de Brigida, that he volun- 
tarily placed himself in prison, and that his estate was seized into 
the King's hand. The accusation was subsequently withdrawn, 
but during this temporary forfeiture John le Strange claimed 
Withyford as his by right, and obtained possession of it by writ 
from Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, the Chancellor, who was King 
Richard's Viceroy at that time. After the release of Robert 
Fitz Aer from prison he brought an action against le Strange to 
recover possession of Withyford ; the proceedings dragged on for 
several years. On May 12, 1195, John le Strange, when summoned 
to answer to the suit at Westminster, obtained an adjournment 2 
on the ground that he was employed on the King's service in 
Wales, where, as we have seen above, 3 he was helping his dying 
cousin, Ralph le Strange of Alveley, in the protection of the silver 
mines of Carreghova. Robert Fitz Aer did not live to finish the 
suit, but it was prosecuted by his widow Emma de Say on behalf 
of her son Robert, then under age, and was not settled until 
September 25, 1199 ; a final concord was then arrived at, by 
which John le Strange was recognised as mesne lord of Withyford, 
while actual possession was given to Robert Fitz Aer by the 
service of half a knight's fee under le Strange, instead of under 
Fitz Alan. 

The charges made by the Sheriff of Shropshire in the Pipe Rolls 
of 1194 and 1195 for the repairs and victualling of Carreghova 
Castle are sufficiently interesting to be given in detail : 4 

Pro 20 ligonibus [spades] emptis et missis ad castrum de Karakwain. Et in 
operacione cinguli [surrounding wall] circa predictum castrum. . . . Et in 
liberacione militum et servientium ad custodiam minarie de Karakawain 28 2s. $d. 
per breve Regis et per testimonium Johannis et Radulph Extraneorum et Josephi 
clerici Archiepiscopi. . . . Et Radulpho Extraneo 20 ad perficiendum cingulum 
circa Ruilium [windlass of well] de Karrecovan. . . . Et ipsi Radulfo 7, pro 70 
crennoc' frumenti, et 4 pro 50 baconibus qui liberati fuerunt ei ad custodiam 

1 Pipe Roll Soc. xiv. 3. See also Eyton, i. 201-2 ; ix. 310-12. Salop Assizes, 
5 John, membr. 2, dorso. 

2 Placita incerti tempo ris Regis Johannis, No. 60 [really of Easter term, 6 Ric. I], 

3 Supra,p. 41. * Eyton, x. 357. 


castri de Karrecovan. . . . Et Johanni Extraneo 6 marcas ad faciendum 
puteum in predicto castello cum muro et Ruilio. 

Another entry on the Plea Roll of the same year, 1194, gives 
particulars of a second lawsuit in which John le Strange was 
involved, concerning the land at Barnham in Suffolk, which had 
come to him from his ancestor, Hugh de Plaiz ; details as to this 
have already been given. 1 

A third lawsuit in which John le Strange was engaged was 
brought to a close by a Fine in the year HQ5. 2 It seems that 
Robert Mortimer of Attleborough had some claim to the whole 
Norfolk feoffment of le Strange under the Earl of Arundel ; this 
consisted, as we have seen in Chapter I, of five knights' fees in 
Hunstanton, Ringstead, Tottington, and Snitterton. Mortimer 
ultimately released the whole to le Strange by Fine, in considera- 
tion of which the latter gave all his lands in Tottington to Mortimer, 
to be held under him by nineteen-twentieths of a knight's fee. 
The church of St. Andrew at Tottington was, however, excepted 
out of this grant, and, with the assent of Mortimer, was given 
by John le Strange to the Priory of St. Mary at Campesse in 
Suffolk : it was appropriated to that house in 1302, the rectory 
being valued at thirty marks, and the vicarage at six. In Pope 
Nicholas's ' Taxation of 1291,' Tottington is rated at 20. A further 
exception was made of lands belonging to several tenants in 
Fransham, one of whom was Hugh, son of Hugh le Strange ; 
for this grant of land in Tottington, Robert Mortimer paid to 
John le Strange one hundred pounds of silver. 

Eyton quotes numerous Shropshire charters of this period, 
either executed or witnessed by John le Strange (II). In the first 
charter to Oswestry, granted by William fitz Alan (II) about 1190, 
the first witnesses are 'Johanne Extraneo et Hamone fratre suo ' ; 3 
John also attested at about the same date fitz Alan's grant of 
the advowson of the church of St. Oswald of Album Monasterium 
(Oswestry) to Shrewsbury Abbey. 4 At Michaelmas 1195 we find 
John le Strange acting as pledge to Warin de Burwardsley in a 

1 Supra, p. 14. * P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 7 Ric. I, Case 153, File i, No. 36. 

8 Harl. MSS. 1981, p. 25. 

Eyton, x. 335, and Salop Chartulary, No. 301 ; and Harl. MSS. 1981, p. 24. 


Fine at Rowton. 1 Eyton makes a point of there having been 
some connection between the two families, because when some 
years later John le Strange made a grant in Ches war dine to Haugh- 
mond Abbey, Warin de Burward' was a witness. 2 The name of 
John le Strange (II), like that of his father, frequently appears in 
charters in connection with that of his suzerain fitz Alan, especi- 
ally in those relating to their favourite abbey. At this period 
le Strange certainly passed most of his time on the Welsh March : 
there is nothing to lead us to suppose that he accompanied King 
Richard either to the Crusade in 1190, or to the French wars in 
1194-9. We find him 3 effecting a composition with Hugh, 
abbot of Shrewsbury, which Eyton says 4 must have passed in the 
County Court at Salop before June 1195 ; and we have seen that 
he was on the King's service at Carreghova in that year. 

I have already alluded 5 to the transactions with the three 
heiresses of Guy le Strange of Alveley, by which Knockin came 
into the possession of the elder branch of the family. Ralph le 
Strange had died in 1195, but it was not until three years later 
that the three Fines were completed between his sisters and their 
cousin, John of Ness and Cheswardine, who thus became 'of 
Knockin ' also. That fief grew at once into a place of considerable 
importance ; within a year or two of coming into possession of it, 
John styled himself lord of Knockin, as may be seen from a deed 
in the Haughmond Chartulary, 6 whereby 'Johannes Extraneus 
dominus de Knockin' grants to that abbey the new chapel of 
Knockin with free access thereto. 

Scarcely one stone remains upon another to show what Knockin 
once was ; and it is somewhat difficult in the present day to under- 
stand the strategic value and importance of this place, as it stands 
upon almost level ground, some 220 feet above the sea, and is 
even commanded by neighbouring hillocks within easy bow-shot. 
It lies a little to the right of the modern road from Shrewsbury 
to Oswestry, about six miles south-east by south of the latter 
town ; it was therefore a few miles nearer the Welsh hills than 

1 Eyton, ii. 8. Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 43. 

Salop Chartulary, No. 16. Eyton, i. 87 ; ii. 68. 

8 Supra, p. 42. Eyton, x. 369. 

Plate VI. 

op FEET 

100 ROo 3OO 


Plan of KNOCKIN. 

To face page 65. 


Ness was, and formed, consequently, the most advanced outpost 
from the Shropshire side in that part of the debatable land, 
for which reason perhaps it was adopted as the caput baronie of 
the le Stranges. All that now remains of the castle is an oblong 
mound or hillock about twenty-four feet high, close to the road 
and overgrown with trees ; there is scarcely a sign of masonry ; 
merely a few hewn stones, part of the curtain wall on the south- 
east side of the mound, mark the site where once the keep stood ; 
the steepest side appears to have been towards the north, where 
there is a fosse, 5 feet in depth. The entrenchments are not 
in their original perfection, but the scarp of the original defences 
can still (1906) be traced. The entrance was probably on the 
eastern side, as a semicircular fore-court, or barbican, surrounded 
by an escarpment, lies to the east ; in this the modern rectory 
with its garden stands. A small brook, tributary of the Severn, 
running southwards divides into two branches higher up, making 
a sort of island, in which the castle stood, and this no doubt greatly 
strengthened the defences. The annexed plan is enlarged from 
that given on a minute scale in the ' Victoria History of Shrop- 
shire,' l which appears to be copied, without acknowledgment, from 
a careful survey of all the earthworks of Shropshire, drawn to 
scale by Mr. E. A. Downman, whose plans and descriptions have 
lately been deposited in the British Museum. 2 The name, Knockin, 
accurately describes the situation ; the Welsh word cnwc denotes 
a hillock, and the suffix is probably a diminutive ; the local pro- 
nunciation is Knuckin. The word Knock, as part of a place- 
name, is extremely common in Ireland, but somewhat rare in 
England ; it appears in Cannock in Staffordshire, and again in 
our own neighbourhood at Lynn, where ' Guanock ' is the old 
name of the little hill on which stands the Chapel of Our Lady of 
the Red Mount. 

The Pipe Rolls of the period show that Knockin was considered 
to be a strong military position, as, in mentioning the resignation 
thereof made by the three co-heiresses of Alveley, they describe it 
as comprehending ' all the land which was before Ralph le Strange's, 
together with the fortress (municione) which is called Cnukin.' s 

1 i. 396. Add. MSS. 37678. * Rot. Pip. 8, 9, 10, Ric. I. 


In 1197, while Richard was engaged in Normandy in building 
his castle of Chateau Gaillard at Les Audelys on the Seine, John 
le Strange was among the most active of the Marcher barons. 
Eyton says : * 

He had, in fact, the custody of Pole Castle (now Powis Castle) on behalf of the 
Crown. From the Shropshire Pipe Roll of 1 that year it appears that Archbishop 
Hubert had, about Midsummer, made to John le Strange a grant of ten librates of 
land in Ford ; but the grant took no effect, and the Sheriff, in lieu of the first 
quarter's income, pays 505. in money to the said John. 

In the same year we find John and Ralph his brother attest- 
ing a charter of Robert Corbet of Caus, granting Wentnor Mill to 
the monastery of Buildwas. 2 

I have said that, owing to the scanty time that King Richard 
passed in England, John le Strange had few opportunities of 
personal association with him. Richard was only in his own king- 
dom for two, or possibly three short visits ; once in 1189, when 
he came over to take possession and to be crowned at Westminster ; 
for a second visit in January 1190, when he was making prepara- 
tions to start on the third Crusade, the evidence is doubtful ; 
the last one took place in 1194, after his escape from imprisonment 
in Germany, on which occasion it was that Philip of France wrote 
to Richard's brother John, ' Take heed to yourself, the devil is broken 
loose. 9 I have no evidence that John le Strange was present at 
the Coronation in 1190, but he was one of the witnesses to a 
charter, cited by Eyton, 8 and purporting to have been expedited 
by the King at Westminster on January 24, 1190 ; if it can be 
proved that this charter was issued personally by Richard it is 
strong evidence for a not generally recognised visit to England, 
but it is hard to find room for it, as he met Philip in France on 
January 13 at Gue St. Remi, and in February summoned his 
mother and ministers to meet him in Normandy ; Professor Tout 
considers that the point needs investigation, as being novel and 
important. Four years later Richard landed at Sandwich, after 
the German princes had compelled the Emperor to release him 
from captivity, and John le Strange must have hastened from the 
Welsh border to meet his sovereign. On April 17, 1194, Richard 

1 vii. 182. 2 Ibid. vii. 17. vii. 12. 


was crowned a second time at Winchester, and then proceeded 
to Portsmouth, whence he embarked for Normandy ; while at 
Portsmouth he confirmed by charter x some recent grants to 
Haughmond Abbey, and this confirmation is attested by seven 
lay witnesses, of whom John le Strange was one. Richard never 
returned to England ; he died on April 6, 1199, having been 
mortally wounded by an arrow while engaged in suppressing a 
petty rebellion in the Limousin. 

At the time of the accession of King John, John le Strange (II) 
was in the prime of life, and must have been about forty years of 
age : he speedily became one of the new King's most trusted 
servants. The Pipe Rolls show that he continued to hold Ness 
and Cheswardine in capite, as well as the pasture in Staffordshire 
granted to his father. 2 Cheswardine, it will be remembered, was 
held as half a knight's fee. Le Strange's first transaction with 
King John related to sporting rights ; in April, 1200, he paid a 
fine of 20 marks in order that his wood at Chersworth might be 
had out of regard, that it might not be afforested, and that no 
one might take anything therefrom without licence from him ; 8 
on April 16 the King granted to him and his heirs by charter 
that his wood of Cheswardine called Suthle should be quit of 
all suits of forest, and of all forestage and regard thereof, .and 
should not be meddled with by the royal foresters. 4 Apparently 
the King exacted a further sum of 10 out of John le Strange 
for these privileges, as the Pipe Roll for Shropshire for 1202 
contains the following entry : 

De oblatis. Johannes Extraneus reddit compotum de x libris pro habendo 
bosco suo de Chessewardi. 5 

It appears that the church of Cheswardine had been given 
to Haughmond by perpetual concession of John le Strange.* In 
1200 he became security for the fine of 60 marks which, as we 
shall see later, his younger brother Hamon made with the King 
for the manor of Wrockwardine. 7 

1 Eyton, vii. 293. Rot. Cancell. Magn. Rot. Pipes, 3 John, pp. 46, 121. 

8 Rot. de Obi. et Fin., temp. Reg. Johannis, p. 59. 

4 Rot. Chart., 1199-1216 (fo. 1837), p. 456. * Rot. Cane. Pip., 3 John, p. 126. 

9 Harl. MSS. 3868, fo. 9. 7 Rot. de Oblatis, temp. R. Joh., p. 60. 

F 2 


One of the manors which had been conferred upon John le 
Strange (I) by fitz Alan was Ruyton, eight miles south-east of 
Oswestry known as the manor of the eleven towns, from the eleven 
townships into which it was formerly divided. Le Strange had 
built a castle here, which was captured by the Welsh and de- 
stroyed during the war between Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powis 
and Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales. The former had succeeded 
to the sovereignty of Powis, or mid-Wales, on the death of 
his father, Owen Cyveilioc, in 1197. Llewelyn, who had married 
King John's illegitimate daughter Joan, called a council of the 
Welsh chief tains in 1201 to receive their homage, but Gwenwyn- 
wyn refused to attend. Llewelyn consequently invaded his terri- 
tories and eventually obliged him to submit. 

The ' Gesta Fulconis Filii Warini ' * contain a narrative of 
some curious events relating to this period, a mixture, of course, 
of truth and fable, which gives a lifelike picture of the times, 
but as it has been already printed it is too long to quote. The 
story relates that John le Strange, lord of Knockin and Ruyton, 
who was always on the King's side, did much damage to the 
people of the Prince [of Wales]. The Prince therefore caused 
Ruyton to be demolished by Fulk Fitz Warin, and imprisoned 
John's men ; John complained to the King, who sent Sir Henry 
de Audley with 10,000 knights to help John to avenge himself. 
A fight ensued in the neighbourhood of Middle, in which le Strange 
was struck in the face and marked for life by Fulk's lance. Fulk 
had but 700 knights against the 10,000 on the other side, and 
therefore could not win the day. He retired to Oswestry, where 
he made great lamentation on account of Sir Audulph de Bracy, 
one of his knights who had been captured and imprisoned by the 
King, who was at Shrewsbury. A certain John de Rampaigne, 
who had ' great skill with tambour, harp, viol, cithern and jugglery,' 
undertook to free de Bracy. He disguised himself as a black 
minstrel, rode to Shrewsbury, and obtained access to the King's 
presence, averring that he had come from Ethiopia on purpose 
to see the most renowned prince in Christendom. He was welcomed 

1 Rolls Series, vol. Ixvi. 355-8. See also History of Fulk Fitzwanne, ed. by Thos. 
Wright, pp. 104-112. 


by the King, and made much minstrelsy during the day. After 
the King had retired for the night, Sir Henry de Audley ordered 
de Bracy, whom the King intended to slay on the morrow, to be 
fetched, so that he might have a good night of it before his death. 
They conversed and made music, and de Rampaigne began a song 
which Sir Audulph used to sing, which enabled the latter to re- 
cognise the disguised minstrel. More wine was called for, and de 
Rampaigne served the cup, into which he threw a powder that 
caused them all to fall asleep. The minstrel and de Bracy then 
knotted the towels and sheets which were in the chamber and 
escaped through a window overlooking the Severn, and got safely 
to Fulk Fitz Warin at Oswestry. 

The historical facts that may be gathered from the above 
are : (i) that Ruyton Castle was destroyed by the Welsh during 
the war of 1202, and this perhaps led to the building of Knockin 
Castle ; and (2) that John le Strange was on the King's side and 
high in favour with him. The sequence of events is certainly 
not historical ; King John was not at Shrewsbury soon after 
the capture of Ruyton by the Welsh, for he was absent in Nor- 
mandy between May 1201 and December 1203. The numbers 
of knights said to have been engaged are of course impossible, 
but one would like to believe that the account of John le Strange 
having been wounded in the face and marked for life in some 
border fight had some foundation in fact. Mr. Lloyd-Kenyon, 
in his account of the borough of Ruyton, says : * 

There is nothing to show that the le Stranges who held the manor of Ruyton 
the whole of the 13th century ever rebuilt the castle, and it is not mentioned in 
the Fine of the manor levied in 1299 ; but the le Stranges sold the manor to their 
suzerain, Edmund Earl of Arundel, soon after his accession to the title in 1301, 
and if the castle was then in ruins he must have rebuilt it, for it was certainly 
in existence in 1313, when the service of half the manor of Great Withyford was 
returnable at Ruyton Castle. 

John le Strange seems to have made a deer-park at Ruyton, 
for about the year 1195 he effected an agreement with the abbot 
of Shrewsbury for adding a corner of the abbot's wood of Birch 
' extending from the place where the le Strange Park fence came 

1 Trans. Shrop. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., iii. (2nd Series), pp. 237-8. 


down to the water of Peverec, to the end of his meadow on the 
side of Plettebrug mill ' ; for this he was to pay the abbot a rent 
of one doe yearly. 1 A few years later he gave Ruyton mill to 
Haughmond Abbey, ignoring the previous grant of the same by 
his father. Another eleemosynary gift of one of his predecessors 
confirmed by him was that made by his uncle Hamo of land in 
Betton-Strange to Haughmond. 2 John was present at Salop 
Assizes in 1203, as the Assize Roll of 5 John shows that he became 
surety for certain fines incurred by Alan de Petraponte. 3 

The Pipe Roll of 1203 shows that John le Strange fined 
60 marks in that year to have the custody of the manor of Wrock- 
wardine, which had been held for a short time by his younger 
brother Hamo ; this arrangement was nominally continued on 
the Sheriff's accounts for many years, but, practically, John 
was year after year excused payment of the rent as a reward 
for his services : Wrockwardine was, however, only held by 
him subject to the King's pleasure. 4 We shall see later on that 
this grant was enlarged into a freehold. 

It must have been about this time (1204-10) that Reyner, 
Bishop of St. Asaph, bought from John le Strange the whole 
township of Willcot, a member of Ness, at the enormous price 
of 70 marks, in order that he might bestow it upon the hospital 
which he was founding and richly endowing at Oswestry. The 
grantor stipulated that, after Bishop Reyner's death, the mill 
and vivary of Willcot should revert freely to the grantor or his 
heirs, and that a rent of one bezant, or two shillings, should be 
paid to him. Not long afterwards John le Strange confirmed 
an arrangement with the canons of Haughmond that they should 
have the hospital estate at Willcot on condition of their providing 
and maintaining a chantry within the walls of the hospital. 5 It 
was also about this period, and after he had acquired Knockin 
from his cousins, the heirs of Guy, that, by his second grant to 
Haughmond, he gave to that abbey one-fourth part of his vill of 

1 Eyton, x. 113. * Harl. MSS. 446; Quatern. xi. fo. 4. 8 Eyton, i. 213. 

4 Eyton, ix. 21 ; Cal. Rot. Chart, and Inq., 5 John, p. 196 ; Rot. de Liberate, 5 John, 
p. 101. 

Eyton, x. 285 ; Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 1616, tit. Oswaldestre. 


Cheswardine, and a right of common throughout his demesnes 
there ; also the whole land of Norslepe, with the upper vivary 
near his castle of Knockin. 

King John, after the murder of Arthur of Brittany, and his 
marriage with Isabella of Angouleme, was condemned by Philip 
Augustus to forfeit his French dominions. Philip promptly in- 
vaded them, and annexed to the French Crown not only the 
Duchy of Normandy, but also Maine, Touraine, and Anjou ; 
John made no attempt to retain or recover them, but retired to 
England in December 1203. The Patent Rolls show that when 
the King was at Worcester, on March 16, 1204, he sent a safe 
conduct by the Bishops of Bangor and St. Asaph, William fitz 
Alan, John le Strange, and others to Llewelyn Prince of North 
Wales for going and coming to confer with us.' 1 In the follow- 
ing year John le Strange is mentioned in the Roll of 6 John for 
Leicestershire as having removed from the lands of Roger de 
la Zouche at Ashby 16 cattle, 4 cows, and 9 hogs, valued at 
4 6s. 2 ; this foray was made in the interests of the King's vengeance 
on Roger de la Zouche, who had renounced his allegiance after 
the murder of Arthur. A charter of John le Strange's of this 
period to Haughmond Abbey acquits and frees the abbot's land 
of Balderston of Guards dovemnt (de satellitis doverantibus) 
for ever ; that is, that the land should be free from any contri- 
bution for the maintenance of such officers. Eyton thinks that 
they were a kind of manorial police. 3 They are mentioned again 
in another charter of John's of about the same date, whereby he 
allows that the land of Robert Hert, of Teddesmere, shall be quit 
of Guards doverant for ever. 4 John le Strange apparently held 
some land in Leicestershire, as, in the seventh year of John, we 
find that Robert Fitz Norman of Ipswich sued a writ of mort 
tfancester for three parts of a knight's fee in Shanketon (Shang- 
ton, near Leicester) against ' Johannem Extraneum qui feodum 
illud tenet.' 5 

The period of John's reign from 1205 to 1213 was mainly 
occupied by his quarrel with the Pope concerning the appoint- 

1 Rot. Lit. Pat., 1201-16, fo. 1835," p. 39. Rot. Norm, in Turr. Lond. i. 139- 

3 Eyton, x. 73. Ibid. xi. 3. Rot. de Oblatis et Finibus, p. "360- 


ment of Stephen Langton to the see of Canterbury. The King, 
who had alienated the affection of nearly all his subjects, was ulti- 
mately forced to acknowledge the papal pretensions, and, in order 
to obtain removal of the interdict, he even surrendered his crown 
to the Pope, and agreed to hold it in fee by an annual payment 
of one thousand marks. During these disgraceful years the name 
of John le Strange seldom appears, but it is evident that he did 
not take sides with most of the barons against his sovereign. 
The King endeavoured to neutralise the effect of the interdict 
by expeditions against the rebels in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. 
On October 8, 1208, a treaty with the Welsh was negotiated at 
Shrewsbury, whereby King John, on receipt of twenty hostages, 
enlarged Gwenwynwyn, then his prisoner, John le Strange being 
one of the witnesses to the bargain. 1 Three years later there was 
again war on the Marches ; John invaded Wales in 1211, pene- 
trated to Snowdon, and forced Llewelyn to submit and give 
hostages ; on a fresh outbreak next year John had all these 
hostages hung, but was deterred from proceeding further, as his 
own daughter, Joan, wife of Llewelyn, conveyed information to 
him that the barons intended to betray him to the enemy. Eyton a 
gives numerous instances of the trust reposed in le Strange by the 
King. On May 25, 1212, the constable of Oswestry was ordered 
to send by le Strange's hand to the King the moneys received 
from the sale of the King's stores there. 8 On July 6, the King 
ordered John not to proceed with the sale, but to replace all 
that had been already sold, and to hold them with other stores 
ready to be sent anywhither as he might be directed. 4 There are 
further orders in August and September of the same nature. It 
appears from the Close Rolls that John le Strange had received 
32 for the sales which he had already made at Oswestry, and a 
further sum of 28 from the burgesses of Shrewsbury for some 
stores which they had disposed of there. Le Strange employed 
his eldest son John, who now appears for the first time in public 
life, to convey the sum of 60 to the King, who was then in Not- 
tinghamshire ; John the younger executed the mission, and the 

1 Eyton, vii. 244 ; Rymer, i. 101. * Ibid. x. 268-9. 

Rot. Lit. Claus. i. p. 1176. Rot. Lit. Claus. i. p. 1196- 



receipt shows that he paid in the whole sum, representing some 
2500 at the present day, to the King in his chamber at Kings- 
haugh on August 24, I2I2. 1 

The castle of Carreghova, built mainly for the protection of 
the silver-mines of Richard I, had been lost to, and won back from, 
the Welsh more than once ; on June 10, 1213, John le Strange 
was appointed by patent castellan thereof, but this is the last 
mention of it that Eyton can find ; * the mines were abandoned 
as unprofitable, and the castle was probably dismantled or de- 
stroyed during the Welsh wars of Henry III. 

On September 24, 1213, Thomas de Erdington was ordered to 
let William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, have four pigs, which John 
le Strange had fed for his own use (ad opus suum)* The Close 
Roll of the next year contains a list of those who had to pay 
scutage for the King's invasion of France in his fruitless attempt 
to recover his lost territories ; Johnle Strange stands excused ' quia 
filium suum habuit in Pictavia.' * On August 18, 1214, the King 
wrote from Angouleme to Llewelyn, Gwenwynwyn, and other 
Welshmen, with whom a truce had been made, to say that he was 
sending to them John le Strange and Robert Corbet, that they 
might swear for the King's faithful observance of the truce ; 6 
evidently in the Middle Ages the royal word by itself was not 
accepted as being worth much. 

The Rolls contain two curious entries with regard to an un- 
named niece of John le Strange. On September i, 1214, the 
King wrote from Parthenay, in Poitou, to Peter de Maulay : 

Mittimus etiam ad vos nepotem Johannis Extranei que fuit cum domina 
Regina, mandantes quod earn ponatis cum matre vestra, et equum et harnesium 
ejus. Et equum et harnesium predicte Fillote nobis remittatis per Gilebertum 
de Saues. 6 

The Pipe Roll 7 shows that Hugh fitz Robert, Chief Forester 
of Salop, had been excused a fine of 30 marks because, at the 
request of the King, he had taken to wife the niece of John le 

1 Rot. Lit. Claus. i. pp. 134, 184, 203. 

* Eyton, x. 359 ; Rot. Litt. Pat., 1201-16, i. Pt. I, 1206. 

3 Rot. Lit. Pat. i. Pt. I, 100. Rot. Lit. Clans., 1204-1224, i. 201. 

6 Rot. Lit. Pat., 1201-1216, i. Pt. I, 1206. Rot. Lit. Clans, i. pp. 171, 178- 

" 1 6 John, Salop. 


Strange. Eyton suggests x that she was probably a natural 
daughter or a discarded mistress of that licentious monarch : it 
certainly looks as if there were some special reason for that hurried 
journey from Poitou. 

We now come to the important year 1215, when the barons 
of England extorted the great charter of their liberties from the 
vacillating fears of King John. The name of John le Strange 
does not appear among those of the other barons who were forced 
into antagonism with their sovereign, and obliged him to acknow- 
ledge their rights ; even in this last extremity le Strange remained 
faithful and loyal to his liege lord. About Easter in that year 
the King had written to Thomas de Erdington, Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire, to inquire what knights of that county had borne arms 
against the Crown during the late disturbances. The Sheriff 
could only find four who had remained true to their allegiance. 
His answer ran in these significant words : 

Omnes milites et alii de eodem comitatu per aliquod tempus contra vos in hac 
guerra . . . exceptis Hugone de Mortuomari, Waltero de Lacy, Waltero de 
Clifford, et Johanne Extraneo qui vobiscum sunt et fuerunt in guerri ista. 

King John broke every promise contained in Magna Charta 
as soon as it was written, and the last year of his life was occu- 
pied by rapid marches throughout the whole kingdom, ravaging 
and destroying, with the help of foreign mercenaries, every town 
and castle that he could reach. During July and August of 1216 
the western provinces suffered from the storm of his fury. On 
July 27 he destroyed the castle of Hay, and that of Radnor on 
August 2 ; he passed through Shrewsbury to Oswestry, where he 
remained from August 6 to 10, and reduced the town to ashes ; 
on the nth he was back at Shrewsbury, and finally quitted Shrop- 
shire on the i6th. On July 25 the King had made a grant to John 
le Strange of the manor of Kidderminster, to be held during 
pleasure ; 2 on September 5 the King, then at Oxford, sent a 
writ to the earls, barons, and knights of Stafford and Salop to 
inform them that he had appointed John le Strange to the custody 
of those counties as sheriff. 3 This sheriffdom he did not hold 

1 viii. 267. * Rot. Clans, i. 278. 

Rot. Lit. Pat., 1201-1216, i. Pt. I, 1966. 


long, if indeed the exigencies of the time permitted him to exercise 
the duties at all ; for the Earl of Chester, who himself had only 
been appointed to it in the preceding month, soon resumed it. 

Happily for the realm which he had misgoverned King John 
died at Newark on October 19, 1216, of an illness aggravated by 
the loss of his treasure and regalia in the estuary of the Wash, and 
was succeeded by his son Henry, a boy of ten. John le Strange 
was one of the barons present at the council held at Bristol on 
November n, 1216, to meet the new King and his guardians, on 
which occasion Magna Charta was confirmed, with certain altera- 
tions, giving it a somewhat less popular character. 

The earliest document issued in the name of the new King to 
John le Strange was a writ of January 3, 1217, to him and his 
bailiffs of Shrewsbury, ordering them not to interfere with the 
right of collation to prebends in the church of St. Mary at Shrews- 
bury, which had been granted by King John to the Archbishop 
of Dublin. 1 That prelate was Henry de London, who had been 
Dean of St. Mary's, Salop, since 1203, and had been allowed to 
hold that dignity with his archbishopric. 

In May 1215 Fulk de Oiry, who held quarter of a knight's 
fee under John le Strange at Ercall, joined the short-lived dis- 
affection of the Earl of Albemarle, so le Strange took advantage 
of his tenant's rebellion to seize his lands ; but on March 5, 1216, 
Fulk gave hostages and fined 500 marks for the King's favour, 
and, as a result, John le Strange was ordered on January 5, 1217, 
to restore Ercall to Fulk de Oiry. 2 

John le Strange, though he had not sided with the barons 
against King John, must have steered his course in those troublous 
waters with considerable judgment, for he not only escaped their 
enmity, but even received marks of favour from the leaders of 
the party who ruled the counsels and spoke in the name of the 
young King. The Close Rolls show that on October 20, 1217, he 
had letters of exemption from scutage in the counties of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Shropshire ; 3 and that on March 16, 1218, the King 

1 Pat. Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1216-1225, p. 18 ; Cal. of Doc. rel. to Ireland, Hen. III. 
p. 112, No. 734. 

1 Rot. Lit. Claus., 1204-1224, i. 2950. Rot. Lit. Claus. i. 3716. 


sent a mandate from Worcester to the Sheriff of Shropshire and 
Stafford directing him to give an ' aid ' from those counties to John 
le Strange to enable him to fortify his castle of ' Cnukin.' l Henry 
III was then at Worcester for the dedication of the cathedral. 
On March 25 a mandate was issued to Hugh de Mortimer, Henry 
de Aldithelegh (Audley), and John le Strange, to give safe conduct, 
both in going and returning, to the magnates of North Wales, 
who were coming to Worcester to do homage to the King. 2 There 
was apparently some hitch about the matter, probably due to the 
death of Hugh de Mortimer, who was killed at a tournament at 
Worcester, for another Patent was issued on April 24 to Walter 
de Lacy, Henry de Aldithelegh, John Fitz Alan, and John le 
Strange, ordering that two at least of them should personally 
conduct all those Welshmen, sent by ' Lewelinus princeps Nor- 
wallicz ' to Worcester to do homage to the King on Ascension Day 
(May 24) . 3 The dedication of the cathedral took place on June 
7, and the Annales Prior atus de Wigornid show that among the 
barons present with King Henry was John le Strange, ' et aliorum 
nobilium multitudine infinitd.' 4 During the same year John had 
got into some quarrel and had apparently resorted to force, for 
on May 25 a royal writ to the justices of the King's Bench informs 
them that the King has given leave to W. de Huntingefelde, Henry 
Luvet, and John le Strange to make agreement concerning an 
appeal against John for breach of the peace. 5 

The Patent Rolls for 1219 contain an entry, dated July 22, 
by which 'Johannes Extraneus junior' with three others is ordered 
to hold an Inquisition of the Forests within Shropshire at Shrews- 
bury, for the purpose of inquiring what essarts i.e. land brought 
into cultivation by grubbing up roots have been made without 
warrant since the King's coronation. 6 Perhaps in connection 
with this duty we may regard an entry in the Close Rolls for the 
next year, where John le Strange and Thomas de Cotentin are 
informed that the King has granted to the citizens of Shrewsbury 
as many oaks from the forest near that town as are required ' ad 

1 Rot. Lit. Claus. i. 3356. * Pat. Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1216-1225, p. 142. 

3 Annales Monastici, iv. 409. * Ibid. 

'' Rot. Claus. i. 3626. Pat. Rolls, 1216-1225, p. 213. 


duos rogos 1 faciendos in auxilium mile Salopie claudende ' ; they 
are ordered to report how many are taken, and the King was 
careful to send a writ in like terms to the Sheriff of the county.* 
In connection also with this may probably be read a writ of July I, 
1220, whereby the abbot of Shrewsbury and John le Strange 
were directed to continue in office the ' xij servientes qui consti- 
tuti fuerint ad custodiendas partes Salopesbiry.' 8 To the same 
period belongs an undated charter preserved among the records 
of the town of Shrewsbury, 4 by which Thomas son of Robert 
Corbet sold to John le Strange the elder, and the whole community 
of the borough, all the land and buildings therein which formerly 
belonged to Robert Bishop of Bangor : it has a broken seal, showing 
the Corbet raven. 

During this period, 1219-34, it becomes increasingly difficult 
to distinguish between the two John le Stranges, father and son ; 
in many instances the latter is obviously intended, although the 
designation junior is not appended to his name. 

To the year 1220 Eyton attributes a deed whereby : 

John Extraneus, lord of Knockin, for the soul's health of himself and King 
John, concedes to the Priory of Wombridge all the right he had by reason of his 
manor of Wrockwardine, in that land, wood, and pasture which the illustrious 
King Henry (II) did concede to the Priory. 

At this date John was only fermor of Wrockwardine, hence his 
use of the qualifying words, ' all the right he had/ 5 

A Longnor deed, assigned by Eyton to the year 1221, 6 is 
witnessed by three le Stranges : ' Domino Johanne, Domino 
Johanne filio suo, et Hamundo Extraneo/ Hamon was the second 
son of John, of whom later. In September of this year the King 
marched into Wales, raised the siege of Builth, and built a new 
castle at Montgomery. 

A writ, under date May n, 1223, from the King to the Treasurer, 
orders the latter to pay out of the Treasury to John le Strange 
20 marks as a gift towards the expenses of fortifying his castle 

1 Piles of wood. * Rot. Lit. Claus. i. 417-418. 

8 Pat. Rolls, 1216-1225, p. 240. 

* Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Corp. of Shrewsbury and Coventry, p. 69. 

8 Chartulary, tit. Lega Prioris, No. 9 ; Eyton, x. 23. Eyton, vi. 53. 


of ' Cnokin.' 1 This gift, and the auxilium granted five years 
previously, show the importance attached to Knockin as a frontier 
fortress against North Wales. During the year 1224 Gwenwynwyn 
had been co-operating with the le Stranges ; on May 21 the Barons 
of the Exchequer gave an account of certain moneys paid to these 
barons ' in aid for their sustenance in our service.' * 

Early in 1225 Magna Charta and the Charter of the Forests 
were again confirmed by Henry, who was now about nineteen 
years of age, and a fifteenth of all movables in the kingdom was 
granted to him to enable him to recover the English possessions 
in France. The money collected for this tax in Stafford and Salop 
was ordered to be sent to Gloucester under conduct of the Sheriff 
and six others, the last named being John le Strange, junior. 3 On 
January 7 of that year the King gave a grant to John le Strange, 
empowering him to have a market on Friday in each week at his 
manor of Hunstanton, and a mandate was issued to the Sheriff 
of Norfolk to carry this into effect : * more substantial recognition 
of his services was made to him during the course of the next few 

On August 27 Llewelyn met King Henry at Shrewsbury to 
satisfy certain Lords Marcher in respect of lands of theirs which 
he had seized, and le Strange was one of the barons appointed to 
confer with Llewelyn and to report ; he was specially charged 
to be present, and to send an account in writing to the King of 
what was determined on. 5 At Christmas he was further named 
as one of the arbitrators to settle the variances which had arisen 
between William Pandulf and Madog ap Griffith. 6 

We have seen 7 that since 1203 John le Strange had held the 
farm of the manor of Wrockwardine during the King's pleasure, and 
that a yearly rent of 12 was due for it. This rent was seldom paid, 
and was often remitted in consideration of the expenses to which 
John was often put in providing for the King's service. He was 
excused entirely in 1204 and 1205 ; in 1209 he owed 48 for four 
years' arrears, of which he was excused one half. The accounts 

1 Rot. Lit. Claus. i.~545a. * Rot. Lit. Claus. i. 6020. 

Ibid. ii. 746. * Ibid. ii. lift. 8 Ibid. ii. 154-5. 

Ibid. ii. 206. 7 Supra, p. 70. 


for the next few years are not regularly kept, and for 1215-1217 
there are no entries at all. At Michaelmas, 1226, his arrears 
amounted to 163, besides 12 for the current year's farm. 1 The 
subjoined translation from the Close Rolls shows that not only 
did the King forgive him the whole debt, equivalent to 7,875 
to-day, but also bestowed the manor on him rent free during 
pleasure : 

29 August 1226. SALOP. 

The King to his Barons of the Exchequer. Know ye that, on account of the 
faithful service which John le Strange, senior, did to King John our father in his 
time, and to us in our time, and on account of the great expenses which at the 
aforesaid times he had, and for the losses suffered by him in the service of our 
father and ourselves, we have pardoned to the said John the debt which was 
demanded of him by our Exchequer for the farm of the vill of Wrockwardine from 
the time of our father, when that vill was in the hands of John himself from his 
bailiwick, and afterwards from our time. We also grant to him that he shall have 
the said vill with its appurtenances to sustain him in our service during our plea- 
sure. And therefore we command you to cause the said John to be acquitted of 
the said debt, and that you should allow him to hold the said vill as aforesaid. 2 

This grant, to be held during pleasure, was enlarged two 
years later into a grant for life, by a Close Writ dated May 17, 
1228.* It is also entered on the Patent Rolls of the same date, 
wherein the grant is stated to be made ' pro bono et fideli servicio 
quod dilectus et fidelis noster Johannes le Estrange fecit domino 
J. regi, patri nostro et nobis.' 4 A grant for life however, was, as 
Eyton points out, 5 of small value to John le Strange, who was 
then upwards of seventy years of age ; but, three years later, the 
King further enlarged the gift to his faithful old servant : the 
Charter Rolls of May 25, 1231, contain a grant to ' John le Estraunge ' 
the younger and his heirs of the manor of Wrockwardine to hold 
by rendering yearly the farm of 8 by his own hand at the 
Exchequer, quit of all tallages. 6 It is clear from these documents 
that the grant of the manor of Wrockwardine was at first to 
be held only during pleasure, that it was subsequently enlarged 
to one for life, and, finally, was granted to John junior and his 

1 Eyton, ix. 21. * Rot. Lit. Claus., ii. 1350. 

' C.Cl.R., 1227-1231, p. 50. * C.P.R., 1225-1232, p. 189. 

Eyton, ix. 22. C.Ch.R., 1226-1257, * J 3 2> 


heirs, to be held during the lifetime of his father in fee, by which 
arrangement he escaped the necessity of paying relief for the 
manor on his father's death. 

On August 28, 1228, John le Strange and three others were 
. appointed justiciaries to hold an assize at Shrewsbury concerning 
a suit between Adam de Bessin and Ralph de la Lawe about the 
exaltatione cujusdam stagni. The Chartulary of Lilleshall Abbey 
contains a transcript of a deed, the original of which is at Trent- 
ham, which Eyton * assigns to about this date ; it is a confirma- 
tion by John le Strange, junior, of a grant to the canons of that 
place, made by his father, of a virgate of land in Webscott, a 
member of Middle ; it is rubricated in the Chartulary as having 
been given ' domui de Lilleshull pro morte cujusdam hominis ' ; 
i.e. it was a sort of composition or atonement for some act of 

In the year 1230 Henry III made an attempt to recover some 
of the French provinces which his father had lost ; he crossed 
over to Brittany in May with a large force, and marched through 
Anjou to Poitou and Gascony, where he received the homage 
of the people, returning to England in October. On this expedi- 
tion he was accompanied by John le Strange, junior, as is shown 
by letters of protection (which insured the immunity of his estates 
from claims on behalf of the Crown during his absence) granted 
to him by the King at Portsmouth on April 20 ; they state that 
' in servicium nostrum nobiscum ad partes transmarinas profectus 
est ' 2 ; similar letters were granted on June 15 to ' Rogero Spreng- 
hoese, qui est cum Johanne Extraneo.' 3 

Early in the year 1232, viz. on January 23, the King assigned 
John le Strange and John Fitz Alan to receive satisfaction from 
Llewelyn for infractions of the truce ; 4 a later entry makes it 
clear that it was the son, not the father ; for on February 20 
the King wrote to Llewelyn that he had lately sent John Fitz 
Alan and ' Johannem Extraneum junior em' to obtain satisfaction 
from the Welsh prince. 5 Two more entries of December of this 
year in all probability relate to John the younger ; on the iyth of 

1 Eyton, x. 26. * Pat. Rolls, 1225-1232, pp. 357-8. * Ibid. p. 380. 

Close Rolls, 1231-1234, p. 127. 6 Close Rolls, 1231-1234, p. 127. 


that month a mandate was sent to ' John le Estraunge ' to deliver 
the son of Eineon Vychan (or Vaughan) in exchange for certain 
hostages ; 1 and on the 23rd he had another mandate to release 
certain other hostages of William de Braosa. 2 John le Strange 
had probably been appointed constable of Montgomery Castle when 
the King quarrelled with Hubert de Burgh in 1232 ; at any rate 
it was in his keeping in the following year, for on June 15, 1233, 
the King sent a mandate to him from Worcester to deliver the 
custody of the castles of Montgomery and Sneth to William 
de Boeles. 8 

The above is the last entry that I have found relating to John 
le Strange (II), or to his son during his father's lifetime. Eyton 4 
places the father's death as c. 1237-38, basing his deduction from 
an entry in the Originalia Roll of those years, whereby the son 
stipulates ' in the King's presence to satisfy the King touching 
his Relief according to the judgment of the King's Court ' ; but 
evidence has, since Eyton's time, come to light which proves that 
he died at least three years earlier. 

My attention was called in March 1909 by Miss Florentia 
Herbert to a document which she had found while writing a his- 
tory of Wrockwardine. 5 This was a Close Roll of 18 Hen. Ill, 
m. 31, showing that John le Strange did homage for the lands 
which his father held in chief. This I was at once able to confirm 
by the printed Close Rolls of Henry III, 1231-1234, pp. 369-370, 
published in 1902. The entry there states that, on January 20, 
1234, the King took the homage of John le Strange for the lands 
and tenements of which John his father was seised on the day of 
his death ; and there is a mandate to the Sheriff of Shropshire 
ordering him to cause the said John to have full seisin of these 
lands, inasmuch as the King has pardoned him the Relief due 
therefrom. We may therefore place the close of the long life of 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 6. 

2 Close Rolls, 1231-1234, p. 175. Mem. Up to 1232 the Patent Roll, and up to 
1242 the Close Roll of Henry III is printed in full. After those dates the references are 
to the Calendars thereof. 

3 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 18. * ix. 23 ; x. 270. 

5 Transactions of the Shropshire Archcsological Society, 3rd Series, x. pp. 201-248, 
and xi. pp. 191-231. 



John le Strange (II) as having occurred at the end of 1233, or the 
beginning of 1234. He must have been about eighty years of 
age, for sixty of which he had been in public life ; the trusted 
servant successively of Henry II, Richard Coeur-de-Lion, John, 
and Henry III ; he never wavered in his staunch allegiance to 
each of them ; faithful even to King John when almost all his 
other vassals rebelled against him. John le Strange served his 
sovereign loyally, yet in such a manner as to preserve the respect 
of his fellow barons, and to retain and even to increase the authority 
which, by common consent, was committed to him on the Welsh 
border. Like his father, he was open-handed in his donations 
to the Church, especially in association with his suzerains, the 
fitz Alans. The researches of Eyton show how much the monas- 
teries of Shrewsbury, Lilleshall, Wombridge, and, above all, 
Haughmond profited by his liberality. If not actually the founder 
of Knockin Castle, he was the first to make it a stronghold of 
importance, and to take his territorial designation from it ; he 
increased the family possession by many acquisitions in Shrop- 
shire, and, in addition to the original fiefs of his House there and 
in Norfolk, we have seen that he acquired land in other counties, 
such as Leicestershire and Somersetshire. All through his long 
life, a prominent Marcher baron, he served in no foreign expeditions 
himself, but in his old age sent his eldest son to Poitou to help in 
recovering the lost provinces of the Crown ; and he handed on 
to that son the tradition of strenuous service and unbroken loyalty 
which justified the confidence placed in him and his race by 
successive sovereigns of the House of Anjou. 

1 have already mentioned l the name of John's wife as cited 
by him in his grant of the church of Holme to Lilleshall Abbey, 
made ' pro salute anime mee et anime Amide uxoris mee.' Eyton 
cites, without giving reference, another deed, whereby John gives 
' for the sustentation of the poor at the gate of Lilleshall Abbey 
the chapel or church of Sanketon, with the body of Amicia his 
wife, when she shall have gone the way of all flesh/ z This is all 
the mention of her which has come down to us ; Eyton confesses 
his inability to trace her parentage, 3 but dispels the obscurity 

1 Supra, p. 61. * Eyton, x. 267. 3 Ibid. x. 270 and n. 


in which Dugdale and Blomefield had involved both her and her 
husband, by reducing the two first John le Stranges to one person, 
and confusing Amicia, wife of John (II), with his grandmother, 
whose name we have seen l was not Amicia, or Martia, but Matilda 
le Brun. 


John (II) had three brothers, Hamon, Ralph, and William. 
Of these Hamon was probably the next in age to John, since he 
appears as an attesting witness to one of John's earliest charters, 
namely, the confirmation by the latter of their father's grant of 
the church of Cheswardine to Haughmond Abbey, ' teste Hamone 
fratre Johannis Extranei ' ; this must have passed immediately 
after John's succession in nyS-yg. 2 During the next thirty years 
Hamon frequently attested his elder brother's charters. Between 
1186 and 1210 he witnessed John's gift of a virgate of land in 
Kinton, a member of Ness to Haughmond. 3 Both brothers 
attested the grant by William fitz Alan (II) of certain privileges 
to his burgesses of Oswestry, about 1190-1200.* As ' Sir Hamo 
the grantor's brother,' he witnessed John's grant as ' dominus 
de Knokyn ' of the new chapel of Knockin to Haughmond Abbey, 
c. H97-I200. 5 Between 1204 and 1210 he attested Bishop 
Reyner's confirmation of the grant by Ralph le Strange of Knockin 
Chapel to the same abbey. 6 We find the names of both brothers 
as the first witnesses to a curious deed, which Eyton places at 
about I2OO, 7 whereby Griffith ap Gervase Goch granted fishery 
rights at Ellardine to William de Hadley ; Griffith reserved, 
for himself and his heirs, the personal right of fishing with their 
own nets, but William was to find a boat. Another grant to 
Haughmond of land in Linley by Roger de la More, between 1200 
and 1210, is attested by John and ' Hamo his brother.' 8 Between 
1203 and 1206 they witnessed an exchange of land between 

1 Supra, p. 5. z Eyton, x. 30. s Ibid. x. 284. 

4 Harl. MSS. 1981, fo. 24. 6 Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 132. 

6 Ibid. fo. 131. 7 Eyton, ix. 240. 8 Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 141. 

G 2 


Geoffrey Fitz Reginald and Haughmond Abbey at Longnor, 
between Shrewsbury and Church Stretton. 1 Hamon's name 
appears as attesting a composition regarding some litigation at 
Longnor, which Eyton dates as having been made out of Court 
soon after the Salop Assizes for 1221. 2 

In the year 1200 Hamon le Strange became for a time lord of 
Wrockwardine. It appears that he had been enfeoffed by King 
John, before his accession, in the Leicestershire manor of Foston, 
which grant did not hold good when John came to the throne. 
Hamon, therefore, in the year 1199, fined 40 marks with the King 
to have the serjeanty of the forest of Lancaster as an equivalent. 3 
This also fell through, but in the following year the Rolls show 
that Hamon made a fresh fine of 60 marks, 4 in return for which 
he received the manor of Wrockwardine, which Maurice de Powis 
formerly held, with its stock and implements, until such time as 
the King should make him a fair exchange out of his escheats, either 
for Wrockwardine, or for that manor which the King had granted 
to him before his accession. For this fine his brother John 
became security. 5 This arrangement only lasted about two years, 
as we have seen 6 that, in 1203, John became lord of Wrockwardine 
during pleasure, so we may presume that the King had found an 
equivalent for Hamon elsewhere. 

Eyton makes out 7 that another Hamon, son of John 
le Strange (II), and consequently nephew of the above Hamon, 
was living at this period, but the evidence for his existence seems 
to me inconclusive. It is mainly based on a deed cited by Eyton 
as having lately been in the possession of Mr. George Morris of 
Shrewsbury, a quit-claim, dated in October 1227, from Reginald 
de Thirne to William de Hedleg ; 8 it is witnessed, among others, 
by Sir John le Strange, Sir John le Strange son of John le Strange, 
and Sir Hamo, brother of the same ; it appears to me very doubtful 
whether this means that Hamon was brother of John (II) or 
John (III), and we have no evidence that Hamon who held 

1 Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 141. * Eyton, vi. 53. 

8 Rot. de Obi. et Fin. temp, regis Joh., p. 14. 

4 Rot. Cancell. vel Antigr. magn. Rot. Pipes, 3 John, p. 127. * Ibid. p. 60. 

6 Supra, p. 84. 7 Eyton, ix. 82-83 ; x. 270. 8 Eyton, ix. 82. 


Wrockwardine in 1200 was not alive in 1227 ; at all events his 
elder brother John (II) lived for six years after that date. 


The existence of Ralph, brother of John (II), is established 
by two deeds. The first, printed in Dugdale's * Monasticon/ l is 
a grant of Wentnor mill to Buildwas Abbey by Thomas Corbet 
of Caus, which is attested, among others, by John le Strange 
and Ralph his brother, by Adam de Arundel (who was deceased 
in 1199), and by Fulk fitz Warin (III), who succeeded his father 
about 1197 ; Eyton therefore places the date of this charter at 
about 1198. The second mention of Ralph occurs in a deed, cited 
by Eyton as between 1186 and I2io, 2 whereby John le Strange (II) 
gave to Haughmond Abbey a virgate of land in Kinton, the witnesses 
being William fitz Alan, Hamon le Strange, and Ralph le Strange. 
The following may possibly refer to the same individual : the 
'Testa de Nevill ' has an entry among the fees of John fitz Alan in 
Warwickshire and Leicestershire, 'In Stretton dimidium feodum 
quod heres Radulphi Extranei tenet de eodem Johanne ' ; 3 
there are several places named Stretton in each of the above 
counties. A Suffolk Fine of 13 Hen. Ill [1228-29] was levied 
by a ' Radulphus le Esstrang ' against Peter Marescal in 
Ingham. 4 


The only daughter of John (II) and Amicia, of whom any 
mention has come down to us, Margery, whom Eyton shows to have 
been the wife of Ralph de Pichford, and that they had a daughter, 
Burgia, who married Nicholas de Wililey ; 5 in support of this he 
cites an undated deed : 8 ' Whereby Nicholas de Willilegh, with the 
assent and will of Burgia his wife, sells to Sir John le Strange 
all that land in the vill of Lucam [Litcham, in Norfolk], which the 

1 v. 358, No. vii. * Eyton, x. 284. 

8 Testa de Nevill, p. 96. 4 Suffolk Feet of Fines, by W. Rye, p. 29. 

8 Eyton, vi. 273. 6 Glover's Collection, A, fo. nift. 


father of the said John gave for the frank-marriage of Ralph de 
Pichford with Margery his daughter/ Ralph de Pichford occurs 
1221, and he died in I252. 1 


A writ of December 12, 1229, transcribed in the Close Rolls, 2 
shows that a John le Strange was a member of the household of 
Hubert de Burgh, the justiciar, who was still governing the king- 
dom in the young King's name ; it states that the King has com- 
mitted ' Johanni le Estrango, vadleto H. de Bur go* to hold during 
pleasure a hide of land at Rode, Somersetshire, which Robert de 
St. John previously held of the King's bail of the lands of the 
Normans. This land had come into the King's hand because a 
certain lady named Christiana, who then held it, had killed her 
husband, Bernard, and had fled from justice. The Charter Rolls 
of the next year 3 show that the King had enlarged his gift by 
making it for John's life instead of during pleasure only, and that 
he added a proviso to the effect that if he restored this land to 
the original grantee, he would make it up to John by giving him 
an equivalent in wardships or escheats. Who was this John ? 
It can scarcely be John (III) of Knockin ; we shall see that he 
was already a knight before 1229, and it is not likely that a person 
of his age and dignity would be even Hubert's vadletus. More- 
over, if he had been Hubert's follower, he would hardly have 
got Montgomery after the fall of the justiciar. I am indebted to 
Professor Tout for pointing this out to me, and for the suggestion 
that this grantee must be another and humbler person, otherwise 
unknown, unless he be the John le Strange, of Fransham in 
Norfolk, of whom later. 


The third brother of John (II) was named William, and of him 
there is rather more frequent mention, perhaps because he was 

1 Eyton, vi. 270. * Close Rolls, 1227-1231, pp. 273 and 318. 

8 C. Ch. R., i. 124. 


in Holy Orders. He was returned at the Salop Assizes of 1221 1 
as holding the church of Alveley of the value of 30 marks, having 
been presented thereto by Henry II. He must therefore have 
held it for thirty-three years at least. The manor of Alveley, it 
will be remembered, had been given by the same king to William's 
uncle, Guy le Strange, c. H55, 2 who may have procured the bene- 
fice for his nephew. The prebend of Alveley was one of two stalls 
between which the manor of Eardington had been divided when 
that manor had been granted by the Norman earl, at the time 
of Domesday, to his prebendal or collegiate church of Quatford, 
afterwards transferred to Bridgnorth, and erected into a Royal 
Free Chapel, the collegiate body of which was appointed by the 
King ; with this particular stall was associated the church of 
Alveley, whose incumbents held this dignity. I have already 
mentioned 3 that ' Master William le Strange, the grantor's 
brother,' attested the gift by John (II) of the church of Holme 
(near Hunstanton) to Lilleshall Abbey c. 1178. About the year 
1190 William is mentioned in the Salop Chartulary as restoring 
certain land to the church of Oswestry through William fitz 
Alan. 4 The Pipe Roll for 1189-90 contains an entry, under Dorset 
and Somerset, to the effect that, on the plea of Hugh Bardolph 
and his companions, William le Strange admitted a debt of 35. 4^. 
which he had formerly denied. 5 There is no other evidence of 
any connection of the prebendary with those counties, so it may 
be a different individual of the same name, and this possibility 
applies to one or two subsequent mentions of William which I 
shall cite. William ' Extraneus ' witnessed a grant of c. 1190 by 
Hubert de Rushbury to Hugh de Beckbury, the first witnesses 
to which were William fitz Alan, his lord, and William and John, 
sons of the said William. 6 A few years later the same Hugh de 
Beckbury had a grant of all their land at Golding from Ralph, 
abbot of Haughmond and the Convent, the first witness whereof 
was John le Strange. 7 It was undoubtedly William, the son of 
John (I), who, in conjunction with his brother, witnessed the grant 

1 6 Hen. Ill, m. 9 dorso ; Eyton, i. 120. * Supra, p. 28. Supra, p. 61. 

4 Salop Chartulary, No. 3026; Eyton, x. 343. Pipe Roll, i Ric. I, p. 150. 

Hist. MSS. Commission, MSS. of Lloyd Gatacre, Esq., p. 437. 7 Ibid. p. 438. 


by Ralph le Strange of Alveley of the patronage of the chapel of 
Knockin to Haughmond Abbey. 1 

The Assize of Middlesex of 1198-99 mentions Matilda, sister 
of William Lestrange, as holding in fee an acre of land at West- 
minster, 2 but affords no information by which we can identify 
this William. 

The Shropshire Assize Rolls for October 1203 3 record that 
Christiana, late the wife of Richard de Constantin, was adjudged 
to have unjustly disseised William le Strange of his free tenement 
[the prebend] in Eardinton ; she was fined one mark, and five 
shillings damages, and William recovered seisin. He held the 
benefice until 1223 ; the Patent Roll of that year shows that on 
January 7 William de Harecurt had letters of presentation thereto 
from the King, the church being vacant by the resignation of 
William le Strange. 4 There seems to be some doubt as to whether 
the resignation took effect then, as, at the Salop Assizes in October 
1227, William le Strange is presented as holding the church of 
Alveley ; 5 and in the following year the Patent Rolls contain 
a grant from the King, on the resignation of William le Strange, 
maternal uncle (avunculus) of John Germun, clerk, to the said 
John, of the prebend which William had held in the chapel of 
Bruges (Bridgnorth), with the proviso that, so long as William 
lived, he (John) should receive annually from the said William 
two bezants by way of pension from the said prebend. The 
constable of Bridgnorth Castle was ordered to give full seisin to 
John, he receiving yearly the two bezants for the life of William. 6 

Another ecclesiastical dignity held by William was the deanery 
of St. Mary's at Shrewsbury. 7 He is mentioned as such in a 
deed in the Haughmond Chartulary (tit. Colnham), which also 
records the fact that he was married. At the Council of West- 
minster, held in 1102, Anselm had enforced celibacy on the clergy, 

1 Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 131 ; Eyton, x. 367. 

2 Rot. Cur. Reg., 6 Ric. I-i John ; i. 213. 

3 5 John, memb. 4 recto, and Trans. Shrops. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., N.S., 
xi. 248. * C.P.R., 1216-1225, p. 363. 

5 Assize Roll, incorporated in Testa de Nevill, p. 54 ; Eyton, i. 120. 

6 C.P.R., Hen. Ill, 1216-1225, p. 198. 

7 Owen and Blakeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, ii. 325. 


and assimilated the rules of the English Church to that of Rome ; 
1 From that time until the reign of Edward VI clerical marriages 
were contrary to ecclesiastical law, though they were common 
enough in fact, and often connived at by authority.' l The Haugh- 
mond deed shows that Alan le Poer, lord of Wollascote, with 
consent of Amicia his wife, gave to her son John (a clerk) a barn 
in Shrewsbury which Master William, Dean of St. Mary's, and 
father of John's mother Amicia, had given in frank-marriage 
with her son to Alan, John's father. 2 

William possessed some house property in Shrewsbury, as is 
shown by a charter belonging to the corporation of that town ; 
it is a grant 3 from ' Magister Willelmus Extraneus films Johannis 
Extranei ' to Lilleshall Abbey of a messuage next to the church of 
St. Julian in Shrewsbury, reserving to himself and his successors 
probably, that is, to the Deans of St. Mary's an annual rent of six- 
pence. The deed is undated, but two of the witnesses are ' Ricardo 
le Vilain et Willelmo filio Willelmi tune prepositis,' who are, 
apparently, the earliest provosts of Shrewsbury on record. 4 

There are several other entries concerning William le Strange 
in the Chancery Rolls during the period from 1224 to 1236, but 
it is doubtful whether they refer to the Dean of St. Mary's or to 
some other individuals. I subjoin them for what they are worth, 
and must leave my readers, if I have any, to draw their own 

On November 4, 1224, Henry III granted to William le Estrange 
two carucates of land in Medburn, Leicestershire, which William 
de Fougeres held, and later Roger Orget, to sustain him in the 
King's service during pleasure. 5 The Barons of the Exchequer 
were notified, on March 5, 1227, that the King had pardoned 
William le Strange 405. which he had been fined by the justices 
in Eyre in Leicestershire for trespass. 6 From an entry in the 
Close Rolls of July 27, 1228, it looks as if this William must have 
died before that date. The King wrote to the Sheriff of Leicester 

1 Wakeman's Hist, of the Ch. of England, 6th ed., 1899, p. 102. * Eyton, x. no. 
1 Hist. MSS. Commission, MSS. of the Corporations of Shrewsbury and Coventry, 
p. 69. ' Owen and Blakeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, i. 523. 

5 Lit. Claus. ii. 40. ' Ibid. ii. 1740. 


that Robert fitz William had shown him that, at the time when 
William le Strange held certain land in Medburn, a certain virgate 
thereof had fallen into the hand of the said William, who after- 
wards demised it as his escheat to Robert to be cultivated and 
sown ; and inasmuch as the King had lately taken this land of 
Medburn into his own hand, the Sheriff was to allow Robert to 
take the corn which he had sown in the said virgate. 1 

A writ, dated at Shrewsbury on December 9, 1232, grants to 
William le Estrange an exemption from being put on recognitions, 
juries, or assizes for two years from Christmas next. 2 

The ' Testa de Nevill ' contains a scutagelist of the igth Hen. Ill 
(1234-35) for Somerset and Dorset, in which the following entry 
appears : ' De xvj solidis et viij denariis de Willelmo Lestrange in 
Hoke de uno feodo Morton.' 3 This must refer to the same William 
as is mentioned in the Pipe Roll for 1189, quoted above. 4 

In the 2Oth Henry III (1236), William le Strange fined a mark 
to the King for having a record of an assize which Robert Maunsel 
and his wife Mabel had against him concerning the diversion of 
a watercourse in Sanketon ; 5 we have seen that Sanketon church 
was the property of John le Strange (II), and had been given by 
him to Lilleshall Abbey. 6 

The Close Rolls contain another pardon, granted on October 26, 
1236, to William le Strange for 405., exactly similar in terms to 
that which had been granted to him eight years before. 7 

The British Museum contains an undated deed whereby 
John - ew of Estwalton grants to Roger le Strange, of the same 
place, an acre of land abutting on land of William le Strange, 
who is among the witnesses to the grant. 8 

A writ of November 27, 1233, from the King at Hereford to 
the Sheriff of Bedford, directs him to imprison William fitz 
Godwin and Ailneth' Hert, suspected of the death of William le 
Strange through hatred and envy (odio et athia). 9 This proves 

1 C.Cl.R., 1227-1231, p. 69. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 4. 

3 Testa de Nevill, p. 169. * Supra, p. 87. 

6 Excerpt, e Rot. Fin., Hen. Ill ; i. 310. Supra, p. 82. 

7 C.Cl.R., 1234-1237, p. 326. B.M. 56, B 2. 
9 C.Cl.R., 1231-1234, p. 345. 


that we are dealing with at least two Williams, since we have just 
seen that another of the name was alive in 1236. 


Henry le Strange, of whom mention occurs several times during 
the first half of the thirteenth century, is difficult to identify, 
and here again there may be more than one individual of the 
name. A Henry le Strange was one of the witnesses to the grant 
of John (II) to Robert Hert about Guards Doverant, c. 1205, 
and Eyton assigns no place to him. 1 Henry le Strange attests 
a charter of Agnes de Brocton, which Eyton dates between 1210 
and 1224 ; 2 also one of William de Begesoure granting a virgate 
of land in Brocton to Ralph de Sanford. 3 Henry le Strange himself 
granted to the same Ralph two acres in Brocton, and this deed 
has a well-executed seal 4 (of which Eyton gives an engraving), 
bearing the legend: 'SIGILL HENRICI FILI RADULFI+,' surrounding 
a lion passant to the sinister ; this proves that the grantor was 
the son of some Ralph le Strange, but of which ? Ralph of 
Little Ercall had only one son, Roland, who died v.p., and was 
succeeded by daughters ; Ralph of Alveley died s.p. in 1195, and 
it is hardly likely that one of the Norfolk Ralphs, of Litcham, 
held property in Shropshire of which there is no other mention. 

Henry le Strange also occurs as a witness to the following 
charters : a grant from Philip de Burwardesley to Ralph de 
Sonforde of a virgate in Brocton, dated by Eyton as from 1220 
to 1230 ; 5 a grant of land in Wunedon from William Russell to 
Ralph de Sanford, c. 1225 : * a deed of Griffith de Sutton (whose 
wife was Matilda, daughter of Guy le Strange of Alveley) granting 
rents to Wombridge Priory : ' a deed of Madoc, son of the above 
Griffith, enfeoffing Ralph de Sanford in an acre in Brocton, which 
Henry le Strange held in the Hemme : 8 and six more deeds 
relating to land at Brocton, c. 1220-1235. 9 Henry was also 
one of eighteen defendants in a suit, brought at Westminster in 

1 Eyton, xi. 3. * Ibid. ii. 102. * Ibid. ii. I25. 

4 Ibid. ii. 125, note 68. 8 Ibid. ii. 15. Ibid. ii. 94*1. 

7 Ibid. ii. H5n. 8 Ibid. ii. 118. Ibid. ii. 125, I26n., 129, 130. 


Michaelmas term, 1242, by John de la Lawe, for robbery and 
breach of the peace. 1 

Of other le Stranges who occur during the period under dis- 
cussion there is mention as follows : 


On January 15, 1229, Agatha le Strange, mother of G. de 
Turville, Archdeacon of Dublin, had letters of protection for a 
year ; 2 and on February 8, 1233, Agatha Extranea had exemp- 
tion from suits of counties and hundreds respecting all her 
demense lands, for three years from Easter next. 3 

An Agatha Extranea and her sister Sibilla are mentioned in 
the 'Testa de Nevill,' 4 under Warwickshire and Leicestershire, as 
holding a fee in ' Wulf richest on ' under John fitz Alan. 


Among some notes in the British Museum (? in Camden's 
handwriting), from the Register of Haughmond, is mentioned an 
undated charter of John, son of John le Strange, witnessed ' Alano 
Extraneo.' 5 


Eyton 6 cites a charter of John le Strange (II), passed, he 
thinks, about 1209, by which he gave land in Cheswardine to 
Haughmond Abbey. The witnesses to this deed are William fitz 
Alan, John his son, Hormus le Strange, Warin de Burwardsley, 
and William de Lankes, whose name, Eyton thinks, is probably 
miswritten. I very much suspect the same as to Hormus. I 
have never come across such a name, and venture a suggestion 
that it is a mistake for H envious le Strange of Brocton, whose 

1 Eyton, ii. 117. Placit. apud. Westm., 26 Hen. Ill, memb. n. 

* Pat. Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1225-1232, p. 235. 3 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. n. 

4 P. 96. 5 B.M., Lansdowne, 229, fo. 103^. to io$d. * x. 31. 


name occurs more than once in testing clauses associated with 
a Burwardsley. 


Hugh le Strange, together with Henry, attested the charter 
of John (II) about Guards Doverant. 1 In the Pleas of the Forest 
of 3 John, Hugh le Strange appears as paying los. for having 
custody of Lye, a berewick or member of the extensive manor 
of Morville, Salop. 2 The Shropshire Assize Roll of October 1203 
records a Grand Assize whereat Hugh le Strange, of Felton, near 
Knockin, was plaintiff touching forty acres of land in Erdiston. 
Both parties were put out of court by William fitz Alan, who 
came and proved that the land was in his Hundred, and owed 
no suit at the County Court of Salop. The name of Hugh le 
Strange occurs twice as a member of the Grand Assize. 3 


A John, son of Ralph le Strange, occurs in 1229, whom I take 
to be John of Litcham, in Norfolk, as the writ in the Close Rolls, 
dated April I, is directed to the sheriff of that county ; it orders 
him to pay to John le Strange annually during pleasure 4, which 
Simon fitz Richard used to render yearly to Walerand de Bygar, 
a Norman, for a carucate of land in Bucgeton' (? Buxton), as long 
as the said Walerand remained in fealty and service to the King, 
which the King afterwards committed to Warin de Jermem', who 
is dead. 4 The grant itself is given in the Charter Rolls. It states 
that the rent of 4 is to be held by John le Estrange, son of Ralph 
le Estrange, as freely as the said Walerand held it, until the King 
restore it to the heirs of the said Walerand of his free will, or by 
a peace. 5 John, son of Ralph of Litcham, was alive in 1293, when 
he enfeoffed his son John, and Clementia his wife, in the Hundreds 
of Launditch and South Greenhoe, so it makes him to have had 
an extremely long life if the John, son of Ralph, who was old 

1 Supra, p. 71. * Rot. Cancell. vel Antiqr. magn. Rot. Pipes, p. 126. 

8 Trans. Shrop. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., xi. N.S., p. 249. 

* Close Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1227-1231, p. 165. 

* C. Ch. R., Hen. Ill, 1226-1257, i- P- 97- 


enough to receive a grant from the King in 1229, is the same 
individual, yet I know of no other of that name and parentage 
at that period. 


A family of le Stranges, designated as of Fransham, was 
settled at that place, between Dereham and Swaffham, from the 
early part of the thirteenth century onwards. A number of 
undated deeds from the Castleacre Chartulary, mostly relating 
to Fransham, and printed by Carthew, 1 are witnessed by Roger 
le Strange, often in conjunction with Ralph le Strange, whom I 
believe to be the son or the grandson (both were named Ralph) of 
Durannus le Strange of Litcham : Roger may have been another 
grandson, brother of the second Ralph. Both Ralph and Roger 
are styled Dominus. In one deed, to which Roger is the first 
witness, he is accompanied by ' Ricardo rufo nepote suo.' It 
has been mentioned in the last chapter 2 that Ralph took sides 
with the barons against King John, but was received into favour 
by Henry III on his accession ; the same thing also happened 
in the case of Roger ; there is a writ among the Close Rolls of 
1217, from the King to the Sheriff of Norfolk, stating that Roger 
le Strange has come to fealty and service of the King, and should 
have letters Close of Protection. 3 An early Fine of May 10, 1206, 
supplies the name of Roger's wife. It relates to 18 acres of land 
at Gissing, which Alice, the wife of Roger le Strange, claimed 
as dower in right of her first husband, Simon de Franche- 
ville ; Roger and Alice, by their attorney, Nicholas le Strange, 
granted this land to Roger Gulafre, to be held by him at a yearly 
rent of I2^. 4 On March 2, 1219, we find Felicia, widow of Adam 
de Welles, quit-claiming, for a payment of four marks and a half, 
30 acres of land in Lavingham to Roger le Strange. 5 A few 
years later the ' Testa de Nevill ' (1236) has the following entry : 

Feoda de Ry que Alicia Mariscalla tenet. Agnes Leuvise, Thomas films 

1 Carthew, i. 130-133. 2 Supra, p. 50. 

3 Rot. Lit. Claus., 1204-1224, i. 3736. 

* P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 7 John, Case 154, File 25, No. 323. 
5 Ibid, 3 Hen. Ill, Case 155, File 35, No. 41. 


Baldewin, Rogerus le Estrange, et Reginaldus de Dunham, unum feodum militis 
in Scheringham, Wanton et Walton de eadem. 1 

By a Fine, dated at Lynn, on February 28, 1240, Alan le Rus 
of Litcham granted to Roger le Strange a messuage with 14 
acres of land and 4^ of meadow in Westwinch, the latter paying 
yearly to Alan a pair of white gloves (unum par albarum 
cyretecarum) , or a half -penny, as rent.* 

Among the muniments of the Corporation of King's Lynn is 
a grant, printed by Carthew, 3 from Alicia, widow of Eudo Arsic, 
who died September 17, 1241, of land at Dunham to Guywood 
Hospital, which is attested by Roger le Strange of Fransham. 

One of the undated Castleacre charters, an exchange of land 
between the monasteries of Castleacre and Westacre, is tested by 
' Eudone Extraneo ' and ' Roger o filio suo.' * It is difficult to place 
this father and son. The name of Guy does not occur, so far as 
I am aware, among the Litcham le Stranges, from whom I suppose 
the Fransham family to be descended. Guy of Alveley died, as we 
have seen in the last chapter, 5 in the year 1179, leaving only one 
son, who survived him, viz. Ralph, who died without issue in 1195, 
when his estates passed to his three sisters, so he could not have 
had a brother then surviving. 

In 1242 a John le Strange appears as holding land at Snoring, 
between Fakenham and Wells in Norfolk. By a Fine of Novem- 
ber 3 of that year he acknowledged 90 acres of land there to 
Basilia de Naringes (Snoring) for her life, with proviso that after 
her decease they were to revert to John and his heirs. 6 The next 
document cited shows that this John was the son of Roger of 
Fransham. A Fine of August 29, 1244, between John son of 
Roger and Beatrice his wife, v. Roger le Strange himself, acknow- 
ledges certain land in Little Fransham to Roger for his life, which 
is afterwards to revert to John and Beatrice and their heirs ; 
and Roger undertakes that he will not give away, sell, or alienate 
the said land. 7 

1 Carthew, i. 82. 

P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 24 Hen. Ill, Case 156, File 65, No. 798. 

3 i. 163. Ibid. i. 129. 6 Supra, p. 40. 

P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 27 Hen. Ill, Case 157, File 69, No. 878. 

7 Ibid., 28 Hen. Ill, Case 157, File 69, No. 882. 


An undated charter in the British Museum carries the pedigree 
one generation further : Alexander son of John le Strange of 
Fransham grants to Thomas son of John, son of the parson of 
Rougham, for the sum of 505., three pieces of land lying in the 
fields of Rougham, with liberty to sell or assign them to anyone 
except to religious houses. 1 The first witness is ' Domino Petro 
Romano de Rucham,' and Blomefield gives Peter de Romayn as 
Rector of Rougham c. I26o, 2 which approximately dates the 
charter ; this is confirmed by another witness, William de Bress- 
ingham, who, according to the same authority, 3 was lord of the 
manor of Brisingham in 1259. Alexander le Estrange occurs 
a few years later as one of the jurors at an inquest held in the 
Hundred of Launditch, Norfolk, during the 3rd year of Edward 
I (1275) ; 4 these jurors were bound to be residents in the Hundred. 
The inquest relates to the manor of Mileham, and it has been 
shown by Eyton, 5 and also by Carthew, 6 that the finding of the 
jury as to the descent of Alan fitz Flaald contains serious errors. 
The name of Alexander le Strange occurs again as one of the 
jurors at an inquisition held at Dereham on July 19, 1299, on the 
death of Jordan ffoliot of Gressenhall. 7 

The subjoined pedigree is deducible from the above : 


Roger le Strange = Alice, widow of Simon 
de Franckeville ; occ. 

Richard rufus. 

John le Strange, occ. 1242, = Beatrice 

1244 ; held land at 

occ. 1244. 

Alexander le Strange = * * * 
occ. c. 1260, 1275, 
and 1299. 

1 B.M., Harl. Charters, 56 F. 22. 2 Blomefield, vi. 18. 

3 Ibid. i. 57. * Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. Ill et Edw. I, i. 4340. s vii. 211. 

6 i. 9. 7 Inq. p.m., 27 Edw. I, No. 49. Printed in Carthew, i. 202-7. 



Here, for the present, the line of the Fransham le Stranges 
breaks off ; we shall see that some more of the family reappears 
at the same place during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 


The Patent Rolls of April 26, 1233, contain a pardon to John, 
son of Geoffrey de Gipeswico [Ipswich], of his abjuration of the 
land for the death of Simon Lestrange, on condition that he should 
stand his trial if anyone will proceed against him. 1 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247. 

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JOHN LE STRANGE (III) must have been about forty years of age 
when he did homage for his lands to King Henry III on January 20, 
I234. 1 He could hardly have been less than nineteen or twenty 
when, as mentioned in the last chapter, 2 he was employed on 
August 24, 12 12, to convoy to King John the sum of 60, the 
proceeds of stores sold by the King's orders at Shrewsbury. Two 
years later, viz. in 1214, we have seen 3 that he was with King 
John in Poitou, helping in the attempt to recover the lost con- 
tinental provinces ; and in 1219 4 he was ordered to hold an 
inquisition of the Shropshire forests at Shrewsbury. At this 
period, as his father grew advanced in years, it is often difficult 
to feel sure whether mention of John le Strange refers to the 
father or the son, but it is probably the latter who, early in 1225, 
was one of six knights deputed to escort to Gloucester the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of a fifteenth from Staffordshire and Salop. In 1230 
John le Strange junior is expressly mentioned as being with 
Henry III in Brittany, Anjou, Poitou, and Gascony, 5 when the 
King took the fealty of the nobles of those provinces. We have 
also seen 6 that, by direct grant from the King, he had become 
lord of Wrockwardine during his father's lifetime. On February 20, 
1232, the younger le Strange was sent with John fitz Alan to 

1 Supra, p. 81. * Ibid. p. 72. 

1 Ibid. p. 73. * Ibid. p. 76. 

Ibid. p. 80. Ibid. p. 79. 

99 H 2 


Llewelyn to obtain satisfaction for infractions of the truce. 1 During 
the lifetime of his father, and according to Eyton 2 probably about 
1227 or 1228, the son confirmed his father's grant to Oswestry, 
with remainder to Haughmond Abbey, of the township and mill 
of Willcot, cited in the last chapter. 8 To the same period belong 
several undated charters, preserved in the Chartulary of the 
priory of Wombridge, near Wellington, Salop. We have seen 
that towards the close of his life John (II) had procured from the 
King a grant in fee of the manor of Wrockwardine to his son, 4 
viz. in the year 1231. Shortly after this ' John le Strange tercius, 
son of John le Strange/ concedes to Wombridge Priory ' the 
donation which his father had made in the bosc of Wombridge. 5 
Another deed, which Eyton considers to be nearly contemporary, 6 
relates to the same grant, and mentions the name of John's wife : 
' John le Strange tercius, for the soul's health of himself, his 
wife Lucia, and his father, gives to the Priory all such assarts 7 
and boscs as it possessed by concession of his father.' Lucia 
was the daughter of Sir Robert Tregoz, of Lydiard Tregoz, Wilt- 
shire, and lord of Ewyas Harold, Herefordshire, by Juliana, 
daughter of William Lord Cantelupe, by Millicent, daughter of 
Hugh de Gournai, and widow of Almeric, Count of Evreux. 8 The 
name of his wife is mentioned again in another undated deed, 
quoted by Blomefield, by which John, son of John le Strange, 
and Lucy his wife gave to the abbot of Lilleshall their right of 
patronage of the church of Holme-next-the-Sea, in Norfolk. 9 

The Close Rolls contain several entries showing the service 
of John (III) about this period. On December 23, I232, 10 a man- 
date was sent to him to release certain hostages. On Septem- 
ber 3 of the following year he appears as surety for the faithful 
service of Galfridus de Baucis; 11 and on July i, 1234, a mandate 
issued to him, in conjunction with John de Monmouth, Henry de 
Audley, Thomas Corbet, and John fitz Alan, to take possession 

1 C. Cl. R., 1231-1234, p. 122. * Eyton, x. 286. 

3 Supra, p. 70. * Supra, p. 79- 

5 Eyton, ix. 23 ; Chartulary, tit. Lega Prioris, No. 9. 

6 Ibid. No. 10. 7 Land cleared for tillage. 
8 Nichols, Topogr. and Genealogist, ii. 130. Blomefield, x. 332. 

18 C. Cl. R., 1231-1234, p. 175. " Ibid. p. 258. 


of the castles on the Marches now in the hands of Peter de Rivaux, 
to lay siege to them if necessary, and to give them to ' Waleranum 
Teutonicum/ so as to avoid the risk of their falling into the hands 
of the King of France or other the King's enemies. 1 These trans- 
actions relate to the King's quarrel with Hubert de Burgh, in 
place of whom he had made des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, 
his chief counsellor, and by his advice had garrisoned the castles 
with Poitevins, des Roche's countrymen, and other foreigners. 
The custody of the castle of Montgomery had been conferred on 
John le Strange in 1232, but on June 15, 1233, he was ordered 
by the King, then at Worcester, to deliver it to William de Boeles. 2 
A Patent of February 6, 1234,' shows him as having custody 
of a hostage required by the Crown from his own suzerain, John 
fitz Alan. 

Richard, Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal, and other nobles 
had remonstrated with the King, and, being repulsed, had made 
a league with Llewelyn with the object of driving out the Poitevins ; 
they obtained some successes over the King at the end of 1233 and 
early in 1234, an d Henry was persuaded to dismiss des Roches 
and his Poitevins. On July 7, 1234, a truce to endure for two 
years was made at Mudele (Middle) 

between the King and all his men, on the one part, and Llewelyn Prince of Aber- 
fraw and Lord of Snowdon, and all his men and adherents, Welsh, and any others 
he had in the beginning of the war, called the war of Richard Marshal Earl of 
Pembroke, on the other part, to wit, that as well the King and his men, as the 
said Llewelyn and his men, should be in the same tenements, &c., as they were at 
the beginning of the war, without being impleaded during the truce, amends to 
be made for anything forfeited in the meantime. No new castle shall be streng- 
thened, or ruined one restored in the March during the truce, and lands shall be 
common according to form of former truce. There have been sworn on the 
King's soul that this truce will be observed Master John le Blund, Henry de 
Audley, John le Strange, and Henry Bagod. 4 

A mandate was issued to John le Strange and three other 
commissioners to proceed, at the day and to the place which 
Llewelyn should appoint, to conduct his son David to pay homage 
to King Henry. 

1 Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, i. 446 ; Rot. Claus., 18 Hen. Ill, memb. 17. 
1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 18. Ibid. p. 39. * Ibid. iii. 59. 


At Michaelmas, 1235, John appears again in office as constable 
of Montgomery, with a salary of 200 marks a year, one-fourth 
of which had recently been paid by the Sheriff of Shropshire. 
He had probably been dispossessed by the revolted barons in 
the King's name under the Earl Marshal, and had been restored 
to office after the suppression of the rebellion. The same Sheriff 
had bought four ox-teams for 12, and transferred them to the 
constable ; they were destined to till the King's demesne at 
Montgomery. The Close Rolls of November 3, 1235, contain a 
notification, addressed to John as constable of Montgomery, that 
the King, in the presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
his fellow bishops, had ordered tithe to be levied on hay 
and mills throughout the kingdom ; le Strange was therefore 
directed to render such tithe henceforth to the church of 
Montgomery. 1 

The Patent Rolls of 1236 contain a grant, dated July 9, at 
Tewkesbury, to John le Strange, constable of Montgomery, of pro- 
tection from all lawsuits so long as he continues to be constable 
of that castle. 2 Another entry, dated two days later, ratifies a 
truce for one year between the King and Llewelyn, sworn to by 
John le Strange and two others. On March 6 previous le Strange 
had been associated by the King with the Bishop of Hereford, 
the Prior of Wenlock, and others, to act as arbitrators as to the 
compensation to Llewelyn, Prince of Aberfraw, and Morgan of 
Caerleon for the aggressions made against them during the truce 
by the Earl of Gloucester as regards the castle of Caerleon. 3 The 
award was made on the morrow of the close of Easter (i.e. the 
Monday after the first Sunday after Easter) at Montgomery ford 
over the Severn, a mile below the thirteenth-century castle. It 
is worthy of note that in this and similar documents the King 
never acknowledges Llewelyn as Prince of Wales, but always 
styles him Prince of Aberfraw, or lord of Snowdon. 

On October 24, 1236, le Strange was appointed to the office 
of Sheriff of the counties of Salop and Stafford ; 4 and in conse- 
quence of this the retiring sheriff, Robert de la Hay, was, on 

1 Close Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1234-1237, p. 203. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 153. 

Close Rolls, Hen. Ill, 1234-1237, p. 342. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, p.' 161. 


November 14, ordered to deliver over to him custody of the King's 
castles of Bridgnorth and Shrewsbury. 1 

Under the designation of Johannes Extraneus de Hunestaneston 
he is returned in the Pipe Roll for the 20th of Henry III, as owing 
loos, for disseisin i.e. an unlawful ejectment ; but a mandate in 
the Close Rolls, dated December 8, 1236, directs the Sheriff of 
Norfolk to give him respite of this amercement until the octaves 
of St. Hilary next ensuing. 2 

The truce with the Welsh prince had only been made for one 
year, but in June, 1237, negotiations for its prolongation were 
on foot. Successive Kings of England had not been able to effect 
any lasting conquest in North Wales, where they were frequently 
beaten back ; they contented themselves with receiving a nominal 
homage, which spared them the disgrace of appearing to accept 
defeat, but gave them no effective control over the country. 
Llewelyn the Great, though he had married King John's illegiti- 
mate daughter Joan, did not allow this to stand in his way ; he 
seized his opportunity when England was weak and divided by 
dissensions between the Crown and the barons, and by allying 
himself first with one side and then with the other, made his 
power felt right down to southern Wales, and created a sense of 
national unity which had been previously wanting, and which 
was taken up by his grandson in the reign of Edward I. 3 

On June 15, 1237, notification was sent to David, the King's 
nephew, son of Llewelyn, that, in consequence of the death of 
the Earl of Chester, the King had directed Henry de Audley to 
stay in Chester, and had appointed John le Strange in his place 
to conduct David to Worcester. 4 On the following day the King 
wrote to Llewelyn that le Strange and others would conduct his 
envoys from Shrewsbury to Worcester to meet the King there 
on midsummer day. 5 The meeting, however, was postponed, in 
consequence .of the King having to go to Dover to meet the legate ; 
a mandate was sent to John le Strange, on July 16, that he need 
not come, as Henry de Audley, whose place he was to have taken 

1 C. Cl. R., 1234-1237, p. 391. 2 Ibid. p. 401. 

8 See The Welsh Wars of Edward I, by John E. Morris, 1901. 

* C.P.R., 1232-1247, iii. 6. C. Cl. R., Hen. Ill, 1234-1237, p. 537. 


was coming in person. 1 The legate whom Henry had gone to 
meet was Cardinal Otho, invited by the King, much to the dis- 
content of both clergy and laity. All classes were suffering under 
the intolerable exactions of the papal see ; the country was 
flooded with foreign ecclesiastics, who occupied many of the best 
benefices ; grievous burdens, amounting at one time to a third 
of the revenues of English benefices for three years, were laid on 
the clergy, and the laity were harassed by the growing practice 
of carrying lawsuits to the Courts at Rome : moreover, the revenues 
of the State were seriously diminished by the handing over of 
large tracts of land to religious houses, which, to a great extent, 
were free from the burdens that the laity had to bear. These 
discontents had been aggravated since the marriage in 1236 of 
the King with Eleanor of Provence, whose foreign relations and 
followers were enriched at the expense of Englishmen by the 
imprudent generosity of the King. 

To return to the Welsh Marches. It is evident that during the 
winter of 1237-38 there had been frequent infractions of the truce, 
and that the aggressions had not all been made by the Welsh. 
On March 8, 1238, Letters Patent were directed to Henry de 
Audley and John le Strange, ordering them to go, on the Saturday 
before mid-Lent, to meet Amaury de St. Amand, the King's 
Steward, and to make amends to Llewelyn for attacks made on 
him and his people ; 2 these three were directed by a further 
mandate, dated on the following day, to proceed to Montgomery, 
where they were to inquire into and settle infractions of the truce ; 
Llewelyn was also informed of their mission and its purpose. 3 
Further instructions were given to le Strange that, whereas it was 
expedient to be prepared against the assaults of Llewelyn, he was 
to provide for the sufficient defence of the March, so that the 
lands of the King and his own may not suffer ; and, if necessary, 
he was to resist Llewelyn. It proved, however, to be unnecessary 
at that moment to proceed to extremities, and the Rolls of July 8 
contain a notification of the prolongation for a further year of 
the truce with Llewelyn, for observance whereof Henry de Audley 
and John le Strange had sworn. The peaceful issue of these 

1 C. Cl. R,, Hen. Ill, 1234-1237, p. 542. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, iii. 235. 

* Ibid. p. 212. 


protracted negotiations argues some diplomatic ability on the 
part of John le Strange, in addition to his administrative and 
military capacity. 

It is to this period, or shortly after it, that Eyton 1 refers an 
undated deed, which shows that Margery, a daughter of John le 
Strange (II), married Ralph de Pichford,and received as her marriage 
portion some land in Litcham (Norfolk). The deed recites that 
Nicholas de Willilegh, with the assent and wish of Burgia his wife, 
sells to Sir John le Strange (III) all that land in the vill of Lucam, 
Norfolk, which the father of the said John gave for the frank- 
marriage of Ralph de Pichford with Margery his daughter. 2 The 
pedigree, deduced therefrom by Eyton, is as follows : 


dau. of John le 
Strange (II.). 

occ. 121 1 ; ob. 

Nicholas de Willilegh, = Burgia de Pichford, 

occ. 1231, 1241, 
Defunctus 1255. 

superstes 1259. 

John le Strange (II) is named in the Testa de Nevill 3 as holding 
-j and of a knight's fee in Litcham of John fitz Alan of the 
fee of Mileham. 

The Chartulary of the abbey of Ramsey in Huntingdonshire * 
gives us a glimpse of Ringstead in the year 1240 ; a court baron 
was held there on February 23, and among the presentments it 
is mentioned that the church was in the gift of the abbot and 
convent of Ramsey, and was built in honour of St. Peter. A 
further entry states : 5 

Nicholaus filius Praepositi tenet undecim acras. Dat unam gallinam ad 
Natale pro habenda libera via ad aquam versus Hunestanestune cum siccitas 

Llewelyn the Great died on April n, 1240, and the English 

1 vi. 273. * Glover's Collection, A, fo. nib, " p. 2896. 

Cartularium monasteru de Ratneseia, ed. by W. H. Hart and P. A. Lyons ; Rolls 
Series, 1884, i. 404. * Ibid. p. 405. 


cause naturally gained ground for a few years on the removal 
of so great a warrior. Everywhere the barons of the March 
rebuilt the castles which had been destroyed by him. Civil war 
broke out between his sons David and Griffith, and David, to 
procure the assistance of the English king, agreed to do homage 
for his lands ; he captured his brother Griffith and delivered him 
to Henry, by whom he was imprisoned ; three years later the 
prisoner was slain in an attempt to escape from the Tower of 
London. The agreement between David and Henry was con- 
cluded at Gloucester on October 16 ; all disputes w ere submitted 
to arbitration, and David did homage to his uncle ; this arrange- 
ment was tested by John le Strange amongst others. 1 David 
was ordered to come to London to proceed to arbitration before 
the papal legate, and if he could not come in person, to send 
representatives with full powers ; he was informed that John le 
Strange would give him safe conduct. 2 Two months later the 
King's trust in le Strange was still further manifested, for on 
December 6, 1240, he was appointed by patent to the custody 
of the county and castle of Chester, 3 which John de Lexington 
was ordered to deliver to him, as well as the castles of Beeston 
and Halton in that county. His responsibilities were further 
increased by the death of John fitz Alan (I) early in the same 
year, as during the minority of his son, who came of age in 1244, 
the issues of the manors and castles of Clun, Oswestry, Shra- 
wardine, and Montford were in the hands of le Strange as Sheriff 
of Shropshire. 4 His name appears in the register of the Priory 
of Worcester for 1240 as paying 2S. rent : 5 

Redditus Prioratus Wigornise. 

De capella S. Oswaldi. 

De Johanne Extraneo in dedicatione ijs. 

Eyton points out 6 that the effect of the patent of December 
3, 1240, was equivalent to appointing John le Strange to the high 
office of Justice of Chester, and that in a palatine county such as 

1 Rymer's Fcedera, i. 239-240 ; C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, p. 344. 

1 C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, p. 344. 3 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 240. 

4 Eyton, vii. 253 ; and Pipe Rolls. 

5 Register of Worcester Priory, Camden Soc., 1865, p. 1086. 6 x. 271. 


Chester, the earldom of which was in the King's hands, the chief 
representative of the earl held an office more analogous to that 
of viceroy than to that of an ordinary sheriff. The calendar of 
documents relating to Ireland 1 contains some interesting items 
relating to le Strange while he held this office. In his accounts 
for Christmas, 1240, he enters eight hogsheads of wine from Ire- 
land sold at Chester. 2 On August 4, 1241, the King commands 
John le Strange to cause to be conveyed to him at Salop the 
porpoise (porpesium) which the King's Treasurer of Ireland sent 
from that county to Chester. 3 We shall see, later on, that, as 
late as the time of Henry VIII, a porpoise caught at Hunstanton 
was esteemed as a dainty dish fit to send as a present to ' my lord 
of Norwich.' A notification from the King, dated September 25, 
1241, states that the Treasurer of Ireland had delivered to John 
Strange, Justice of Chester, 1000 marks, treasure of Ireland, 
which he was to deposit in the Tower of London. 4 A few days 
later the Justice is ordered to receive six hogsheads of wine sent 
by the good men of Dublin for the King's use, and three for that 
of the Queen, and to convert them to the King's profit. 5 A 
mandate was sent to the Treasurer of Ireland on June 3, 1244, to 
pay to John le Strange, Justice of Chester, 600 marks to expedite 
the King's affairs. 6 On June 10, 1244, the Justice is commanded 
to cause sixty does and twenty bucks to be taken alive in the 
parks nearest to Chester, and to have them sent to Dalkey, near 
Kingstown, in Ireland, to stock the King's Park of Glencry. 7 
Three days later he was ordered to cause Maurice Fitz Gerald, 
Justice of Ireland, to have in the forest of Wirrall four stags and 
six fallow deer of the King's gift. 8 Nor was John le Strange 
himself forgotten with regard to these royal gifts of venison : 
the Close Rolls of the period contain many writs, headed ' de cervis 
datis,' directing Hugh Fitz Robert, Forester of Shropshire, to 
supply le Strange with two, and often with three stags, out of 
his bailiwick in the months of June or July. 9 

1 Rolls Series, 1875. z Pipe Roll, 25 Hen. Ill, memb. 3, dorso. 

3 Liberate Roll, 25 Hen. Ill, m. 6. 4 Pat. Roll, 25 Hen. Ill, m. 2. 

8 Originalia, 25 Hen. Ill, m. 4. Col. Doc. rel. to Ireland, p. 397, No. 2667. 

7 Liberate Roll, 28 Hen. Ill, m. 8. 8 Close Rolls, 28 Hen. Ill, m. 8. 

* C. Cl. R., Hen. Ill, 1237-1242, pp. 71, 200, 317, 449. 


The custody of the Lincolnshire manor of Bernoreby (? Barneiby) 
had been given by the King to John le Strange on December 29, 
1238, to be held by him during the minority of the heir of John 
fitz Philip, of Bobbington, on the borders of Staffordshire and 
Salop. 1 Later on the custody of all the lands of fitz Philip was 
committed to him ; z he appears to have enjoyed them until about 
the year 1247, but Eyton says that the exact duration of his 
tenure thereof is uncertain. 3 A mandate was sent to the Sheriff 
of Salop and Stafford on November 25, 1243, to distrain on John 
le Strange, to make him give an account of the issues of the lands 
of John fitz Philip which were in his custody. 4 As late as Michael- 
mas, 1261, his debts to the Crown, long in arrear, included an item 
of 153 4$. 4%d., a balance of an account of the issues of the lands 
of John fitz Philip as rendered in I247. 5 

In the early summer of 1240 considerable building operations 
were undertaken by the King's direct orders at the castle of 
Shrewsbury. On May 3 John le Strange was ordered to press 
forward the works which he had already begun on the royal 
chamber and other places there, and the King promised to pro- 
vide for the costs thereof as soon as he should get to Gloucester. 6 
Another mandate, dated May 18, directed le Strange to lay out 
on the works of that castle one out of the 200 marks which had 
been paid into his hands, and to hold the other hundred until 
further orders. On July 4 he was told to hand over the second 
hundred marks to the wardens of the works at the castle. 7 In 
the autumn of 1240 John le Strange was living at Montgomery ; 
on September 22 he was ordered to leave that castle in safe custody 
and to go to Cardigan Castle with the Bishop of St. Asaph, John 
of Monmouth, and Walter de Clifford, to hear and settle a dispute 
which had arisen as to the lands belonging to that castle and those 
of Maelgwm, son of Maelgwm. 8 

There must have been further trouble on the Welsh Marches 
during the winter 1240-41, for the Patent Rolls of the period 

1 Excerpt, e Rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, i. 317. * Rot. Orig. in Cur. Scacc., i. 56. 

3 Eyton, iii. 165 ; and Originalia, i. 5. * Excerpt, e Rot. Fin., i. 408. 

6 Rot. Pip., 45 Hen. Ill, Salop. 

6 C. Cl. R., Hen. Ill, 1237-1242, pp. 189, 191. * Ibid. p. 191. 

8 Ibid. p. 242. 


contain several mandates to John le Strange, indicating that the 
truce, which we have seen so frequently renewed, was but im- 
perfectly observed. On January 8, 1241, he and Henry de Audley 
were commissioned to conduct David, son of Llewelyn, and those 
with him to the King at Worcester. Letters of Protection were 
sent to le Strange on February 3 to conduct, either in person or 
by one of his knights, Owen son of Hoel and other Welshmen, 
who were coming to Worcester to speak with the King ; and on 
March 5 further orders were sent to him to conduct David to 
Shrewsbury, that the latter might do and receive justice for in- 
juries committed by or against him. 1 The wording of this last 
mandate implies some doubt at least as to which side had first 
broken the truce. 

John le Strange was so busily employed at this time that, 
apparently, he had no leisure to make up and send in his accounts 
as Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire ; the Barons of the 
Exchequer were instructed to accept, in lieu thereof, accounts 
rendered by Philip de Pres and Walter de Kineley. 2 

A curious understanding, affording evidence of the confidential 
relations existing between the King and his trusty minister, is 
embodied in a patent of February 13, 1241, 3 giving notification 
that John le Strange, to whom the King has committed the castles 
of Montgomery, Shrewsbury, Bridgnorth, and Chester, has sworn 
on the Holy Gospels before the King, and bound himself by Letters 
Patent, that in the event of the King's death he will deliver the 
said castles to Eleanor, his Queen, to the use of Edward, his 
son and heir, or of another heir begotten by the said King of 
the said Queen ; Edward was at that date an infant under two 
years of age. 

An entry in the Close Rolls of May 10, 1241, directs John le 
Strange to send to the Bishop of Hereford, for his castle of Lydbury 
North, two of the best bretaschia in his custody at Montgomery. 4 
Bretaschia (Fr. bretache ; Anglice, brattice = boarding) were a 
movable gallery of woodwork overhanging the walls of castles 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, pp. 242, 244, 246. 

* C. Cl. R., Hen. Ill, 1237-1242, p. 279. 8 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 244. 

* C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, p. 299. 


to enable the defenders to throw down things on those assault- 
ing the walls. 

Power had been given, on March 5, 1241, to Hugh Pateshull, 
Bishop of Coventry, John le Strange, and others to hear the 
complaints of and against David, and to do justice therein ; 1 
also power to le Strange to conduct David, ' some time Prince 
of North Wales,' to Shrewsbury. Apparently they were unable 
to effect a satisfactory settlement, for le Strange was placed in 
supreme command of the Marches, and a mandate was issued by 
the King from Marlborough, on July 13, to all the barons, knights, 
&c., in the counties of Chester, Salop, and Stafford, to come in 
force when summoned by le Strange to defend the King's lieges 
of Wales against attack. 2 His precautions were not confined to 
the modern limits of the three counties under his charge ; as 
Justice of Chester his jurisdiction was, of course, the palatinate, 
and, as Sheriff, extended over Salop and Stafford, three smaller 
shires than they afterwards became. He was also Keeper of 
Clun and Oswestry (not as yet in Shropshire), and thus had an 
exceptionally strong position, being practically military governor 
of the whole north March ; he was also expected to keep an eye 
to the King's interests beyond it, especially in the ' four Cantreds ' 
of the vale of Clwyd, viz. Englefield, Rhos, Rhuvoniog, and 
Duffryn, often spoken of as a unity, and in which the Welsh had 
gained considerably under Llewelyn ap lorwerth, though much 
was now falling back into English hands. How greatly the Welsh 
had gained is seen from David's renunciations of territory, made 
on his submission on August 29, 1241, at Alnetum [the alder- 
wood], near St. Asaph, in the Cantred of Englefield. 3 

Henry himself came to the March to settle the results of 
the campaign, and at once approved the policy of le Strange, 
who had commenced the building of a new castle not far from 
Rhuddlan, at the mouth of the vale of Clwyd, for which he pro- 
vided a site out of the lands in Englefield which the withdrawal 
of the Welsh had left in his hands as Justice of Chester. The 
King, writing to him from Chester on September 3, says that it 
is ' well pleasing to him that he should fortify that place which 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 246. z Ibid. p. 254. * Ibid. p. 264. 


he has provided near Rhuddlan/ and he was immediately autho- 
rised to expend 600 marks on the works. 1 A further mandate, 
entered in the Close Rolls on October 18, directs the Justice of 
Chester to retain, out of the knights and men-at-arms whom he 
has with him at Rhuddlan, as many as are necessary for that 
castle, and also for the castle on the rock near that place i.e. 
the castle of Diserth and if he has more men than are required he 
is to send them to the King. Of the victuals sent from Ireland 
he is to retain sufficient to supply the garrison for a year, and to 
sell the surplus ; also he is to take 40 from the issues of Cheshire, 
Staffordshire, and Salop for the works of the said castles, and 
to get them completed as soon as possible. 2 John le Strange 
deserves credit as the founder and builder of Diserth, the chief 
border castle in this region until Edward I built the new Rhuddlan 
after 1277 ; the effect was the laying of a solid foundation for the 
King's power between the Conway and the Clwyd, and the restitu- 
tion of Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn to his dominions. More was 
done later on ; le Strange made it possible for Henry III in 1254 
to grant to his son Edward lands in Wales besides the county 
of Cheshire ; and it looks as if he had anticipated the strategy 
by which Edward I afterwards accomplished the conquest of 
North Wales, namely, by surrounding it with a girdle of castles 
on the north and west, having the sea as their base an early 
instance of the advantage to England of sea power. A patent 
of October 29, 1241, directs William le Brun, in conjunction with 
John le Strange, Justice of Chester, to extend, i.e. to render a 
detailed account and survey of, the King's demesne lands and 
manors in that county ; 3 Professor Tout points out to me that 
this was a natural result of the wide extension of Cheshire lands 
due to le Strange's conquests and to David's cessions. 

The thousand marks of the Treasure of Ireland, which le 
Strange had been directed on September 25 to receive and send 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 258 ; and C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, p. 327. 

1 C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, pp. 338-389. See also Ann. Cambrie, Brut y Tywysogion, 
sub anno. Ann. Cestr., p. 62 ; Lancashire and Cheshire Record Soc., 1241. An interesting 
paper, which tries to trace building on both of le Strange's sites in Archceologia Cam- 
brensis (1912). Welsh Hist. Mon. Comm., Flintshire, pp. 20-21. 

3 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 265. 


to the Tower of London, never reached the Exchequer ; on 
November 28 an acquittance was issued to him for the whole 
sum, whereof, by order of the King, he had expended 250 marks on 
the fortification of the castles of Beeston and Rhuddlan, and had 
delivered the balance of 750 marks to the King himself at Marl- 
borough. 1 On December 2 following he was ordered to deliver 
up to David, son of Llewelyn, certain hostages as soon as the 
latter had released other named hostages held by him : the 
winter season, apparently, brought peace and quiet for a short 
time to the Marches. 2 

By the agreement made between King Henry and his nephew, 
Prince David, the latter had undertaken to restore to the King 
the territory of Mold, in the modern county of Flint, as well 
as seisin of all lands captured from the Barons of the March 
since the beginning of the war with David's father, Llewelyn. 
On September 5, 1241, John le Strange was directed to receive 
and retain for the King the territory of Mold, and to take seisin 
of the other lands and restore them to the several barons, after 
they had established their claims to them at the court of arbitra- 
tion to be held at London. In the meantime le Strange was ordered 
to cut down and lay low all woods, wherever necessary, to secure 
good and ample passage for the security of the realm. 3 He was 
further ordered, on October 30, 1241, to pay, out of the issues of 
the counties under his charge, or else out of those of the lands of 
John fitz Alan (of which he held the wardship), the sum of 40 
to Henry de Audley, to fortify the King's castle of Mold. 4 

Early in the following year we find mention of another link 
in the chain of northern fortresses which was being forged to 
ring in Snowdon : a mandate of January 7, 1242, enjoins Henry 
de Audley to deliver the castle of Mold, which he had fortified by 
order of the King, to John le Strange. 5 That baron was appointed 
on February 25 to assess tallage on the King's demesnes in the 
counties of Salop and Stafford. 6 

King Henry was at this period making preparations for war 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 267. z Ibid. p. 267. 

3 Ibid. p. 329. * Liberate Rolls, Hen. Ill, 30 Oct. 

8 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 269. * Ibid. p. 273. 


with France, and was therefore content to patch up a peace on 
the Welsh border. David, one of the sons of Griffith, and grand- 
son of Llewelyn ap lorwerth, had hitherto been held as a hostage 
in custody of John le Strange, but, on March 13, the King ordered 
his release, and on the same day 1 issued a mandate to le Strange 
and John de Monmouth, who held the same relation to the King's 
lands in South Wales that le Strange did in the north, saying that 
it was his will that the land of England and the land of Wales be 
common to English as to Welsh to carry on business, so long as 
his nephew serve him faithfully. A few days previously, viz. on 
March 10, 1242, le Strange, as Justice of Chester, had a mandate 
to receive from Llewelyn, son of Meredudd, the sum of 40* 

Henry was desirous of taking with him to Gascony some of 
the seasoned warriors from the Welsh border ; the knights and 
sergeants in garrison in the castles of Rhuddlan and Beeston, 
* except such as John le Strange thinks should be retained,' were 
ordered to come to the King ; 3 and, on the proclamation of war 
against France on June 8, le Strange and Monmouth were ordered 
to send ' 500 bonos Walenses ' to the King. 4 On the eve of his de- 
parture for France the King wrote from Portsmouth to le Strange 
that he was to receive 300 marks from Prince David, and to expend 
them on strengthening the castles in his custody. 5 Henry had 
evidently a high opinion of the fighting qualities of these Welshmen, 
for, as soon as he got to Gascony, he wrote again to le Strange that 
they were to be sent out ' quanta poterint festinacione.' 6 John 
le Strange was apparently unable to find more than 260 out of 
the 500 good Welshmen wanted, and he had to wait six years 
before he got paid his expenses in respect of these ; the Barons 
of the Exchequer were ordered, on July 18, 1248, to allow him, 
out of the issues of the Justices in Eyre, the sum of 34, which he 
had expended in conveying 260 Welsh foot-soldiers, and three 
constables of the same, by sea to the King in Gascony ; viz. for 
ten days each foot-soldier receiving 2d. a day, the master of each 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, pp. 276-277. 

* Excerpt, e Rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, curd, C. Roberts, i. 371. 

* C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 278. ' Foedera, i. 246 ; C. Cl. R., 1237-1242, p. 497. 
6 Ibid. p. 426. Ibid. p. 498. 



twenty of them 4^. a day, and each constable I2d. a day. 1 This 
pay was very high, equivalent perhaps to 6s. 8d. a day for the 
men, and 2 a day for the constables. On the departure of the 
King for France le Strange was left in command on the Welsh 
March, and a mandate was sent to all barons, knights, &c., of 
Cheshire, Salop, and Staffordshire, ordering them, whenever 
called upon by him, to come to his aid with men, arms, and horses. 2 
Henry's expedition to France was not fortunate ; he was deserted 
by the Poitevins, barely escaped capture, and retired to Bordeaux, 
where a five years' truce was agreed upon ; he did not, however, 
return to England until September 25, 1243. 

A commission was issued on March i, 1242, to John le Strange 
and Henry de Audley to inquire into the respective claims of 
Roger de Montalt [=Mold] and David, son of Llewelyn, to the castle 
of Mold ; the result, apparently, was that Roger established his 
claim, as a patent of May 6 following appoints ' Roger de Mohaut ' 
to the custody of the castle during pleasure, and le Strange is 
ordered to deliver it to him. 3 

Griffith ap Wenwynwyn, afterwards known as Griffith de la 
Pole, had succeeded his father as a minor about 1218 in the prin- 
cipality of Upper Powys, which lay round the head waters of 
the Severn, to the south-east of Llewelyn's country of Snowdon, 
affording, therefore, convenient access for attacking the latter 
territory ; it was, moreover, immediately contiguous to the great 
fief of fitz Alan, and to le Strange' s own castle of Knocknu 
Griffith did not come into possession of his principality until 1241, 
when he did homage for it to Henry III ; next year he married 
Hawyse, daughter of John le Strange, and had a special grant 
allowing him to assign her dowry in his Derbyshire manor of 
Ashford, under conditions which showed the great favour of the 
King to the family of le Strange, and the importance attached 
by him to this marriage ; the dowry was assured to Hawyse for 
life if she survived her husband, even if Griffith should abandon 
[as at one time he did] the service and fealty of the King. 4 For 
some time Griffith remained true to his English allegiance, and 

1 Liberate Roll, 32 Hen. III. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 288. 

3 Ibid. p. 288. * C. Ch. R., 1226-1257, p. 266. 


his services to the Crown were rewarded by grants ; x but we 
shall see that in the civil wars later on he sided with Montfort and 
the rebellious barons. 

It has been mentioned that John le Strange had custody of 
fitz'Alan's lands during the minority of the heir from 1240 to 1244. 
Hawyse de Blancminster, widow of John fitz Alan (I), died during 
this interval, so, on September 19, 1242, 2 le Strange, as Justice 
of Chester, was ordered to take all her lands into the King's hands, 
as her dower devolved to the estate of her stepson, which was in 
le Strange 's custody. A patent of October 3 3 directed him to 
let to farm, as should be best for the King, the demesne lands 
held in dower by her. 

The Patent Rolls of 1244 and 1245 contain many orders and 
directions addressed to John le Strange as Justice of Chester ; 
his jurisdiction must have extended as far south as Ludlow, for, 
on March 15, 1244, he was ordered to deliver that castle to Peter 
de Geneva, as it fell to him in right of his wife Maud, one of the 
heirs of Walter de Lacy. 4 Peter of Genville, or Joinville, was a 
kinsman of the biographer of St. Louis, and a man of position 
in Champagne ; he became a great favourite of Henry III. A 
mandate of May 25 directs le Strange to deliver the castles of 
Oswestry, Clun, and Shrawardine to John fitz Alan (II), who had 
now come of age. 5 Trouble had again broken out with David, 
who had renounced his allegiance, obtained protection from the 
Pope, and ravaged the Marches in June 1244. 

Two undated letters, which from internal evidence may be 
referred to the summer of this year, are preserved at the Record 
Office, and throw considerable light on the state of affairs in 
Wales at that period. The first 6 is addressed to King Henry 
by John le Strange, who informs His Majesty (regia majestas 
vestra) that David son of Llewelyn has retired to his own lands 
on hearing that the King had sent forces to South Wales. It 
has been intimated to le Strange that David intended to invest 

1 Rot. Pat. 30 Hen. Ill, m. 10 ; Rot. Chart. 35 Hen. Ill, No. ir. 

* Excerpt, e Rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, i. 384. C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 304. 
Ibid. p. 421. 8 Ibid. p. 426. 

Ancient Correspondence, P.R.O. iv. 4. 

I 2 


(vallare) Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn's castle of Walwar, and that 
the latter is afraid that, unless succoured by the King, his men 
may renounce their fealty ; le Strange therefore asks that a re- 
inforcement of forty or fifty knights with their men-at-arms may 
be promptly sent, so that the Welsh may see that they will not 
be left without help if they remain true to their allegiance. David 
has placed so large a force between Chester and the castle of 
Diserth that le Strange is unable, without a large army, to get 
near enough to that castle to enable him to throw a garrison into 
it, but even if he had plenty of money he could not find, in the 
three counties (Chester, Salop, and Stafford), thirty men in 
possession of horses fit to lend help, so he hopes that the King 
will not forget his necessity. The answer to this appeal 1 is dated 
from Huntingdon on June 24 [year not given], and addressed 
' dilecto et fideli suo Johanni Extraneo, Justiciario suo Cestriae ' ; 
the King thanks him for his unwearied diligence in his service, 
and directs him to apply the revenues of the three border counties 
to their defence, for which allowance shall be made to him at the 
Exchequer ; if Diserth or any other royal castle should be besieged, 
he is to go in person, or to send any of the magnates to secure 
them. The King intends to be at Geddington (Northamptonshire) 
on June 29, where Simon de Montfort and others will meet him 
to consult about the situation, but help cannot be sent until after 
getting their advice. This letter is endorsed ' Summa M.C.C.C.C. 
et vli., xviijs., iid,' which probably represents the amount taken 
from the issues of the three counties for the defence of the March. 
Evidently the Welsh were, at this juncture, more than holding 
their own. 

The Treasurer of Ireland was ordered to deliver to le Strange 
600 marks, whereof the Justice was to hand over 300 marks to 
the Earl of Essex and Hereford and to John of Monmouth for the 
war in their parts, and to keep the rest himself for war purposes. 2 
Power was given by patent of July 15 to John le Strange, the 
abbot of Haughmond, and the prior of Wenlock, to make a truce 
with David, son of Llewelyn, sometime Prince of North Wales, the 
King's nephew, as the said John thinks fit ; and the mayor and 

1 Ancient Correspondence, P.R.O. ii. 81. * C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 427. 


burgesses of Chester were requested, in the present urgent necessity, 
to lend him 300 marks, or even 200 marks, for the defence of the 
King's castles and lands, which Henry undertook faithfully to 
repay. 1 It was not repaid until forty-one years later, in the time 
of John's grandson. 2 A similar request was made to the good 
men of Shrewsbury for 200 marks. A notification was also issued 
on the same day that the King would approve of whatever John 
le Strange, Justice of Chester, should ordain touching the Welsh 
prisoners in the Tower of London, provided only that it be in accord- 
ance with the form conceived at Nottingham in the presence of 
the King, his councillors, and the said justice. Two days later, 
on July 17, a mandate was sent to the barons, knights, and others 
of the three counties to give faith to what le Strange would tell 
them touching the state of the March to be guarded. 3 Evidently 
the good men of Chester did not think it prudent to lend more 
than the smaller sum asked for, as a mandate of August 27, 1244, 
enjoins on le Strange to repay out of the first issues of the county 
the 200 marks which had been lent by the mayor and burgesses. 4 
All this does not look as if things were going very well for the 
King ; he ravaged the fringe of the Snowdon country and 
strengthened his castles, but returned to England in October. 

On January 6, 1245, Henry wrote to le Strange, as Justice of 
Chester, to send on to David, son of Llewelyn, and other barons 
of North and South Wales, the King's letters, summoning them 
to appear at Westminster to answer for their trespasses. 5 It is 
noteworthy that David is addressed by the King, not as an indepen- 
dant prince, but simply as one of his barons, from whom feudal 
obedience was due. Two days later a patent was issued to John 
le Strange and three others, empowering them to make a truce 
with David, but something must have occurred immediately after- 
wards which induced Henry to hold his hand, for on January 16 
a further patent to the same barons commanded them, if they 
had made a truce, to let it remain in suspense until confirmed 
by the King. 6 On March 6 John le Strange and Henry de Audley 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 431. See infra. C.P.R., p. 432. 

4 Ibid. p. 435. 8 Close Rolls, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 16, d. 

C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 448. 


were commissioned to treat of a truce with David, and to conduct 
his envoys to the King's council, but were instructed by no means 
to make a truce longer than until St. James the Apostle (July 25). 1 

It will be remembered that since 1236 le Strange had held 
the office of Gustos of Montgomery, and that he farmed the cas- 
tellany thereof at a rent to the Crown of 20 a year. In the Pipe 
Roll of 1243 there is a space left on his roll as sheriff for his account 
as Fermor, but no particulars are entered except his debt of 20 ; 
he certainly retained the office until 1245, if not longer, for he owed 
100, or five years' arrears, on this account in 1248. In 1249 
he was no longer in office, as an inquest was held at Montgomery 
on January 7 as to dilapidations suffered by the castle, with 
its chapel, bridges, and other buildings, during the time of five 
preceding constables, but mostly in that of John le Strange. 2 

On July n, 1245, the King having heard that David was laying 
siege to Diserth Castle, sent a mandate to the knights and free 
tenants of Cheshire to be with their horses and arms at Chester 
on Thursday, July 20, to meet the earls and barons whom he 
was sending to the relief of the said castle ; a like mandate was 
sent to the Earl of Ferrars and ten others. 3 John le Strange 
is not mentioned in these letters, so perhaps he was besieged in 
the castle. Two days later, on July 13, the garrisons at Mont- 
gomery and Shrewsbury were ordered ' to be intendant ' to John 
le Strange, Justice of Chester, in executing the King's orders. 4 
A mandate of November 6, 1245, to William de Oddingeseles, 
Roger de Clifford, and nine others, directs them to stay in the parts 
of Montgomery with John le Strange, without going away, for the 
defence of those parts from the incursions of the King's enemies. 5 
Another mandate of two days later appoints Fulk Fitz Warin, 
John le Strange, and Henry de Audley to arbitrate on the claims 
of Griffith ap Madoc and Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, touching 
certain lands of Dendover, seized from David son of Llewelyn 
during the last war. 6 

Some time during the latter half of 1245 John le Strange 

1 Pat. Rolls, 29 Hen. Ill, m. 8. * Montgomeryshire Collections, x. 83. 

C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 456. Ibid. p. 456. 

5 Ibid. p. 466. Ibid. p. 466. 


ceased to hold the responsible and onerous office of Justice of 
Chester, though, as we have just seen, he was still in the field 
near Montgomery during November. His successor was John de 
Grey, who was in office at the beginning of the next year, as is 
shown by a patent of January 24, 1246, appointing him, as Justice 
of Chester, with three others to do justice touching tolls and prises 
done in the county of Chester by the bailiffs of John le Strange 
when he was Justice. 1 

During the years 1246 and 1247 I find no further mention of 
John le Strange. These years were mainly occupied by remon- 
strances against the extortions of the papal legate and the en- 
croachments of ecclesiastical judges. David, who had given so 
much trouble in the Marches of North Wales, died in 1246, and 
his nephew, Llewelyn ap Griffith, escaped from England and was 
chosen to succeed him in the principality. 

In the year 1248 John le Strange, who must then have been 
about fifty-five years of age, was relieved of some of his respon- 
sibilities with regard to the defence of the Welsh March. The 
Patent Roll of June 22 2 states that he has surrendered to the 
King the castles of Shrewsbury, Bridgnorth, and Ellesmere, late 
in his custody, and that Thomas Corbet had been commanded to 
receive and keep them during pleasure. We have seen that in 
this year he ceased to be Custos of Montgomery ; he also sur- 
rendered the shrievalty of Shropshire and Staffordshire, and 
before November 1245 John de Grey had succeeded him in the 
office of Justice of Chester. 

On October 26, 1249, ^ e Strange had a grant from the King, 
to him and his heirs, of a weekly market on Tuesdays at his manor 
of Knockin, and of a yearly fair there, to be held on the vigil, the 
feast (August 29), and the morrow of the Decollation of St. John the 
Baptist. 3 This grant led to a prolonged litigation with his suzerain, 
John fitz Alan, who questioned his right to establish a market and 
fair at Knockin, on the ground that it infringed his own privileges 
in the Hundred, and injured the market and fair in his town of 
Oswestry ; Eyton was unable to ascertain the result of this suit. 4 

1 C.P.R., 1232-1247, p. 490 * C.P.R., 1247-1258, p. 20. 

3 C. Ch. R. t 1226-1257, p. 345. Eyton, x. 369. 


Le Strange's eldest son, also called John, makes his appearance 
in public life about this time, but the father continued to be 
employed by the King both in the field, and as a negotiator to 
settle important matters on many occasions. The inquisitions 
of 35 Hen. Ill * show John, the elder, holding an inquiry for the 
King as to the diversion of the course of the Severn, so as to 
bring it to a mill obtained from the Welsh by Baldwin de Mont- 
gomery. The Patent Roll of March 13, 1253, contains an appoint- 
ment of John le Strange and William Trussel to inquire who 
killed William de Albo Monasterio, seneschal of William de Albo 
Monasterio, and by whose command, and who sheltered the 
evil-doers. 2 On July 4 he was directed, in company with 
William la Zuche and Robert de Grendon, to hear plaints between 
Fulk fitz Warin the younger, and Thomas Corbet, Meredudd 
Goch, and other Welshmen, and to do justice according to the 
custom of those parts. 3 On August 3, 1253, John le Strange and 
Robert de Grendon were directed to view the injury done to the 
King by Griffith de Bromfield in the woods at Ellesmere, and to 
amend the said injury. 4 

It was in this year (1253) that John's second son Hamon, 
whom we shall find later on maintaining the family tradition of 
loyalty to his sovereign during Montfort's rebellion, first appears 
in public life ; on May 30 ' Hamo le Straunge ' is among those 
who had Letters of Protection, going with the King to Gascony, 
for so long as they are in service in those parts. 5 The Gascons 
had revolted against the oppressive government of Simon de 
Montfort, and had been supported by Alphonso IV of Castile, 
whom however Henry induced to abandon their cause by pro- 
posing a marriage between Prince Edward and Alphonso' s sister 
Eleanor. The King crossed over to Bordeaux in August, and 
Hamon very soon gained his favour ; on September 9 he received 
a patent, dated in camp at La Reole, granting him 30 marks a 
year at the Exchequer for life, or until the King provide for him 
to that value in wards or escheats. 6 Henry remained in Gascony 

1 No. 23. * C.P.R., 1247-1258, p. 226. 

8 Ibid. p. 234. Ibid. p. 238. 

* Ibid. 1247-1258, p. 231. Ibid. p. 293. 


during the greater part of the following year (1254), an d Hamon 
with him, as is shown by his witnessing a royal grant of free warren 
in Wormegay (Norfolk)" to William Bardolph and his heirs ; this 
grant is dated at St. Macaire, on the Gironde, July 19, I254. 1 King 
Henry returned to England at the end of the year, and on his way 
through France was splendidly entertained at Paris by Louis IX. 

During this year John le Strange was twice employed by the 
absent King on civil business on the Welsh border ; on January 
31 he was appointed, with Alan la Zouch, now Justice of Chester, 
Griffith de Bromfield, and his own son-in-law Griffith ap Gwen- 
wynwyn, to hear and determine the contentions which had arisen 
between the two Welsh princes, David son of Griffith and his 
brother Llewelyn : z and, on May 21, le Strange and the abbot 
of Pershore (Worcestershire) were commissioned to extend and 
appraise the lands late of William de Braose, and to partition 
them among his heirs. 3 

The manor of Little Ercall, now Child's Ercall, in Shropshire, 
had fallen to John le Strange as mesne lord c. 1230-40 : the 
feodary of 1240 says that he held Middle and Little Ercall under 
fitz Alan for 2\ knights' fees ; 4 the greater part of the manor 
had, however, been granted for a term of years to the abbot of 
Combermere. Soon after 1255 John le Strange made over to 
his third son, Roger, 'whatever he had in Ercall/ by which 
expression Eyton understands that he conveyed, not the mesne- 
lordship, but such reversionary rights as would accrue when- 
ever the abbot of Combermere's term expired. The Bradford 
Hundred Roll of 1255 shows that John le Strange held the manor 
of Cheswardine in capite by service of half a knight's fee ; that 
he did suit to the county, but not to the hundred ; and that he 
exercised free warren, and had a park at Cheswardine, by war- 
ranty unknown to the jurors. 5 The Pimhill Hundred Roll of the 
same year states that in Middle he held five geldable hides of the 
fee of John fitz Alan, by service of four Muntarii 6 for forty days 

1 C.P.R., 1247-1258, p. 313. z Ibid. p. 362. 8 Ibid. p. 377. 

4 Testa de Nevill, pp. 45, 48, 49. 6 Eyton, viii. 13. 

* Muntarius, or Munitor, was a man-at-arms serving in garrison ; his services for 
forty days were accounted as equal to the service of a knight for twenty days. 


at Oswestry, both for the said land and for all the lands which 
he holds of John fitz Alan in Shropshire ; that Middle owes suit 
to the county and to the Hundred, and pays 20^. for stretward, 1 
but nothing for motfee. 2 As to Ness, the same survey sets forth 
that le Strange held there two hides in capite, doing the service 
of one knight for forty days yearly in time of war ; he does no 
suit to Pimhill Hundred, but does suit to the county, as for his 
other lands in Shropshire ; he holds a free court and a franchise, 
the jurors know not by what title. 3 The same Hundred Roll says 
that Ness had been given to the ancestors of John le Strange by 
King Henry II, and that, by grant of the same King, le Strange 
' habuitf ureas in manerio suo de Ness ' : f ureas signifying the jurisdic- 
tion of the gallows and the pit ; i.e. the lord had power to punish 
felons, men by hanging, women by drowning. 

Hamon le Strange probably returned to England with the King 
at the end of 1254, as m the following year we find him employed 
in Scotland. During the long reign of Henry III peace with 
Scotland had never been broken by actual hostilities, though on 
more than one occasion a rupture had been very near, owing 
to repeated attempts on the part of the English king to exact 
homage from his northern neighbour, a performance of which 
was as constantly astutely evaded by the Scottish king. Alex- 
ander III of Scotland had married Margaret, daughter of Henry 
III, but Robert de Ros and John Balliol had formed an association 
against the connection with England, and had practically imprisoned 
the young King and Queen. Henry went to Scotland and released 
them from their tutelage without the necessity of taking violent 
measures ; Hamon le Strange accompanied Henry to Scotland in 
1255, and appears to have been left there to ensure the carrying out 
of his policy after the King had gone back to England. A writ 
was directed from Newcastle-on-Tyne, on August 28, 1255, directing 
the Sheriff of Shropshire, ' as Hamo le Estraunge is intentive on the 
King's service in Scotland/ to pay to him out of the issues of the 
county 30 marks of his annual fee in the Exchequer, due at 

1 A rate for maintenance of the King's highways. 
a A contribution to the folk- mote, or Hundred Court. 
3 Rot. Hundred, ii. 75, 105. 


Easter and Michaelmas this year. 1 These 30 marks had been 
granted to Hamon, as we have seen, while in Gascony, two years 
before. Another writ, dated from Windsor on April 29, 1256, 
directed the same sheriff to pay without delay 30 marks out of 
the issues of the county to Hamon le Strange, ' who has long been 
intentive on the King's service in Scotland/ 2 

A packet of old charters, labelled Bundela litteramm temp. 
Hen. Ill, which was seen by Rymer, preserves a record of border 
forays in 1256, in which John le Strange junior took part. Llewelyn, 
son of Griffith, Prince of Wales, writes to King Henry complaining 
that the Justice of Chester, with other barons Marcher, and the 
son of Lord John Extraneus, have made many irruptions and 
attacks on the lands of his vassal, Griffith de Bromfield, and he asks 
for justice. 8 The complaint does not appear to have been made 
before the autumn of 1261 ; 4 on June 8, 1262, the King ordered 
an inquiry into this matter, to be held at the ford of Montgomery 
by Humphrey de Bohun and James de Audley, but the result 
of the investigation is not given. The Welsh, headed by Llewelyn, 
rose against the oppression of the royal officers in 1258, and in 
the following year ravaged the Marches as far as Chester. The 
King in consequence invaded Wales, but retired without effect- 
ing anything. On May 10 a mandate was issued to Humphrey 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, John le Strange, and many 
others, to aid John de Grey, who had been appointed by Edward, 
the King's son, to keep and defend the March of Wales between 
Chester and South Wales. 5 The situation was now changed by 
the grant which the King had made of all that he had in Wales 
to his son Edward ; hence le Strange acts as the deputy of Edward 
and not of the King. It is not clear whether the above-mentioned 
John le Strange was the father or the son ; probably the latter, 
as on September 15 a writ was addressed to John le Strange the 
younger, and to those who stay at Chester on the King's service, 
and have protection so long as they be there on that service ; 

1 Cal. of Doc. rel. to Scotland, 1108-1272, i. 383, No. 1999. 

1 Ibid. p. 398, No. 2048. Fcedera, i. 339. 

4 Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, Rolls Series, ii. 218219. 

6 C.P.R., 1247-1258, p. 553 ; Annales Cambrics, 92. 


they were admonished to give a liberal aid to their lord, as the 
King was going in person against the Welsh. 1 Before Christmas, 
Llewelyn seems to have made overtures for peace, as the Patent 
Rolls contain a safe conduct for his messengers coming to Oswestry 
to treat with Peter de Montfort and John le Strange, appointed 
for this, touching peace. Power was given to these barons in 
conjunction with James de Audley, to make a truce between the 
King, Edward his son, and their barons and men, and Llewelyn 
and his men throughout the March of Wales. 2 

In 1258 the quarrel which had long been seething between 
the King and his subjects came to a head. The confederated 
barons, assembled in Parliament at Oxford on June n, virtually 
deposed him, and drove out all who refused to observe their 
ordinances, styled the ' Provisions of Oxford.' The functions of 
government were assumed by a Council of State, at the head 
of which was Simon de Montfort, and the King was practically 
a prisoner in their hands. John le Strange the elder remained 
faithful to his sovereign, as also did Hamon his second son, but 
his eldest son John from the first espoused the cause of the barons. 
An entry in the Patent Rolls of June 22 shows that he was present 
at Oxford ; the castle of Winchester had been committed to 
William de Clare, who afterwards died, and on the Sunday after 
St. Peter's Chains, John le Strange the younger came on behalf 
of the said William before the King and Council, and surrendered 
to him the said castle, which was committed to Simon de Montfort. 3 
A commission was issued on July 23, 1258, to Peter de Montfort, 
Sheriff of Salop, John le Strange (probably the elder), and others, 
directing them to go to the church of the friars preachers of 
Shrewsbury, and to stop up and divert a lane beneath that church 
towards the north, which is noisome in time of heavy rains. 4 

The Report on Lord Middleton's papers, published by the 
Historical MSS. Commission, 5 contains a letter of March 14, 1259, 
from Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, agreeing to counsel 
and support Edward, the King's son, and his allies, and among 
the latter mentions ' Hamon le Estraunge.' Mr. Stevenson, who 

1 C.P.R., 1247-1258, p. 600. * Ibid. p. 660. * Ibid. p. 638. 

* Ibid. p. 642. P. 68. 


prepared this Report, points out the importance of this agree- 
ment ' as marking the gaining over by Edward's diplomacy of 
Gloucester and his party, thus breaking up the baronial phalanx 
that had ruled the country since the " Provisions of Oxford " in 
the previous year/ 

John le Strange had two daughters, Hawyse and Alice ; the 
former has already been mentioned as having married Griffith 
Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys ; the other, Alice, is 
believed by Eyton * to have been married about 1260-61 ; he 
cites a deed, without giving its provenance, whereby John le 
Strange gives to his daughter Alice, towards her marriage, half 
his manor of Lucham (Litcham, in Norfolk), together with the 
advowson of the church. At the same time John le Strange 
gave the other half of the same manor to his son Robert (the 
ancestor of the House of Blackmere), saving the curia, or manor- 
house. These deeds were witnessed by Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, 
Hamon le Strange, and Roger le Strange, the brother-in-law and 
brothers of Alice, but the name of her husband is not mentioned. 
Eyton further says that between the years 1269 and 1275 John 
le Strange quartus confirms to his sister Alice ten solidates of 
rent in Tottington (Norfolk). Eyton assigns to the same date 
a deed by which John le Strange tercius recovered some land 
at Litcham, which had been granted by some ancestor of his to 
Haughmond Abbey ; in exchange he gave to the canons a noke 
(=nook) of land at Cheswardine. 2 

During the summer of 1260 Llewelyn ap Griffith had again 
broken out into revolt, had successfully stormed Builth Castle 
and slaughtered the English garrison ; exasperated at this Henry, 
on August i, summoned an army for an expedition against Lle- 
welyn ; among the knights ordered to rendezvous at Chester 
on September 8 was John le Strange. 3 

In November 1260 le Strange and his son-in-law, Griffith ap 
Gwenwynwyn, were concerned in an outrage on a fellow royalist, 
James de Audley, who brought a suit at Westminster for it against 
Fulk Fitz Warin. The said Fulk, with Griffith and John, had 
sent Welshmen on June 29 to ravage Audley's lands during his 

1 x. 274. * Ibid. x. 32. 8 Rot. Claus. 44 Hen. Ill, m. 9, dorso. 


absence at Court ; they burnt three vills, slew eight men, wounded 
ten, and took ten prisoners, 260 oxen, 80 sheep, and 57 horses. 1 
Such were the feuds and disorders which were no uncommon event 
among neighbours on the Welsh Marches in those lawless times. 

Eyton 2 gives the following quotations from the Shropshire 
Forest Roll of February 1262, which, he says 

contain certain reminiscences of John le Strange and his sons, which show that 
the old man was a lover of the Forest and the Chase, and not very particular as 
to the example which he set in those matters of royal prerogative : 

Sir John le Strange, senior, did capture three stags and one doe (bissam) 
in the King's 4Oth year (1255-6). Hamo le Strange did capture one doe on 
September the 8th, 1257. Sir Hamo le Strange did capture one stag and one 
doe on Sunday October the I3th, 1258. John le Strange, junior, did capture 
two fallow deer (damos) on September I5th, 1259. 

The war with Simon de Montfort and the barons broke out 
in 1260, and lasted for five years ; nowhere was it carried on with 
greater fury than along the Welsh border. The custody of Mont- 
gomery Castle, with a salary of 120 marks, had been committed 
in that year to John le Strange junior ; 3 suspicion or proof of his 
disaffection must have been forthcoming before long, for the Patent 
Rolls of November 13, 1261, show that his loyalty was distrusted, 
while that of his younger brother Hamon was relied on with 
absolute confidence. A mandate, directed to John the younger, 
sets forth that he has been ordered several times by the King to 
come to speak with him on business affecting the castle of Mont- 
gomery, and has replied that he could not come ; he is therefore 
commanded to deliver the castle forthwith to John le Bretun, 
his steward. Another mandate of the same date, addressed to 
John le Bretun, as the King is informed that he is too busy in the 
affairs of Edward, the King's son, to attend to the keeping of the 
said castle, orders him to deliver it to the keeping of Hamon le 
Strange, and a writ de intendendo for the said Hamon is sent to all 
persons of the castle and honour of Montgomery. 4 In April 1262, 
when Simon de Montfort collected an army at Oxford, Hamon 
le Strange was among his adherents, as also were the King's 

1 Eyton, vii. 186. * Ibid. x. 272. 

Rot. Pat. 44 Hen. Ill, memb. 3. C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 191. 


nephew Henry, son of Richard King of the Romans, Earl Warenne, 
and many other personal friends of the King. 1 Henry was at that 
time in France ; he wrote from Amiens on July 22 to Philip 
Basset, Justiciar of England, thanking him for sending him a 
report, which turned out to be a false one, of the death of Llewelyn, 
and he enclosed letters to John le Strange and other lords Marcher, 
directing them not to allow the succession of Llewelyn's younger 
brother David, but if the report proved to be true, they were to 
assemble at Shrewsbury, and to be ready to march at once with 
an army into North Wales. 2 Eyton says that although Owen, the 
elder brother of the three, was still living, it is obvious that the 
King intended to allow no claim to the principality, but to seize 
it for himself. 3 

In 1263 the trouble with the barons was again becoming acute : 
under the leadership of Montfort they attacked the King's foreign 
favourites, and captured Gloucester, Bridgnorth, and other places 
garrisoned by the French mercenaries. Roger Mortimer, James 
de Audley, and Hamon le Strange met the barons of the Marches 
at Ludlow, to concert measures against Montfort and the insurgent 
nobles. 4 John le Strange the younger was at this time bailiff 
of Montgomery Castle ; a Welsh chronicle, which mentions him 
under the designation of ' Ion Ystrog ' or 'Ystrans, ' says that he made 
a night attack a little before Easter on Ceri and Cydewain, but was 
surprised by the Welsh, who assembled in great force and slew 
200 of his men, forcing him to retreat ; in revenge he burnt the 
barn of Abermule. 5 The Patent Rolls, under date June 16, 1263, 
record a promise to Hamon le Strange, to whom the King had 
committed the castles of Bridgnorth and Shrewsbury during 
pleasure, which by reason of the disturbance of the realm he has 
had to munition, that the King will allow him his reasonable 
costs in doing so, on condition that he answer for the same, 
as well as for other expenses made, whereof he had letters before 
at the Exchequer. 6 On August 10 a patent was issued ' by the 
counsel of the nobles,' appointing Hamon sheriff of the counties 

1 Annales Monastici, iii. 222. * Foedera, i. 398, 420. 

8 Eyton, vii. 27. * Trans. Shrops. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., i. 228. 

8 Brut y Tywysogion, pp. 345, 350. C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 266. 


of Salop and Stafford, which Roger de Somery was ordered to 
deliver to him ; * this implies that the King had again been obliged 
to submit to the barons, whose party was at that time favoured 
by de Somery and Hamon le Strange. Shortly after this Prince 
Edward took up arms against the barons, and several of them 
went over with him to the King's side ; among these were Earl 
Warenne, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Leybourne, John Vaux, 
and Hamon le Strange. Some of the chroniclers allege that 
their defection was due to corrupt motives ; the author of the 
' Annals of Duns table ' says : ' Dominus autem Edwardus interim 
attraxit quamplures qui prius erant cum comite, per maneria 
sua quae dedit eis.' 2 William Rishanger says : ' Eo tempore Rogerus 
de Clifford, Rogerus de Leybourne, Johannes de Vallibus, Hamo 
le Estraunge et plures alii, muneribus excaecati, a fidelitate quam 
Baronibus in commune juraverunt, recesserunt.' 3 Eyton, how- 
ever, shows that Hamon's adhesion to Prince Edward, in which 
he was joined by Ralph Basset and other barons, was reduced 
into writing and confirmed by the oath of the declarants, and 
that it implies no corrupt sacrifice of principle whatever. 4 The 
document, which is written in French, is given by Rymer, and 
bears date at Lambeth, August 18, I263. 5 Professor Tout has 
explained the significance of this great change of front of the 
Marchers as a body in 1263. 6 Up to that time they had mainly 
been on the baronial side ; in 1263 they rallied round Edward, 
himself the greatest of the Marchers, and remained his chief 
adherents for the rest of the struggle. The increasing alliance 
between Llewelyn and Montfort, and the consequent danger to 
all the Marchers, largely accounts for the change, though the 
aggressive policy of Montfort, in Professor Tout's opinion, perhaps 
does so as much. 

In those days, when the Barons who had the person of the 
King in their power often obliged him to do things contrary to 
the interest and obligation of the Crown, when even his own son 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 274. * Ann. Monastic!, iii. p. 225. 

8 Will. Rishanger, Chron. et Ann., p. 13. * Eyton, i. 282. * Rymer, i. 430. 

6 In Owen's Coll. Hist. Essays, 1902 : 'Wales and the March in the Barons' Wars,' 
Essay IV, pp. 102-3. 


and his nephew sided at times against the royal authority, it 
must have been no easy matter to determine promptly and with 
certainty which party was absolutely and morally true to its 
allegiance. Allegations of treason must not therefore be accepted 
as necessarily involving moral guilt, or even as indicating personal 
antagonism to the sovereign, or to the real advantage and interests 
of the royal authority. On these grounds I am inclined to form 
a less severe judgment than Eyton does as to the course taken 
at this period by John le Strange the younger, whom he stigmatises 
as a traitor to his King and false to the traditions of his House ; 
and I am strengthened in this view by the fact that, after the final 
triumph of the King's party, no measures of vengeance or punish- 
ment were adopted with regard to him ; it is surely beside the 
mark to say, as Eyton does, that he was probably shielded by 
the great name which he bore. 1 

The accession of Hamon le Strange and the Marcher lords 
to the King's party in 1263 had an important influence on the 
royal fortunes, and contributed in no small measure to their final 
success ; the Patent Rolls are the best indication of the gratifica- 
tion of the King. On September 18 they record the grant of a 
pardon to Hamon le Strange for all trespasses and excesses com- 
mitted by him in the realm of England by reason of the non- 
observance of the ' Provisions of Oxford/ for which there had lately 
been so much disturbance in the country ; he was also assured of 
the release to him of the King's rancour by reason thereof. 2 A 
notification was issued on October 8, to him and the other barons 
who had come over, that the King would cause to be made to 
each of them a Letter Patent under the Great Seal to the above 
effect. 3 A mandate was sent to them on the 28th of the same 
month to come to the King at once, wherever he may be in England, 
as he understands from his brother Richard, King of the Romans, 
and other persons elected to be mediators of peace between the 
King and the nobles of the realm, that firm peace was likely to 
be made between them very soon. 4 Hamon, who had been Sheriff 
of Shropshire and Staffordshire since August, I263, 5 received a 

1 x. 274. * C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 278. Ibid. p. 284. 

* Ibid. p. 296. 5 Supra, p. 127. 


commitment during pleasure of the King's castles of Shrewsbury, 
Bridgnorth, and Montgomery, and a mandate was issued to his 
brother John to deliver the last-named castle to his charge. 1 
On December 18 he received a personal grant of considerable 
value, namely, the manor of Ellesmere, with the castle, hundred, 
and other appurtenances, for seventeen years from the next 
Christmas, for his fee of 30 marks at the Exchequer. 2 

We have seen that during the Welsh rising of 1244, under David 
ap Llewelyn, John le Strange's son-in-law, Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, 
remained true to his English allegiance ; nineteen years later, in 
consequence of disputes between him and Thomas Corbet, of Caus, 
to whom the English Justice showed partiality, Gwenwynwyn was 
withdrawn from his English fealty, and in the civil wars which 
ensued he sided with de Montfort and the rebellious barons ; on 
December 12, 1263, Griffith did homage for his territory to Llewelyn, 
who covenanted to come to his assistance if he were attacked. 3 

In December, 1263, an agreement was made by the King and 
the rebellious barons that all disputes between them should be 
referred to the arbitration of the King of France ; the Letters 
Patent by which Henry agreed to abide by King Louis's decision 
were witnessed, among others, by ' Hamo Extraneus.' 4 An 
attempt was made at Christmas-time to patch up a peace with 
Llewelyn ; a patent, dated on Christmas Eve, 1263, gives power 
to Roger de Mortimer, James de Audley, and Hamo le Strange, 
whom the King will send to the ford at Montgomery at Hilary 
next, to treat of peace with Llewelyn, and to swear on the King's 
soul that he will observe it. 5 On the same day these three barons 
were appointed keepers of the counties of Salop and Stafford, 
with mandate to all persons to be of aid with horses and arms 
and their whole posse when called upon. 6 

Some complaint must have been made to the King of infringe- 
ments of the liberties of the Church, or of the seizure of ecclesiastical 
property by Hamon le Strange during these disturbed times ; the 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 300. * Ibid. pp. 302-304. 

8 Montgomeryshire Collections, Powysland Club, i. 22-50, from Hengwrt MS., No. 119. 
Royal Letters of Hen. Ill (Rolls Series), ii. 251-252; Rot. Pat. 48 Hen. Ill, 
memb. 18. 

C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 305. 8 Ibid. p. 358. 


Patent Rolls of January 20, 1264, contain a notification that the 
King is perturbed about injuries committed against the Church in 
the province of Canterbury, and that he has promised the arch- 
bishop that he will procure that Roger de Clifford, Hamon le 
Strange, and others, upon whom the blame of these injuries is 
laid, shall make competent amends before next Sunday. 1 The 
complainant was Peter of Aigueblanche (Aquablanca), the Savoyard 
Bishop of Hereford, one of the most hated among the foreigners, 
and the particulars are recorded in the Household Roll of his 
successor, Bishop Swinfield, which has been published by the 
Camden Society ; it contains a statement that in the year 1263 
Hamon le Strange, who had been made castellan of Montgomery, 
had seized Churchstoke and two other vills appertaining to the 
bishop's manor of Lydbury, which he pretended were part of 
the honour of Montgomery. 2 Hamon was not content with 
seizing the bishop's property, he aided and abetted the infliction 
of personal violence, which drew on him the spiritual censure of 
the Pope himself. Urban IV wrote from Orvieto, on March 10, 
1264, to the Archbishop of Canterbury, to declare invalid the oath 
which the Bishop of Hereford had been forced to take, and to 
publish a sentence of excommunication against Simon, Earl of 
Leicester, Roger de Clifford, Hamon le Strange, and other barons ; 
they had seized the bishop's beasts of burden, his chapel, and 
other things, and besieged him in his church, which they at last 
entered by violence, whereupon the bishop gave himself up to 
Roger de Clifford, who took him to one of his castles, and im- 
prisoned him there for twelve weeks or more. On his getting out 
he was forced to give remission to the above persons for what 
they had done, and, being in fear of further imprisonment, gave 
a quittance in writing under seal of the Bishop and Chapter, and 
on his oath. The sentence of excommunication was ordered by 
the Pope to be enforced until satisfaction was made, and, if dis- 
regarded, the lands of the above barons were to be put under an 
interdict. 3 Hamon leJStrange claimed to have acted in the matter 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 378. 

2 Household Book of Bp. Swinfield, Camden Soc., 1855, ii. xxii. 
8 Papal Letters, 1198-1304, i. 411. 

K 2 


of Churchstoke as upholder of the King's interests, the honour of 
Montgomery being in the King's hands. 1 

The insurgent barons were in the field early in 1264 ; on 
February 4 the King wrote to Hamon le Strange, as Sheriff of 
Salop and Stafford, ordering him to break down the bridges over 
the Severn to prevent any barons joining Llewelyn and besieging 
the castles of Roger de Mortimer. 2 Henry had just returned from 
France with King Louis's award between him and the barons, 
which was too fair to be acceptable to either party. On April 13 
he captured Northampton, and took prisoner there several of 
the nobles of de Montfort's party. A month later, on May 14, the 
royal army was totally defeated at Lewes, where the King and his 
brother Richard were made prisoners, with many barons who 
fought on his side. A truce, called the Mise of Lewes, was made 
next day, under the conditions of which Edward and Henry of 
Almain, who had not been captured, surrendered themselves in 
order to obtain better terms for the King, who was nominally set 
at liberty, while the princes were confined at Dover. The author 
of the ' Annals of the Priory of Dunstable ' says that, after the battle, 
Hamon le Strange and some others were allowed to go free, on 
leaving the two princes as hostages, and undertaking to come to 
Parliament when summoned to stand the judgment of their peers ; 3 
but it seems more probable that Hamon and his friends escaped 
with Edward himself, whom they were following in the battle, as 
there would have been no good reason for their release if they 
had been captured. If William de Rishanger is to be believed, 
Hamon immediately went back to Wales, and ravaged the Marches 
to such an extent that the natives sought refuge in the churches, 
and built dwellings in the churchyards ; he says : 

Auctor hujus mali fuit ille praecipuus Hamo Extraneus, praedo nominatissi- 
mus, et alii quamplures, pululante tirannide sua, laxis crudelitatis habenis, misere 
debacchati sunt. 4 

Certain it is that the Marchers were the only opponents of Earl 
Simon all that autumn and spring, that they never surrendered 

1 Dunstable Annals, p. 222. 2 Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, ii. 254. 

3 Ann. Monast., hi. 232. Chronicle oj IV m. de Rishanger, p. 40. 


despite repeated mandates, and so became the nucleus of a party 
which at once became so formidable that de Montfort himself went 
in the spring to attack them. Edward's escape gave the Marchers 
the decisive voice in the events that culminated at Evesham. 

On June 4 a letter was sent to Hamon in the King's name, 
ordering him, as peace had been established with the barons, 
to come to London with all speed, without arms, to consult with 
the other barons and the King. 1 It does not appear that Hamon 
paid any attention to this summons : he was not the man to walk 
blindfold into the trap. A month later, viz. on July 7, both 
John and Hamon were included in a safe-conduct, granted to 
them and their knights, together with their horses, households, 
and goods which they bring with them ; 2 unfortunately the 
entry does not state where they were going. A letter in the same 
Roll, addressed on August 24 to Roger de Mortimer, Hamon le 
Strange, and others, recites that whereas lately, peace being re- 
stored between the King and his barons, it was provided that 
all prisoners taken at Northampton should be brought to the 
King at London, on which account the King had several times 
commanded the said Roger and others to bring their prisoners 
to him, which hitherto they have put off doing, the King's will 
is that they should be delivered without delay, and that the castles 
which are in their keeping on the King's commandment should 
be delivered to the persons appointed to receive them ; mandate 
accordingly to Hamon le Strange to deliver the castles of Shrews- 
bury and Bridgnorth, the town of Bridgnorth, and other bailiwicks 
which he holds by commitment of the King. 3 Instead of paying 
obedience to these orders, issued in the name of the captive 
sovereign, Hamon and his friends carried the war into the enemy's 
camp. A further mandate of October 6 recites that, whereas, 
when the King was at Lewes, he made Edward his son and Henry 
son of the King of Almain, his nephew, hostages for the observance 
of peace ; and whereas the said Roger, Hamon, and other co- 
Marchers have besieged the castle of Hawley, belonging to Gilbert 
de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hereford, who insisted on the 

1 Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, ii. 256 ; Rot. Claus. 48 Hen. Ill, m. 5, dorso. 
* C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 332. Ibid. p. 366. 


deliverance of the said hostages ; therefore the King commands 
them on their allegiance to retire from the said siege. 1 Hamon 
was shortly afterwards, in the month of November, concerned in 
an attempt to effect the escape of Prince Edward, which is thus 
narrated by Blaauw, in his ' History of the Barons' War ' : 2 

The hostage Princes had been moved from Dover to Berkhampstead, and 
thence to the Palace of Wallingford, which the King of the Romans had streng- 
thened and embellished for his own residence. While there so slack a ward 
was kept on them as to encourage the idea of their rescue, and about this time 
some of his devoted partisans at Bristol made a desperate attempt to effect it. 
Some of these knights were fugitives from Lewes, Hugh Turberville and Hamo 
1'Estrange, led by Robert Waleran and Warren de Bassingbourne. . . . After 
a rapid march to Wallingford these zealous knights surprised the garrison by 
a sudden attack at dawn of day. They were obstinately resisted however, and, 
to their demand of releasing Prince Edward, the threat was returned that he 
should be fastened to a warlike engine a mangonel and so hurled off from 
the walls to the besiegers. The Prince therefore came forward on the ramparts 
to entreat his friends to retire. 

The winter campaign of de Montfort against the Mortimers 
and other barons of the March was so successful that they pur- 
chased peace by undertaking to leave the country and go to 
Ireland for a year. A mandate, issued in the King's name from 
Shrewsbury on December 15, 1264, to Hamon le Strange, John 
de Turberville, and other Marchers, warns them that, whereas 
Roger de Mortimer, Roger de Clifford, and Roger de Leybourne, 
for themselves and their fellow-Marchers, had entered into a form 
of peace with the King, and had gone to Kenilworth to confirm 
it, the King was exceedingly amazed that the said Hamon and 
others permitted their men to plunder and commit damage ; where- 
fore he commands them to cause their men to desist from such, 
lest he should have to lay his hand upon them otherwise. 3 This 
mandate was followed five days later by another, commanding 
Hamon to deliver up to Ralph Basset of Drayton, one of de Mont- 
fort's principal supporters, the castle of Shrewsbury, with the 
wines, victuals, armour, and other stock therein : 4 de Montfort, 
though dating his mandates in the King's name from the town 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 374. * Second ed. 1871, p. 241. 

3 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 415. Ibid. p. 397. 


of Shrewsbury, was not yet in possession of the castle, which was 
still held by Hamon le Strange. In the early days of 1265 arrange- 
ments were made by de Montfort for sending off Mortimer, le 
Strange, and the royalist barons of the Marches to Ireland ; a 
letter of safe-conduct was issued in the King's name from Windsor 
on January 2, to hold good until Easter, and for one year after- 
wards, for Roger de Mortimer, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Ley- 
bourne, Hamon le Strange, and Hugh de Turberville, and the 
knights, esquires, and others going with them to Ireland, with 
their households, harness, and goods, so that after this term they 
may safely return to England and dwell in their own parts at 
the lands which they have of their inheritance, with protection 
for their lands and other possessions. 1 It looks as if some question 
had arisen as to the validity of these terms, for the Patent Roll 
of the same date contains a second letter of safe-conduct, as 
above provided, which is written and sealed by the King and his 
barons. 2 The royalist Marchers, however, showed no disposition 
to take themselves off to Ireland. The castle of Montgomery 
was held at this time by Adam fitz Philip, to whom it had been 
committed by Edward before the battle of Lewes. The custody 
thereof was transferred on March 7 ' by the counsel of the mag- 
nates of the council ' to Hamon's eldest brother John ; fitz Philip 
was ordered to deliver it to him, and John was directed, as soon 
as he received the said castle, to come to the King, wherever he 
might be, to speak with him on special business ; 3 i.e., as Eyton 
puts it, 4 he was to come to Simon de Montfort and plot treason. 
Meanwhile fresh efforts were made by the insurgent barons to get 
the five lords Marcher out of the way ; a patent of March 17 
states that, although they did not cross over to Ireland at the 
time which was appointed, the King nevertheless wills that they 
have safe-conduct in going and staying there for the said term, 
saving, after the said term, the covenants which they made at Wor- 
cester. 5 Things were not going so well for the barons ; not only 
did Hamon and his friends decline to go to Ireland, but fitz Philip 
would not deliver up Montgomery Castle without special orders 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 398. z Ibid. p. 399. Ibid. p. 411. 

4 Eyton, x. 273. 6 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 415. 


from Edward. A peremptory mandate was thereon directed to 
fitz Philip on April 2, ordering him on his allegiance, and with 
the assent of Edward, to hand over the custody of the castle 
without further delay. 1 Shrewsbury Castle had been delivered 
up by Hamon le Strange to Ralph Basset, but the latter was in 
a very precarious position ; Leicester with the captive King and 
his son Edward had advanced to Gloucester, but the country west 
of the Severn was in the hands of the King's friends. A mandate 
of May 6 from Gloucester to Ralph Basset, constable of the castle 
of Shrewsbury, directs him to maintain the said castle with his 
men, as the disturbance in the realm is not yet settled in those 
parts, and the King will cause the cost thereof to be repaid to him ; 
and as Hamon le Strange and his fautors wish to attract certain 
rebels to him against the King, he is to bring all of those parts 
back to unity and concord, and to take into the King's hands 
the goods of all contrariants. 2 Besides Hamon, two of his younger 
brothers, Roger, afterwards of Ellesmere, and Robert, ancestor of 
the House of Blackmere, were in arms under the Earl of Glou- 
cester (Gilbert de Clare) against the Earl of Leicester. One of 
the latter's patents, marked on the Roll as having been issued 
' Rege Captivo,' announced to the sheriffs of counties on May 20 
that peace and unity had been proclaimed throughout the whole 
kingdom between the two earls, but because Roger de Clifford, 
Hamon le Strange, his brother Roger, and other Marchers have 
not left the kingdom in accordance with the ordinance of Worcester, 
if any of them stir up disaffection they are to be arrested at once. 3 
A week after this, namely, on May 28, Prince Edward escaped 
from his guards by a stratagem, and joined the army of the Earl 
of Gloucester, who immediately raised the royal banner. The 
battle of Evesham, fought on August 4, 1265, restored the authority 
of King Henry and cost de Montfort his life. In all probability 
Hamon was present at the battle, as only four days after it he 
received a grant of the wardship of the land and heirs of Fulk 
fitz Warin, who had fallen the year before fighting for the King 
at the battle of Lewes. 4 

1 Pat. Roll, 49 Hen. Ill, No. 77. * C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 422. 

8 Pat. Roll, 49 Hen. Ill, m. 15. * C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 435. 


We learn from the author of the ' Annals of Waverley ' that 
Hamon le Strange and Maurice fitz Gerald were sent against 
Llewelyn, who had made a raid into Cheshire in December. The 
chronicler says that the two English knights were put to flight, 
and escaped with difficulty, while many of their men were slain. 1 
The citizens of London had been strong adherents of de Montfort's 
party, and many of them consequently suffered forfeiture after 
his downfall, their possessions being conferred on the supporters 
of the royal cause. Amongst these Hamon le Strange had a grant, 
on October 19, ' to him and his heirs of the houses with their 
appurtenances and rents in the City of London, late of John 
Everard, sometime citizen of London, the King's enemy, so that 
he do the due and accustomed service/ 2 Apparently he had re- 
possessed himself of the castle of Shrewsbury soon after the battle 
of Evesham, as he was ordered on November 25, 1265, to hand 
on that castle to Thomas Corbet, who succeeded him in the office 
of Sheriff of Salop and Stafford. 3 A commission was issued on 
February 3, 1266, to Giles de Erdington to inquire what male- 
factors assaulted and killed the men of Hamon le Strange at 
Leicester and Kilworth. 4 

Among the supporters of Simon de Montfort was Walter de 
Mucegros, who died in 1264, possessed of considerable estates in 
Herefordshire. The writ for the inquisition on his death was dated 
December 2, 1264, but the inquisition itself was not held until 
February 5 following ; the jurors say that the King has no seisin 
in the lands held by him, because John le Strange the younger 
holds them by force, and will not permit anyone to have seisin 
in the King's name. 5 It seems that John had some right to deal 
with these manors, as a patent of June 4, 1266, confirms a grant 
made by him, as one of the executors of the will of Walter de 
Mucegros, to Walter de Clifford, 6 but whether the executor was 
John the elder, or the younger, is not specified. Anyhow, it is 
clear that, after the battle of Evesham, all the lands which 
had belonged to W. de Mucegros were given to John le 

1 Ann. Monast. ii. 366. C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 468. 

8 Ibid. p. 511. * Ibid. p. 654. 

Cat. Inq. p.m., Hen. Ill, No. 606, i. 192. C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 602. 


Strange. 1 Eyton takes it for granted that this was John the elder ; 2 
and, indeed, it is not likely that it was his son, who certainly had 
not contributed to the overthrow of Simon de Montfort. 

A curious little story, showing how John le Strange's Norfolk 
property was affected by the political disturbances, has come 
down to us through a presentation of the jury of the hundred 
of Hartismere in Suffolk, as set forth among the Placita de terris 
datis et occupatis occasione turbacionis in regno Anglie. The jury 
say that John de Stratton bought of William de Hoo thirty 
sheep, worth twenty shillings, which the latter had plundered 
(depredatos) from John le Strange. Thomas de Brisingham, a 
dealer living at Ipswich, bought some of them there. John de 
Stratton, being summoned, averred that the sheep had been taken, 
not from John le Strange, but from William de Wretham, an enemy 
of the King, who had always been an adherent of the Earl of Lei- 
cester. The jury further say that the aforesaid William de Wretham 
took possession of the manor of John le Strange in the county of Nor- 
folk, and of all the goods found there ; that William de Hoo was 
the bailiff of William de Wretham, and that when William de Hoo 
heard that the latter had been killed at the battle of Evesham, 
he took the said sheep which John de Stratton bought of him. 
John de Stratton received a pardon for his share of the trans- 
action. 3 

Eyton has pointed out that between the years 1262 and 1265 
John (III) acquired by purchase from Madoc de Sutton the manor 
of Sutton, with its members Rowton and Ellardine ; it was worth 
5os. per annum ; and was held by the serjeanty of providing 
four foot-soldiers in ward of Montgomery Castle for fifteen days 
at his own cost. 4 Between 1262 and 1267 John enfeoffed his 
eldest son and heir, John, in Rowton and Ellardine, reserving a 
rent of one penny only thereon ; within the same interval John 
the younger made them over to his brother Robert. 5 

The Dictum of Kenilworth, embodying the terms on which the 

1 Rot. Select. ; tence rebellium dates fidelibus tempore regis Hen. Ill, curd Jos. 
Hunter, p. 254. 

Eyton, x. 274. 3 Rot. Select, p. 223. 

4 Placita Corone, 20 Edw. I, m. 16, dorso. 5 Ibid. 


barons, disinherited after the battle of Evesham, were allowed to 
redeem their lands, was made on October 15, 1266. They were 
to pay ' as much as their lands be worth by the space of fivejyears.' 
Those paying this five years' purchase should have their lands 
again ; in cases where they were unable to redeem except by the 
sale of portions of their lands, or in some instances of the whole, 
the right of pre-emption was given to those who were in actual 
possession by gift of the King. 

The younger sons of John (III), and more especially Hamon, 
shared in the spoils of the late rebels, while their father, probably 
on account of his age, only received the grant of the forfeited 
lands of Walter de Mucegros ; this was perhaps merely the re- 
cognition of a fait accompli ; since, as we have seen, these lands 
were already in the tight grasp of John the younger. A grant of 
simple protection for one year for John le Strange, dated April 20, 
1267, was probably for the son. 1 The elder John must have been 
over seventy years of age at the time of the battle of Evesham, 
and indeed his name is hardly mentioned after that date. A grant 
of October 19, 1268, from Sir John de Tregoz, son and heir of 
Sir Robert de Trezog, to the lady Juliana, late the wife of Sir 
Robert, specifying certain manors which she is to hold in dower, 
is witnessed by John and Hamon le Strange ; it may likely 
enough have been John the elder who witnessed the grant of 
his brother-in-law, Sir John Tregoz. 2 If so, it was the last re- 
corded act of this veteran, who must have died early in 1269, 
since the Fine Rolls show that the King took the homage of 
his son, and gave him seisin of all the lands which his father 
had held in chief, on March 26 of that year. 3 

Lucia de Tregoz, wife of John (III), appears to have survived 
him for at least twenty-five years, if I am correct in assuming 
that she is the Lucia Extranea named in the Exchequer list of 
1294-5, as a holder of 40 a year and upwards in lands or rents 
in the name of dower in the counties of Bedford and Buckingham. 4 
By her John had four sons and two daughters ; of the sons, John, 
the eldest, succeeded his father in the possession of his Shrop- 

1 C.P.R., 1266-272, p. 55. * Cat. Anc. Deeds, iii. 321, c. 3025. 

1 Excerpt, e Rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, ii. 485. * Pub. Beds. Hist. Record Soc., ii. 257. 


shire and Norfolk estates ; the second, Hamon, only survived his 
father for three or four years, so the conclusion of his story may 
well be set down at once, while that of the third brother, Roger, 
who did not die till 1311, may be reserved for a subsequent 
chapter, as also that of the youngest, Robert, who became the 
founder of the house of the Lords Strange of Blackmere. Of 
his daughter Alice, who had half the manor of Litcham as her 
marriage portion, mention has already been made. 1 The other 
daughter, Hawyse, who married the Prince of Powys, survived 
her father and her husband for many years, and further mention 
of her will appear later on. 


We have already seen that Hamon was a lifelong friend of 
the King's son Edward, from the time when he served with 
him in Gascony in 1253 ; that he was employed in Scotland in 
1254, was constable of Montgomery Castle, and also of Bridgnorth 
and Shrewsbury during the greater part of the War of the Barons 
from 1261 onwards, as well as Sheriff of the counties of Salop 
and Stafford ; that he escaped after the battle of Lewes and at 
once took up arms again for the captive King, and made a bold 
attempt to effect the rescue of his son Edward, and that he con- 
tributed in no small degree to the royalist success at Evesham. 
For these loyal services rewards were showered upon him. 

The Northamptonshire lands of Richard Basset, one of de 
Montfort's supporters, were among those which had been granted 
to Hamon le Strange on the conditions of the Dictum de Kenilworth. 
The Plea Rolls of 1267 contain particulars of a suit by which 
Basset made terms for recovering his forfeited property. Hamon 
gave as a reason for not allowing the lands to be restored to him 
that Richard, who had been captured when in arms against the 
King at Northampton, and subsequently ransomed, had again 
fought on de Montfort's side at Kenilworth. Richard denied 
this, and averred that he had gone peaceably to Northampton 
with his wife and children, and had not borne arms against the 

1 Supra, p. 125. 


King ; an inquisition held as to the facts of the case found that 
Richard's account was the true one. On this an agreement had 
been made between the parties, by which Richard was to have his 
lands restored to him on paying 300 marks to Hamon in five 
instalments spread over three years. 1 The same Rolls contain 
lengthy pleadings in a suit of similar nature between Hamon le 
Strange and Henry de Longchamp, respecting the lands of the 
latter, which had been given to Hamon for five years ; in this case 
Hamon had to content himself with enjoying possession of them 
for four years only. 2 A third entry sets forth that the prior of 
Aynho was summoned for having voluntarily supplied horses to 
aid the Earl of Leicester against the King ; the prior proved his 
innocence by showing that Hamon came to the house of the fra- 
ternity, and, against their will, requisitioned three horses, of which, 
however, under persuasion, he restored two to the brethren. 8 

Another grant made to Hamon by the King was that of the 
manor of Drayton, in Sussex. An inquisition taken at that place 
on July 24, 1275, sets forth that Hamon had held that manor in 
capite, but some time before his death had enfeoffed Urianus de 
Sancto Petro therein, and that he was seised of it on the day of 
the death of Hamon ; the latter had doubtless sold it to him to 
raise money when starting for the Crusade. 4 

The lands of William de Birmingeham, who was slain at the 
battle of Evesham, fighting against the King, were granted to 
Hamon on the terms of the Dictum de Kenilworth ; an order of 
May 16, 1285, shows that these lands were restored to William's 
heir after Hamon 's death. 5 A further reward of considerable 
value was the grant to Hamon and his heirs, on February 21, I267, 6 
of the manor of Ellesmere, with the castle and hundred, and the 
manor of Strattondale (Church Stretton), until the King provide 
for them in escheats to the value of 100 a year in land ; the King 
also undertook to refund any charges which Hamon or his heirs 
might have to lay out in repairs. 

1 Rot. Select. Placita de terris datis et occupatis occasione turbacionis in regno Anglie, 
curd J. Hunter, p. 153. Ibid. p. 173. Ibid. p. 193. 

4 P.R.O. Inq. p.m., Chancery series, File n (2). 
8 C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 319. C.P.R., 1266-1272, p. 39. 


During the summer of 1267 Hamon was again employed on 
the Welsh March ; a patent of August 28 was addressed to 
Llewelyn ap Griffith, wherein the King said that he understood, 
by his letters and messengers, that Llewelyn was about to send 
certain of his secretaries 1 and magnates to treat of his peace, and 
to obtain the goodwill of the King, on condition that the King 
sends one of his faithful to conduct them safely ; and, according 
to his request, the King is sending Hamon le Strange to give safe 
conduct to Llewelyn, or his secretaries and counsellors, in coming 
to the King and returning, in their persons, goods, and households 
until September 5. 2 This safe conduct was prolonged on Septem- 
ber 4 until the gth of that month. 3 Hamon le Strange appears 
to have played a somewhat important part in the negotiations 
which, chiefly owing to the efforts of the legate, Cardinal Ottobone, 
at length resulted in a definitive treaty of peace, sealed at Shrews- 
bury on September 25, 1267, by Henry, Edward, and Llewelyn. 4 
The latter obtained, from the weakness of the English king, far 
better terms than he or his predecessors had hitherto secured. 
He agreed to pay a large sum of money, and acknowledged that 
he held his principality of the King, but till then he had aspired 
to no higher title than Prince of North Wales, and had usually 
been merely styled, by Henry, lord of Aberfraw and Snowdon ; 
now, however, he obtained recognition of his title as Prince of 
Wales, carrying with it the overlordship of all the Welsh chief- 
tains. He was further restored unconditionally to the lordship of 
the Four Cantreds, which he had been obliged to renounce in 1247, 
while Mortimer and the English Marcher barons were constrained 
to acknowledge his legal right to many of their lands in mid- Wales, 
on which he had laid violent hands during the days of trouble. 
The importance of these concessions and their bearing on English 
history has been admirably worked out by Professor Tout in his 
essay on 'Wales and the March during the Barons' War.' 5 

The grant of forfeited lands did not always enure to the benefit 

1 In thirteenth century language, ' secretary ' denotes confidant. 

* C.P.R., 1266-1272, p. 156. 8 Ibid. p. 102. 

* Fcedera, i. 174, and C.P.R., 1266, 1272, p. 102. 
6 Owen's College Historical Essays, IV. 


of the grantees ; rebels obtained pardons, and complications 
arose as to the giving back of their lands. For instance, William 
le Botiler obtained remission, on March 3, 1268, of trespasses 
committed by him and the members of his household ; his lands 
had been granted to David, son of Griffith, Llewelyn's brother, 
who with the King's licence had given them to Hamon le Strange, 
who in his turn had quitclaimed them to William le Botiler ; 
the King ratified the quitclaim, and granted that neither Hamon 
nor his heirs should be molested by reason thereof. 1 On March 8, 
1268, pardon was given to Hamon, and all those of his household 
and fellowship, for trespasses which they were said to have com- 
mitted by occasion of the non-observance of the 'Provisions of 
Oxford ' ; the King even undertook to make separately a Letter 
Patent of this to each of the said household, whenever Hamon 
by his Letters Patent should require it. 2 There are several 
instances of confirmation by the King of restitutions made by 
Hamon on their lands to rebels who had purged their innocence ; 3 
it looks as if these lands had been given to a friend to hold until 
matters could be arranged. 

In spite of these grants of lands, and of the monies received 
for their redemption, Hamon was reduced to the necessity of 
borrowing from the Jews. On October 24, 1268, he executed a 
bond, in which he is described as of the county of Hereford, to 
Hagim, son of Master Mosseus, the Jew, for fifty marks, to be 
repaid at Michaelmas next. 4 

By charter from Edmund [Crouchback], the King's youngest 
son, dated November 7, 1268, Hamon received a grant of half 
a virgate of land in Penkhull, in the manor of Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, with the advowson of the church of Stoke, to be heldrby 
him, his heirs or assigns, or any religious house to whom he may 
give or assign the same, by rendering yearly at Easter one penny. 5 
The Testa de Nevill shows that he was enfeoffed by King Henry 
in Foston, part of the honour of Peverel, which had escheated 
to the King. 6 Another grant received by Hamon was that of 

1 C.P.R., 1266-1272, p. 199. * Ibid. p. 201. 

Ibid. pp. 268, 430. P.R.O., Ancient Deeds, D, 48. 

C. Ch. R., ii. 1 14. Testa de Nevill (1807), p. 88a. 


a moiety of the lands of John de Churchull in Worcestershire, 
to be held according to the Dictum de Kenilworth. 1 The castle 
and manor of Chartley, in Staffordshire, which had belonged 
to Thomas de Ferrers before the disturbances, were also granted 
to Hamon on the same terms ; this appears from an inquest, 
held after his death, on January 8, 1276, at which the jury certi- 
fied that Hamon had unjustly disseised Simon de Cotes of 
200 acres, part of the fee of Chartley. 2 Another forfeited manor 
which came into Ramon's possession was that of Mancetter, 
Warwickshire. An entry on the Roll of Placita de terris datis, 
of 1267 records that Henry de Hastings acknowledges that he 
owes 67 I2s. to Hamon le Strange for redemption of the manor 
of ' Manecestr' ' ; for which William la Zouche, Eudo his brother, and 
Thomas de Bray became sureties ; and credence is to be given to 
the simple word of Hamon without the burden of any other proof. 8 
The manor of Wrockwardine had been held by Hamon by 
feoffment of his father some time before 1255, and Eyton 4 shows 
that this must have been made with licence from the Crown, since 
Hamon appears as tenant in capite thereof on the Hundred 
Roll of I255. 5 It has been mentioned 6 that in 1253 Hamon 
had a grant of 30 marks for life, or until the King should provide 
for him otherwise to that value, and that ten years later the King 
had given him the castle and manor of Ellesmere for seventeen 
years in lieu of the above grant. 7 In 1265 Ellesmere must have 
fallen into the hands of de Montfort, as we find it mentioned 
in one of his patents issued on June 18, in the name of the captive 
King, among the territories which he was prepared to concede 
to Llewetyn in return for the latter's aid against the royalists. 
After the defeat and death of de Montfort the King enlarged his 
original gift of Ellesmere, which had only been for seventeen 
years, by granting it to Hamon and his heirs in fee, as also the 
manor of Church Stretton ; 8 about the same time Hamon pur- 

C. Ing. P. M., Hen. Ill, i. 282, and C. Cl. R., 1272, 1279, p. 42. 

Chancery Inq. p.m., 3 Edw. I, File n (4). 

Rot. Select, curd Jos. Hunter, p. 153. * ix. 24. 

Rot. Hundred, ii. 56. Supra, p. 120. 7 Supra, p. 130. 

Rot. Pat. 51 Hen. III. 


chased the adjacent manors of Coolmere and Welsh-Hampton 
from Sir Peter de Mont fort. 

The last embers of the rebellion in England having been ex- 
tinguished, and peace patched up with Wales on terms advan- 
tageous to Llewelyn, no more fighting remained to be done at 
home, so Hamon prepared to accompany his patron and friend, 
Prince Edward, who had agreed to follow the King of France 
(St. Louis) to Tunis and Palestine on the Crusade of 1270. With 
this object, and in order to raise money for his expenses, Hamon 
made arrangements for the custody and disposal of his estates. 
He enfeoffed his brother Roger in the manors of Ellesmere, Cool- 
mere, and Henton. 1 To his brother Robert, who also went on 
the Crusade, but more fortunate than Hamon returned from it, 
the latter granted the manor of Chawton in Hampshire ; 2 and to 
Robert he also granted by charter the manor of Wrockwardine, 
though, apparently, the grant was not recognised by the King 
until after Hamon's death ; Robert did homage for it in 1274-5 
as tenant in capite by service of the twentieth part of a knight's 
fee. 3 The manor of Stretton was assigned by Hamon to his 
sister Hawyse of Powys, but he exacted from her a written promise 
that it should be restored to him on his return from Palestine. 
Eyton cites the following fragment of a deed executed for this 
object : 

Hawisa promisit per assensum mariti sui quod cum frater suus Dominus Hamo 
Extraneus rediret a Terra Sancta licet ei intrare manerium de Strattone in Comi- 
tatu Salop ; de consensu mariti sui Domini Griffini. Testibus, Domino Rogero 
Extraneo, Roberto fratre suo, Odone de Hodnet. 4 

Reference to this transaction is made in an undated charter 
at the Exchequer, calendared by Sir F. Palgrave : 

Carta Hawysie de la Pola de manerio de Strettone concesso Hamoni Extraneo 
de retinendo manerium predictum. 

Hamon did not obtain the King's licence to his alienation of 

1 Misc. Inq. Chancery, i Edw. I, File 32 (14) ; and Col. Genealog. Hen. Ill and 
Edw. I, i. 218, No. 85. 

* P.R.O. Ancient Deeds, B, 3463. * Rot. Orig. in cur. Scacc., i. 6ia. 

Eyton, x. 274; Glover's Coll. A, fo. in. 


these manors ; perhaps because he hoped to resume possession, 
or possibly because he was raising money on them for his expenses 
in going on Crusade, and did not wish to incur additional charges. 
We shall see that after the arrival of the news of his death the 
grants were not always recognised by the Crown. 

Prince Edward sailed from Dover for the Crusade on August 19, 
1270, but Hamon cannot have gone until some weeks later, since 
his name occurs as witnessing a charter of the King's son Edmund, 
executed at Westminster on October 15 of that year. 1 That he 
did in fact follow later is confirmed by an entry in the Pipe Roll, 2 
which gives the names of eighteen knights who covenanted to sail 
in company with the prince, or to follow him. The expenses of 
the Crusade had been mainly provided by a subsidy of one-twen- 
tieth from the laity of England ; out of this the sum allotted to 
each knight who accompanied the prince was 100 marks, with the 
exception of Hamon le Strange, who followed after, and received 
the sum of 1200 marks, no doubt because he brought eleven other 
knights with him. 

It was not until January 25, 1271, that letters of special protec- 
tion were issued for four years for ' Hamo Lestrange, going beyond 
seas in aid of the Holy Land/ and the like to his brother Robert ; 3 
and three days later the Patent Rolls contain a grant to ' Hamon 
le Strange, crusader, who is going to the Holy Land/ admitting 
Leoninus son of Leoninus, and Walter de Eylesbury as his attorneys 
for four years. 4 Evidently, therefore, he could not have started 
before the end of January 1271. After he had left England a 
grant was made on December 30 to Hamon and his heirs of free 
warren in his demesne lands in Chawton. 5 In 1271 he had reached 
the Holy Land and was again in pecuniary difficulties, and obliged 
to borrow money there ; the Exchequer Calendars 6 contain a bond 
of his to certain merchants in the parts of the Holy Land, executed 
in that year, for the large sum of 375 marks sterling. This loan 
may perhaps have been made on account of his marriage. 

1 C. Ch. R., 1257-1300, ii. 153. 

8 i Edw. I, 2us Rot. comp., quoted in Arch. Journ. viii. 46. [March 1851.] 

8 C.P.R., 1266-1272, p. 588. Ibid. p. 589. 

8 C. Ch. R., ii. 178. 6 i. 80. 


The interesting fact, not noticed in any English record or 
publication, that Hamon married Isabelle d'Ybelin, Queen of 
Cyprus, was discovered by my brother Guy in the French record, 
styled the Assizes de Jerusalem, published at Paris by Comte 
Beugnot in 1843. In the chapter entitled 'Les Lignages d'Outre- 
mer ' 1 is given a long pedigree of the house of Ybelin, derived from 
' Balian le Frangois, fre're au comte Giulin de Chartres/ to whom 
Fulk of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, gave Ybelin, so that he and 
his heirs were called de Ybelin. Balian 's grandson, Jehan, received 
the fief of Beyrout from Queen Isabeau of Jerusalem, and he 
and his descendants were thereafter known as ' Sire de Baruth,' 
or ' Dame de Baruth.' Jean, Sire de Baruth, grandson of the 
above-named Jehan, married Aalis, daughter of the Duke of 
Athens, and they had a daughter, called Isabeau or Isabelle, 
who was married four times. Her first husband was Hugh II, 
King of Cyprus, who died at the age of fourteen. Her second 
husband was Hamon le Strange ; after his death she married, 
thirdly, in 1277, Nicholas Prince of Cesarea, and, fourthly, Guil- 
laume Barlais; after all these marriages the chronicler adds, 
' Et moru sans heirs/ The passage in the ' Lignages d'Outremer ' 
which records the marriage to Hamon runs as follows : 

Jehan fu Seignor de Bamth puis la mort son frere et esposa Aalis fille dou 
Due d'Atenes et orent deus filles, Isabeau et Eschive. Isabeau esposa Hughes 
fis de Henry roy de Chipre, qui moru de quatorze ans, si com a este dit ci- 
devant ; puis esposa un Engles qui avoit nom Reimont 1'Estrange. 

The continuator of the chronicle of William of Tyre, printed 
in the 'Recueil des Historiens des Croisades/ also mentions this 
marriage : 

Anno M.CC.LXXII. En cet ans meismes fu marie la Dame de Baruth a 
Sire Heimont 1'Estrange. 2 

and the mention of the lady's third marriage in 1277 is proof, if 
that were needed, that Hamon was then dead : 

Anno M.CC.LXX.VIJ. Nicolas Syres de Cesaire qui novelement avoit espousee 
la Dame de Baruth fu occis en Chypre a Nicosie par la main de Syre Baudouin 

1 Chap. viii. 448-449. * P. 462 @ Lib. xxxiv. cap. xv. 

L 2 


d'Ybelin, par echaison qu'il avoit ocis son frere Syre Johan d'Ybelin par haine 
et par paroles vilaines qu'il avoit heu ensemble a Nichosie. 1 

Hamon must have died very shortly after his marriage, as the 
news of his death reached England early in 1273 ; on April 28 of 
that year the Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire was ordered 
to take into the King's hand the manor of Strattondale, which 
was of the ancient demesne of the Crown, and which Hamon had 
held in chief and alienated without licence. 2 The inquisition on 
his death was taken during the first year of Edward I, which 
ended on November 20, 1273, and as it is No. 37 on the Roll was 
probably early in that year. 3 It shows that he held in Shropshire 
the manors of Ellesmere, Stretton, Colemere, and Henton. Later 
inquisitions were held for his lands in Staffordshire and Sussex. 4 

Edward I, who did not return to England until August 2, 
1274, seems to have considered it one of his first duties to see 
that the debts of his late friend and companion in arms were paid. 
On October 21 he made an order to deliver to his brother Edmund 
the manor of Chaucumb, which had belonged to Hamon, and 
which the King had caused to be delivered into his hands with 
Hamon's other lands ; he now directed that the issues received 
by him therefrom should be given to Peter de Gloria, merchant, 
in part payment of debts due to him from Hamon. 5 These debts 
must have taken about ten years to pay off, as the Close Rolls 
of 1284 contain an order acquitting Henry de Shotbrok of the 
issues of the manor of Chaucumb if the treasurer and barons of 
the Exchequer ascertain that he has paid them to Peter de Gloria. 6 
The manor of Chawton in Hampshire had been granted, as we 
have seen, by Hamon to his brother Robert, apparently without 
licence, for on February 17, 1275, Edmund, the King's brother, 
was appointed at will to the custody of that manor. 7 However, 
the King relented, and on July 18 following ordered the Sheriff 
of Southampton to cause Robert to have such seisin of the manor 

1 Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, p. 479 @ Lib. xxxiv. cap. xxxiv. 
1 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 4. 8 Inq. p.m. i. 506. 

* Ibid. i. 57 ; and i. 650 ; Cal. of Inq. ii. No. 144. 

6 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 106 ; and C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 263. 

* Ibid. p. 263. 7 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 81. 


as he had before it was taken into the King's hands on the death 
of his brother Hamon. 1 

Mention occurs during the reign of Henry III of the following 
le Stranges whom I am unable to connect with the main line of 
the family. 


The Patent Rolls record that Roger le Strange was presented 
on August 4, 1244, to the rectory of Hodnet (in Shropshire), 
which was in the King's gift by reason of the voidance of the 
abbey of Shrewsbury. 2 

Another Roger occurs in an undated Norfolk deed, preserved 
at the Record Office, whereby John, called the shoemaker (sutor), 
grants to Roger le Straunge and Matilda his wife a messuage 
with curtilage and land in Salle, part upon Douestalle, by land of 
the lord of Frethorne, part in Sondfelde, and part in the tillage 
called Wychelonde. Witnesses : Simon de Fromilode, Walter le 
Fraunceys of Frompton, and others (named). 3 This Roger very 
probably belonged to the Litcham branch of the family. 


A safe conduct, dated at Bordeaux, September 24, 1242, was 
granted to Geoffrey le Strange of Exeter, to pass through the 
King's power with his ship called The Ship of St. Mary. 9 ' This 
was at the time when Henry had retired to Bordeaux, after his 
defeat at Taillebourg and the consequent loss of Poitou. 


The Fine Roll of 1245 records that Luvekinus de Shrewworthin 
was impleaded for the death of Henry le Strange, and that he 
paid a fine of 2\ marks (equivalent to at least 80 to-day) to the 
Sheriff of Salop. 5 

1 C. Cl. R., 1272, 1279, p. 203. * C.P.R. { 1232-1247, p. 433. 

8 Cat. of Ancient Deeds P.R.O., ii. 374, B, 3165 [Norfolk]. 

* C.P.R., 1233-1247, iii. 326. Excerpt, e rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, i. 439. 



Philip le Strange, who is mentioned in connection with the 
men of Gloucester, had letters of simple protection on August 28, 
1265, until Easter following. 1 


The Chartulary of Haughmond Abbey, under the heading of 
Rowshill in Shrewsbury, mentions that Richard, son of Durand 
le Strange, gave a rent of 17^. from a messuage which William 
Aurifax holds : ' Teste Ricardo Rustico tune preposito, Peter son 
of Peter confirms Teste Gamel, and Reiner, son of Martin, tune 
prepositis.' 2 The writer of the paper in the Shropshire Trans- 
actions adds in a note, 'These are among our earliest provosts.' 


The same Chartulary records, under Stories Close in Shrews- 
bury, that William de Clermont, canon of the church of St. Chad, 
Salop, gave a croft with the appurtenances ' juxta Wallias ex muro 
burg Salop, which he bought from Richard, son of Thomas le 
Strange. Teste, Andrew son of Hubert, and Robert Infante 
prepositis Salopie.' 3 (Note, early Hen. III.) 


An undated deed in the Hunstanton Muniment Room 4 is 
witnessed by ' Roberto Extraneo ' ; it is a grant from Humfrey 
de Wiveleshoe and Matilda his wife to Geoffrey de Oiry of the 
advowson and collation of the church of St. Andrew of Great 
Ringstead until the full age of Cecilia, daughter and heir of Philip 
de Burnham. This deed is quoted by Blomefield, 5 who says, 
without giving any authority, that it was dated 25 Hen. Ill 
(1240-1). The date is certainly before 45 Hen. Ill, as Cecilia 

1 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 4461 * Trans. Shrop. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., i. 207. 
8 Ibid. i. 211-212. I F.F.g. I s viii. 453. 


was then the wife of William de Calthorp. 1 If Blomefield is right 
in assigning 1240-1 as the date, Robert who witnessed it cannot 
have been the fourth son of John (III) and Lucia de Tregoz, as 
he would only have been about seven years old, since his eldest 
brother John (IV) was born c. 1229. Robert was the last witness 
to attest the deed, and it is not likely that a considerable person- 
age, such as the ancestor of the house of Blackmere, would have 
been placed so low down among the witnesses ; this Robert is 
more likely one of the Litcham le Stranges. 

I may end this chapter by noticing an early deed, preserved 
at the Record Office, which mentions Hunstanton and Heacham, 
though it has nothing to do with the family of le Strange. It 
is a grant by Roger, son of Ralph Desys of 'Huntstanystune,' to 
the prior and convent of St. Pancras in Lewes, in frankalmoign, 
of the yearly rent of 55., which he was wont to receive from them 
for Thorp mill in ' Hecham.' Witnesses, Hugh de Caly, Albin de 
Stanford, and others (named). 2 The Cluniac monastery of St. 
Pancras at Lewes had a cell at Heacham, to which the rectory, 
the patronage of the vicarage, and the priory manor were appro- 
priated ; it was situated on the bank of the stream, a little to 
the south of the present manor farmhouse, and the monks 
evidently worked the mill for their own purposes, and got it 
rent-free under the above grant. The first witness, Hugh de 
Caley, held a lordship in Heacham temp. Henry III. The grantor, 
under the designation of ' Roger des Hys de Hunstanestun,' witnessed 
the deed of John le Strange (IV) to Gilbert de Tychewell, printed 
in Chapter I. 3 A Joan 'des Ys' appears in a Norwich deed of 
1323-4;* and again, as Joan ' Sys ' of Hunstanton, in another 
Norwich deed of 1325. 5 

The Manorial Rolls, preserved in the Muniment Room at Hun- 
stanton Hall, commence during the time of John le Strange (III). 
The earliest relating to the parish of Hunstanton is a Court Roll 
'dm Johis ex a nei,' commencing in the fortieth year of Henry III 

1 Blomefield, viii. 453. 

* Cat. of Ancient Deeds P.R.O., ii. 146, A. 3021 [Norf.]. * Supra, p. 4. 

4 W. Rye's Col. Norw. Deeds, 1307-1341, p. 124. * Ibid. p. 129. 


(A.D. 1255-6) ; on the dorse thereof are entered the Court Rolls 
and a rental of the manor of ' Lucham ' (Litcham) . There is a 
Court Roll for Hunstanton of the 5oth and 5ist Hen. Ill, and 
others from the 4th to the 34th of Edward I ; also an undated 
rental of the same period. The Hunstanton bailiffs' accounts 
commence with the 5th year of Edward III, and there are rentals 
for that parish for the reigns of Edward I and III. For Ring- 
stead the Court Rolls commence with one of the 2Qth Edward I, 
but there are bailiffs' accounts of the reign of Henry III. The 
Heacham Court Rolls begin on the 4th of Edward I, and the 
bailiffs' accounts on the 24th of the same King ; there is a rental 
of Henry III, and a collectors' roll of 1279. There is a large col- 
lection of title-deeds the earliest dated one being of 1199 they 
relate to the parishes of Hunstanton, Ringstead, Holme, Hea- 
cham, Sedgeford, Snettisham, Docking, Fring, East Barsham, and 
Tottington. An inadequate examination of these muniments 
was made in 1871 by the late Mr. Alfred J. Horwood, who only 
devoted part of two days to it ; his notes were published by the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission ; * a calendar of some letters 
preserved here was made by the present writer, and also published 
by the Historical Manuscripts Commission in 1887. 2 

1 Third Report, App., pp. 271-274. z Eleventh Report, App., pp. 93-118. 

Superstes 1294. 







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JOHN LE STRANGE (IV) was not long-lived like his father and 
grandfather, who had held possession of their estates for fifty- 
six and thirty-five years respectively ; he was only in possession 
for the short period of six and a half years, though he had been 
in active public life for more than twenty years previously. Eyton 
states * that he did homage for them at Westminster on March 
25, 1269 ; he must then have been upwards of forty years of 
age. Between 1262 and 1267 he had been enfeoffed by his father 
in Rowelton and Elleworthyn, and within the same period John 
the younger gave the said tenements to his brother Robert. 2 
During his father's lifetime he had made a brilliant marriage, 
which eventually added greatly to the territorial influence of his 
family ; this must have taken place about 1253 or earlier, as the 
Norfolk inquisition on his death in 1276 shows that his eldest 
son was then over twenty-two years of age. 3 His wife was Joan, 
daughter of Roger de Somery, of Dudley Castle, co. Stafford, by 
his first wife Nicola, sister and co-heir of Hugh de Albini, last 
Earl of Arundel of that line ; on his death in 1243, the large 
estates of the Albini family were divisible between his four sisters 
and co-heirs, or their issue, 4 but the inheritance, as we shall see 
below, was not actually divided among the co-heirs until after 

1 x. 32. 2 Eyton, ix. 241 ; Plac. Coron., 20 Edw. I, m. 6, dorso. 

8 Chancery Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. I, File 14 (4). C.I.P.M., i Edw. I, No. 16. 


the death of Roger de Somery in 1273, since he was entitled by 
the courtesy of England to hold the estates of his first wife for the 
term of his life. 

Concerning the part taken in the wars of the barons by/John 
le Strange (IV) during his father's lifetime I have dealt fully in 
the preceding chapter, and have endeavoured to show that Eyton's 
strictures on his loyalty are to a great extent undeserved. The 
scanty mention of him during the few years that elapsed between 
his father's death and his own might seem to lend colour to the 
idea that he was out of favour at Court, and no longer in the 
confidence of his sovereign ; but it must be remembered that 
during the first three of those years Henry III was almost in 
his dotage, incapacitated by infirmities of mind and body from 
taking much part in affairs of State, and that, at the time of his 
death on November 16, 1272, his son and successor was absent in 
the Holy Land, and did not return to England until August 2, 
1274, just a year before the death of John le Strange. 

The following undated deed of John (IV) exists in the~Hun- 
stanton Muniment Room : 1 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum peruenerit Dominus 
Johannes Extraneus patronus ecclesie de Hunstanston Salutem in Domino 
sempiternam. Noueritis me concessisse et hac present! carta mea confirmasse 
Willelmo de Secheford, pro me et pro heredibus meis, unam paruam angulam 
jacentem iuxta cimiterium de Hunstanston ex una parte, et messuagium eiusdem 
Willelmi ex altera parte. Et continet in se, in longitudine ex parte cimiterii 
versus occidentem quatuor viginti et octo pedes. Et ex parte messuagii eiusdem 
Willelmi versus orientem quatuor viginti et quinque pedes. Et extendit se in 
latitudine ad caput aquilonare tresdecim pedes, et ad caput australe quad- 
raginta et sex pedes. Habendum et tenendum eidem Willelmo et heredibus suis 
libere quiete jure hereditario bene et in pace. Reddendo inde annuatim Altari 
ecclesie de Hunstanston ad festum assumptions beate marie Virginis quatuor 
denarios pro omnibus seruiciis consuetudinibus exacionibus et demandis. In cuius 
rei testimonium huic scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis testibus, Domino 
Roberto Extraneo, Domino Johanne de Lee, Roberto Bulman, Adam de Mus- 
terol, Gilberto de Tychewell, Galfrido Baniard, Ricardo Bosse, Rogero des Ys, 
et aliis. 

[Seal wanting.] 


The date of this deed must be between the years 1269 and 
1275, the period for which John (IV) held the estate ; most of the 
witnesses are Norfolk men, whose names occur temp. Edward I. 
John de Lee married the only daughter of Simon de Furneaux of 
Middle Harling ; 1 the Mustrells possessed a manor in Hunstan- 
ton, called after them, and Adam de Mustrell gave lands here to 
his son Hamon in the 7th of Edward I ; 2 Jeffrey Banyard held 
the manor of Gatesthorp, near Harling, at the same period. 3 The 
occurrence of these Norfolk witnesses renders it probable that the 
above deed was executed at Hunstanton, and if so, it is of interest 
as showing that the Shropshire le Stranges visited their Norfolk 
estate. The only difficulty connected with the deed is that John 
le Strange (IV) describes himself as patron of the church of Hun- 
stanton, whereas, as has already been mentioned, 4 his great-grand- 
father, John (I), had granted the advowson of that church to the 
abbey of Haughmond about a century previously. 

Eyton quotes 5 from the Salop Chartulary a charter, which 
he takes to have passed about 1269, whereby John le Strange 
(IV) grants to Shrewsbury Abbey his mill of Platte, and all suit of 
his men thereto in his manors of Ruyton, Middle, Ness, Hopton, 
and Kinton : this grant was made in order that the monks of 
Shrewsbury might celebrate Mass daily for the souls of himself, 
his heirs, his ancestors, and successors. In the same charter he 
mentions that a second mill, situated in his park of Ruyton, had 
been given to the abbot of Haughmond. Another undated deed 
in the chartulary of this abbey 6 shows that a third mill, called 
the Heath Mill, was also given to it by John (IV). Eyton 7 gives 
the following summary of this grant : 

As Johannes Extraneus quartus he gives and confirms, for the souls of himself 
and his wife Johanna, his mill of Heath (molendinum de bruerio), with its fishery and 
appurtenances, and with timber to repair the same out of his wood of Radenhall 
(Rednall), and with a place near the mill convenient for winnowing. One moiety 
of the profits of this mill was to go to the canons themselves ; with the other 
moiety they were to provide two candles, to burn at the head and foot of the 
tomb of the aforesaid Johanna, the grantor's wife. The grantor further concedes 
to the canons the stank of the higher vivary, to be raised and repaired for their use 

1 Blomefield, i. 314 ; viii. 264. * Ibid. ix. 100 ; x. 322. s Ibid. i. 252. 

* Supra, p. 35. 6 x. 113. Fo. 106. 7 x. 114. 


and advantage, with earth taken on either side thereof. Lastly, he undertakes 
that neither he nor his heirs shall raise the stank of the vivary near the King's 
highroad towards Oswestry, nor shall construct any other mill there, so as to 
injure the Heath mill. 

Eyton further cites a deed of the same benefactor, 1 dated in 
1272, by which he gave to Haughmond Abbey one acre of his own 
demesne in Ruyton, and the advowson of the church thereof. 
Nor did even this exhaust the gifts of John le Strange to the abbey 
favoured by so many of his race ; the chartulary shows that he 
gave to it the whole land of Caldecote, a member of his home 
manor of Knockyn. 2 

The Forest Assize Roll of November 1271 contains an entry 
as to trespass in the Long Forest of Shropshire 3 by Peter de 
Vaux and other dependents of John le Strange junior, at that time 
only 17^ years of age, who captured a stag near Middlehope Mill. 

For many years there had been rivalry and ill-feeling between 
the le Stranges and the Corbets of Caus. In October 1255 Thomas 
Corbet brought an action against John le Strange (at that time 
junior), alleging that he had taken goods to the value of 700 
marks from certain of his manors. 4 Corbet's suit was pending 
for seventeen years, and the cumulative damages were rated at 
1000 ; an inquest was ordered to investigate the case, but the 
result does not appear ; perhaps the matter fell through, owing 
to the deaths of both parties within a year of each other. 

I have mentioned 5 that Joan, the wife of John le Strange 
(IV), did not obtain her share of the Albini lands which she 
inherited from her mother Nicola until after the death of her 
father, Roger de Somery, in 1273, as he held them for life by the 
courtesy of England ; but Joan and her sisters appear to have 
made a claim two years before her father's death to some other 
lands inherited by them from their maternal grandmother, Mabel, 
one of the four sisters and co-heiresses of Ranulph le Meschin, 
Earl of Chester. 6 The inquisitions post-mortem of Henry III 

1 x. 114. * Trans. Shrops. Arch. Soc., i. 192. * Eyton, vi. 342. 

4 Plea Rolls, 56 Hen. Ill, m. n ; Eyton, vii. 25. * Supra, p. 154. 

6 He is also styled de Blundevill, from the place of his birth, Oswestry (Album 
Monasterium, or Blonde Ville), and under that designation an exhaustive account of 
him is given by J. H. Round in the Diet. Nat. Biog. 


contain a writ 'ad plenum certiorari,' dated January 26, 1271, 1 
on the petition of Ralph de Crumwell and Margaret his wife, 
John le Strange and Joan his wife, Walter de Suly and Mabel his 
wife, and Henry de Erdington and Maud his wife, concerning the 
lands (unspecified) which were of Clemence, sometime Countess of 
Chester, and were taken into the King's hands upon her death by 
reason of the minority of her heir, Ralph de Somery, lately deceased, 
of whom the said Margaret, Joan, Mabel, and Maud claim to 
be the heirs. The inquest has unfortunately not been preserved, 
and I am inclined to suspect that some mistake has been made 
in the writ as to Ralph de Somery, as I cannot understand either 
how he could have been the heir of Clemence Countess of Chester, 
or how Margaret, Joan, Mabel, and Maud could have been his 
heirs. Clemence Countess of Chester was the second wife of 
Ranulph le Meschin, Earl of Chester, who died s.p. October 26, 
1232 ; she was the daughter of William de Fougeres by Agatha, 
sister of William de Humez, constable of Normandy, and sur- 
vived her husband twenty years, dying in 1252. What lands she 
possessed is not apparent, and the writ above quoted does not 
specify them, but Burke 2 says that Ranulph acquired with her, 
not only a large accession of lands in France, but also some ex- 
tensive manors in England. These lands would have gone to 
their four daughters, the second of whom, Mabel, married William 
de Albini, Earl of Arundel, and was the mother of Nicola de 
Albini, the wife of Roger de Somery, whose daughter, Joan, 
married John le Strange (IV). The line of descent will be better 
understood by a glance at the pedigree on opposite page. 

Roger de Somery died in 1273. The writ for the inquisition 
on his death 3 is dated August 26, and shows that he held lands 
of his own inheritance in nine counties of England, and also, of 
the inheritance of his first wife, Nicola de Albini, the manor 
of Barrow-on-Soar, Leicestershire, and that of Campden in Glou- 
cestershire. The lands of his own inheritance descended, of 
course, to his eldest son Roger, issue of his second wife, Amabel 
de Chaucombe, while those of Nicola de Albini were divided 

1 File 40, No. 12 ; and Cal. thereof, i. 258, No. 779. 

* Extinct Peerage, p. 348. 8 C.I.P.M. Edw. I, ii. pp. 14-16. 





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among her four daughters ; her inheritance is expressly stated 
to be part of the ' barony of Chester,' which had come to her 
from her uncle, Earl Ranulph, ' de terra quam praedictus Rogerus 
tenuit tanquam partem baroniae Cestriae ipsum contingentem 
per Nicholaam de Albiniaco uxorem suam primam, unam de 
heredibus Hugonis de Albiniaco comitis Arundell', qui fuit unus 
de heredibus Ranulphi quondam comitis Cestriae.' 1 The par- 
tition took some months to arrange, and it was not until April 12, 
1274, that the escheator this side Trent was ordered to deliver 
to John le Strange the lands which the King had assigned as the 
purparty of Joan, sister and co-heiress of Nicola and Hugh and 
John's wife ; the extent thereof is worth giving in full, as it affords 
a good idea of the very varied items which made up the revenue 
from a manor in the thirteenth century : 

In the manor of Barrow 5 virgates of land, 12 acres of meadow upon the bank 
and elsewhere in parcels, an acre and an acre and a half of several pasture, a 
quarter of two water-mills, a quarter of the park, to wit, 90 acres by the extent, . 
and 300 acres of the foreign wood ; and of the free tenants, from William son of 
Adam, for a virgate of land, 45. ; from the heirs of Robert Martin, for 2 virgates 
of land and an assart, I2d. and 20 barbed arrows, price 10^. ; Robert son of 
Ralph, for a bovate of land, 35. o%d. ; Robert de Fornham, for 4 bovates of land, 
35. ; Walter le Sauser, for a virgate of land, a pound of pepper, worth 8d. ; Roger 
le Erie, for an assart, 2s. ; John le Despenser, for a cultura, izd. ; Preciosa de 
Staunton, for 4 virgates of land in Friseby, a quiver and 13 arrows, worth i8d. ; 
Turgis de Birleye for an assart, 6d. ; Walter le Sauser, for an acre and a half, 
i$d. ; from the customary tenants, to wit, Richard Pars, Richard le Carpenter, 
William Beu, William Dane, William son of Thomas le Chat, John Brid, William 
le Doneur, John 'Hervy, John Oy, Gilbert Flory, Robert de Soley, each of whom 
holds a virgate of land ; of the cottars, Henry Campion, Matilda Bridd, Henry 
le Plomer, each of whom renders yearly, with the rents of boon-works and tallages, 
2s. ; Richard le Fevre, for a cottage-holding [cotsend], 2s. ; Matilda Sturnell for a 
cottage-holding, 18^. ; Henry le Charetter, for a cottage-holding and 3 selions, 2 
35. 4^. ; Geoffrey le Messer, for 2 cottage-holdings, 35. 4^. ; Turgis Erley for an 
acre, 6d. ; John le Saler, for a bovate of land, 2s. ; Thomas Felach, for a bovate 
and an acre of land, 35. id. ; John Herebert, for an assart, iqd. ; from the holders 
of wood-houses (wodehusis), to wit, John Hervy, for 4^ acres of land, 45. ; Thomas 
Felach, for 3| acres, 35. 6d. ; Ralph son of Geoffrey, for 3 acres, 35. in the same 
manors ; and in the manor of Caumpeden, from the customary tenants of Westing- 
ton ; William Det, for half a burgage, 6d. ; Dionysia the nurse, for half a burgage, 

1 Calendarium Genealogicum Hen. Ill and Edw. I, i. 196, No. 15. 
* A strip of land, or furrow. 


i8d. ', William King for a burgage, 2od. ; John Prest, for a burgage, 2od. ; Robert 
Davy, for half a burgage, 4^. ; John de Aldeswell for half a burgage, 6d. ; Philip le 
Feytur, for half a burgage, i6d. ; Agnes Buffard, for a burgage, i6d. ; Walter le 
Mouner, for a burgage and a stall, iSd. ; Richard Child, for half a burgage, Sd. ; 
John Fressaunt, for a burgage, i%d. ; Thomas de Burton, for half a burgage, 8d.; 
Thomas Botte, for half a burgage, Sd. ; Walter Hamelyn, for half a burgage, 8d. ; 
Walter de Blockele, for half a burgage, 8d. ; Robert le Messer, for 2 burgages, 
2s. 6d. ; William Kyng, for a burgage, I2d. ; Thomas Eadmund, for a burgage, 
I2d. ; Thomas Fawkes, for half a burgage, 6d. ; William King, for 2 stalls, I2d. ; 
William Thurbern, for a messuage, 2d. ; Isolda de Thounshull, for a messuage, 2d. ; 
Ranulph Papelard, for a messuage with a stall, 8d. ; Simon Grinell, for half a 
burgage, 8d. ; Robert de Fornham for a burgage, 10^. ; and in Westington and 
Britton, Walter de Coningate, who holds a virgate, Gilbert atte Grave, who holds 
a virgate, Alice the widow, who holds a virgate ; Walter Austyn, who holds a 
virgate, Richard de Rales, who holds a virgate ; Nicholas Hamard, who holds a 
virgate; Roger Abovenchirche, who holds a virgate; Albred' de Molend[ino] 
of Birton, who holds half a virgate, and Adam le Fevere, who holds half a virgate 
of land ; the heir of Walter le Despenser, for a burgage in Winchecumbe, gd. ; 
Alexander le Mir, for a cottage, 8d. The King has committed this pourparty to 
John, to hold until his return to England, on condition that John shall then 
answer to the King for the issues thereof, if the King wish to have them. 1 

Cecily, the fourth daughter of William de Albini, and sister 
of Nicola, the wife of Roger de Somery, obtained as her share 
of the Albini inheritance the manors of Kenninghall and Castle 
Rising, in Norfolk ; she married Roger de Montalt, of Hawarden, in 
Flintshire, and the estates eventually descended to their second son, 
Robert de Montalt, who died in 1275. The inquest on his death, 2 
dated October 7, 1275, gives an extent of the manor of Rising, which 
mentions, among the knights' fees held of it, that five were 
held by John le Strange, viz. ' Hunstaneston, Geyton, Sneterton 
[alias Snytreton], Ryngested, and Holm.' On October 28 these 
five fees were among those which were assigned as dower to Joan, 
late the wife of Robert de Monte Alto. 3 Robert was succeeded by 
his eldest son Roger, who died without issue in 1297, his brother 
Robert being his heir ; he too had no issue, and was the last of 
the Montalts ; during his lifetime, in consideration of a sum of 
10,000 marks paid by the King, Robert settled Castle Rising and 

1 C. Cl. R. 2 Edw. I, 1272, 1279, pp. 76-77. 
* C.I. P.M. Edw. I, ii. p. 84, No. 128. 
3 C. Cl. R. Edw. I, 1272-1279, p. 215. 


his other extensive estates on Queen Isabella, mother of Edward 
III, and in consequence of this settlement it was that Castle 
Rising became a place at which she frequently resided during 
the twenty-seven years of her widowhood, though the story that 
she was a prisoner there has been disproved by the researches 
of Mr. Alan Swatman and Mr. Henry Harrod. 1 

One of the Domesday manors which were eventually swallowed 
up in constituting the Chatellany or Fee of Knockin was Moreton. 
Eyton mentions 2 that John le Strange (IV) mortgaged this vill 
to Rhys ap Griffith for 120 marks, 100 of which were subsequently 
paid off by John, in the shape of a Destrier, worth 80 marks, and 
a palfrey, worth 20 marks. These high-priced Dextrarii, which 
were sometimes valued at 100 and even 120 marks, were the slov. r 
but powerful shire-horses, only ridden by the barons and richest 
bannerets. This mortgage got le Strange into trouble, as King 
Edward, on visiting the border, found the vill in the hands of 
a Welshman, and promptly confiscated it ; an inquest was held 
in January 1277, on the petition of John le Strange (V), 3 who had 
then succeeded his father, and it appears that the vill, no doubt 
for some valuable consideration, was subsequently restored to 
him, as it is expressly included in a feodary of 1397-8 as part 
of the fees which John le Strange of Knockyn then held in the 
barony of fitz Alan. 4 

It will be remembered that in December, 1263, Griffith ap 
Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, and brother-in-law of 
John le Strange (IV), had transferred his allegiance from the 
English Crown to Llewelyn. 5 This alliance was recognised by 
the peace effected in 1267 between the King and Llewelyn, and 
Griffith remained a vassal of the latter for about twelve years. 
An excellent paper on ' The Princes of Upper Powys,' by the 
Hon. and Rev. G. T. O. Bridgman, 6 gives the history of Griffith 
and his widow. In 1275 there was a rupture between Llewelyn 
and the lord of Powys in consequence of which the territory of 
the latter was again placed under English protection : Griffith 

1 Harrod's Castles and Convents of Norfolk, pp. 32-42. * x. 364. 

3 Inquis. p.m., 5 Edw. I, No. 60. * C.I.P.M., iii. 223. 5 Supra, p. 130. 

6 Montgomeryshire Collections of the Powysland Club, i. 22-50. 


ended his life as he had begun it, a subject of the English king, 
and transmitted his lands to his heirs to be held as an English 
barony. His son and successor, known as Owen de la Pole 
i.e. Owen of [Welsh] Pool at the Parliament of Shrewsbury, 
in 1283, expressly resigned to the King his title and coronet of a 
prince (nomen et circulum Principatus), and his lands, receiving 
back the latter to be held in free baronage of England. 1 On 
August 28, 1277, Griffith executed a confirmation of an earlier 
charter by which he had granted to his wife Hawyse certain 
lands viz. the land of Dendover ; three towns in Coiddwr ; the 
town of Argegvoet ; three towns in Caereinion ; some pastures 
in Cyveiliog ; a free burgage at Treffnant ; and the town of Llan- 
debo, &c. The first secular witnesses to this grant are Hawyse's 
brother, Roger le Strange of Ellesmere, and her nephew, John le 
Strange (V) of Knockin. 2 

In June, 1283, Griffith was acting against Gwynnedd, 3 and in 
that month was summoned to the Parliament held at Shrewsbury 
for the trial of David. 4 The year 1283 is generally given as the 
date of his death, but Professor Tout has shown 5 that he was alive 
on February 27, 1286, as is shown by a deed of his dated at Bot- 
tington on Ash Wednesday, 14 Edw. I. 6 His wife Hawyse (le 
Strange) survived him for many years. During his lifetime she 
had acquired the manor of Church Stretton by the gift of her 
brother Hamon, who had died in Palestine. After the news of 
Hamon 's death arrived, the manor was seized for the King because 
Hamon had alienated it without licence, but afterwards, by the 
King's order, the whole revenue thereof was paid to Hawyse. 
In his patent of January n, 1278, the King recites that, having 
granted to Hawyse, late the wife of Griffith ap Wenwynwyn, the 
manor of Strattondale to hold at will, if he wished at any time 
to resume it, he undertook to assign her for life twenty librates 
of land in some competent place, such assignment to revert to 
the King on the death of Hawyse. 7 She enjoyed the manor for 

1 Montgomeryshire Collections of the Powysland Club, pp. 257-423. 

* Cal. of various Chancery Rolls, 1277-1326 ; Welsh Rolls, p. 179. 

3 Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 266. * Fcedera, i. 630. 

8 Diet. Nat. Biog., xxiii. 304. C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 413. 

7 Welsh Rolls, i. 162. 


the whole of her life, but a year before her death Edward II issued 
an inquisition Ad quod damnum 1 to ascertain its value, the result 
of which is given by Eyton as follows : 2 

The Inquest reported that the collective tenants of the manor and Vale paid 
assized rents of 12 los. These rents were for lands of ancient tenure, for the site 
of a certain ancient manor (probably Stretton Castle), for arable lands, formerly 
constituting the manorial demesne, and for the labour-dues of the Villeins as 
valued a long time back. The meadow land of the manor was worth 2 per 
annum. A separate pasture in the King's bosc of Ragelyth, and within the bounds 
of the Long Forest, was worth 6s. 8d. yearly. The underwood thereof could not 
be taken into account, because it was kept as a covert for game, and there was no 
high timber therein. The bosc called Wymbrghtoneswode consisted "of lofty oaks. 
The pesson 3 thereof was worth 6s. 8d. yearly ; the pasturage was common ; 
and there was no underwood. A water-mill was worth 135. 4^. ; two Vivaries 
were worth los. yearly. A custom called Passagium carectarum 4 produced 2os., 
and the pleas and perquisites of the manor court produced 2 135. 4^. The 
whole valuation amounted to 20 per annum, and there was the common pasture 
of the Stretton Hills, which pasture was about 20 leagues in circumference. 
This was not valued, because it was open to the whole country. The advowson of 
the church belonged to the manor. The church was worth 20 per annum. 

Another extent was ordered by writ of October 26, 1309, the 
King having granted the manor to Edmund Earl of Arundel if he 
should survive Hawyse de la Pole. She outlived her son, Owen 
de la Pole, and at his death the custody of the castle of la Pole, 
and the lands which had belonged to him, were assigned to her. 5 
In 1307-8, though Hawyse was still alive, Edward II gave the 
custody of Pole Castle and lands to Griffith de la Pole, younger 
brother of Owen, and uncle to his children, Griffith and Hawyse 
de la Pole ; Griffith died on June 25, 1309, leaving Hawyse his 
heiress. Her marriage to John de Charlton, a Shropshire knight, an 
officer of Edward II's Court and ultimately his chamberlain, secured 
for her husband and his house the permanent possession of the land 
of Pool as an English barony. Griffith, the uncle, was robbed of 
his guardianship, and his efforts to win back Pool, helped by his le 
Strange kinsfolk, led to a feud that lasted till 1330, and fluctuated 
as the tide of royal and baronial successes ebbed and flowed. 6 

1 2 Edw. II, No. 122. ' xii. 26. 

3 Mast, acorns, or nuts. * A toll on carts passing through the vill. 

5 Rot. Orig. Abbrev., 23 Edw. I, No. 8. 

c See art. in Diet. Nat. Biog. on Charlton, by Professor Tout, x. 125. 


Hawyse, the grandmother, died in November, 1310. 1 The silver 
matrix of her seal was found in digging a foundation at Oswestry 
in the middle of the last century, and is now in the Shrewsbury 
Museum. It is an interesting example of heraldry of about 1300 ; 
it represents a female, standing, clothed in kirtle, long mantle, 
low-crowned reticulated cap, and gorget ; she holds a shield in 
either hand, the dexter one charged with the arms of her husband, 
a lion rampant, and on the sinister one those of her father, two 
lions passant. The legend round the seal reads : *S' HAWISIE DNE 
DE KEVEOLOG ' (Cyveiliog) . A small piece of the lower point of the 
seal beneath the feet of the figure has been broken off, but with 
this exception it is as perfect as when it was made ; there is 
no handle, but it has a small ring welded on to the back. An 
engraving of this seal was published in the ' Archaeologia Cambren- 
sis' (5th series), ix. 10, and the woodcut was lent to the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, and was reproduced in their Journal, x. 143, in 
the year 1853 ; it is also engraved in the ' Montgomeryshire Col- 
lections,' i. 49. I have been able to get an excellent photograph 
of an impression made from the original, which is reproduced on 
Plate X, p. 370, and gives a more accurate representation of it 
than the woodcuts of the last century could render. 

A considerable number of encaustic tiles, bearing heraldic 
designs of the early part of the fourteenth century, were found 
on the site of the Cistercian abbey of Strata Marcella, some of 
them bearing the le Strange lions. As Hawyse held as part of 
her dower the manor of Buttington, which is only separated 
from the site of the abbey by the river Severn, it is natural to 
suppose that she was a benefactress to the abbey, and that her 
paternal arms should be found there. 2 

The latest date on which I can find proof that John le Strange 
was alive is May 23, 1275, on which day he released and quit- 
claimed to his brother Robert all his right in the manor of Wrock- 
wardine by deed dated at ' Le Knokyn ' on Ascension Day, 3 
Edw. I. 3 He must have died before November 20 following, as the 
Hundred Rolls of 3 Edw. I, which regnal year ended on that day, 

1 Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. II, No. 39. * Arch. Cambr. (5th series), ix. 10, n. 

8 Rot. Claus., 3 Edw. I, m. 15, dorso. 


contain an inquisition held in the Hundred of Smethedon, where- 
at the jurors found that, on the death of John le Strange, the manor 
of Hunstanton, though not held in capite, was taken into the 
King's hands, and that the escheator levied from it one hundred 
shillings, and a horse worth twenty shillings. 1 John le Strange 
can only have been about forty-five years old at this time ; the 
cause of his death at so early an age is given by the subjoined 
entry in the bailiffs' accounts of Shrewsbury, which shows that 
he was drowned in the Severn : 

ii septimanas post Epiphaniam Domini anno quarto [January, 1276] Md. 
quod Petrus Gerard et Rogerus Pride, Coronatores villae Salop solverunt ad 
scaccarium pro equo domini Johannis Extranei submersi xxs. 2 

A note on this passage in the 'Transactions 'quoted points out 
that submersi agrees with domini and not with equo, but suggests 
that probably the horse and not his rider was drowned, as only 
2os . was paid . This con j ecture ignores the actual facts which caused 
the making of this entry. I am indebted to Mr. Walter Rye for 
explaining to me the real bearing of the entry. It means that 
John le Strange was drowned while on horseback, and that his 
horse was consequently taken as a deodand, and the coroners had 
to account for its value to the royal exchequer. Dr. Co well, 
writing in 1607, gives the following explanation of the word in 
his ' Interpreter ' : 

Deodandum is a thing given, or rather forfeited, as it were, to God, for the 
pacification of his wrath in case of Misadventure, whereby any Christian man 
cometh to a violent end, without the fault of any reasonable creature ... to 
be sold and distributed to the poor, for an expiation of that dreadful event, 
though effected by unreasonable, yea, senseless, and inanimate Creatures. 

The Hunstanton inquisition, quoted at the top of this page, 
shows that 2os., the equivalent of about 40 to-day, was then a 
usual price for a horse. 

Three months or more were allowed to elapse before the issue 
of the writs of ' Diem Clausit Extremum ' to the escheators of the 
various counties in which John le Strange held lands ; on Feb- 

1 Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. Ill et Edw. I, i. 5236. 
8 Trans. Shrops. Arch. Soc. (2nd series), iii. 68. 


mary 26, 1276, these writs were sent to the Sheriffs of Salop, 
Northampton, Leicester, Norfolk, and Gloucester, directing them 
to hold inquisitions, and to take into the King's hand all lands 
held in chief by the deceased. 1 On March 21 the Sheriff of Lei- 
cester was ordered to seize the pourparty of John, son of John 
le Estraunge, one of the heirs of Nicola, late the wife of Roger 
de Somery, of her lands in Barrow-on-Soar ; 2 and three days 
later, viz. on March 24, the Sheriffs of Northampton, Gloucester, 
Salop, and Norfolk were ordered to deliver to Roger le Strange all 
the lands late of John le Strange deceased, tenant-in-chief, as the 
King had committed them to him during pleasure. 3 As John's 
heir was of full age it is not apparent why the lands should have 
been committed to anyone else, and indeed it is open to doubt as 
to which of his uncles they were committed, whether to Roger, the 
elder of the two, or to Robert ; the Fine Roll just quoted says 
that it was to Roger, but the Close Rolls contain an order, dated 
May 1 6, directing Robert le Strange, keeper of the lands that 
belonged to John le Strange, to cause John, son and heir of the 
said John, to have seisin of his father's lands, as the King has 
taken his homage for them. 4 

The Shropshire inquisition on the death of John (IV), which 
is undated, sets forth that he held in Kinton and Ness four cam- 
cat es of land in chief by the service of one knight ; also the 
manor of Knockin of the heirs of Robert de Halhtone [Haughton] 
by service unknown ; also the manors of Ruyton and Middle 
of the heirs of John fitz Alan by service of i\ knights, but 
Isabella, the wife of John fitz Alan, is dowered of the said ser- 
vice. Kinton and Ness were worth 10 ; Knockin 20, and the 
Walcheria de Knockin 30. Ruyton and Middle were worth 30. 
John, son of the said John, is the heir and of the age of 22^ 
years. 5 

The Northampton inquisition, which, like all those on John 
(IV), is undated, states that he held nothing in capite, but held 
of the heirs of Roger de Somery in the manor of Botindon one 

1 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 66. * Ibid. i. 67. 

3 Ibid., 1272-1307, i. 67. * C. Cl. R., Edw. I, 1272-1279, p. 288. 

8 Chancery Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. I, File 14 (4). 


messuage worth 2s. per annum, i carucate of land with meadow 
and pasture, and in villeinage 10 virgates, and 30 solidates 
and yd., and ' unam sagittam barbatam ' of rent, all held in free 
marriage, rendering nothing. 1 

The jurors who sate on the Gloucestershire inquisition say 
that the said John held of the King in chief in the vill of Campden 
one messuage, worth by the year 155., and 2 carucates of arable 
land, which are worth by the year, with the meadows and pas- 
tures adjoining, 10 marks ; and in the borough of Campden, of 
rent assize by the year 235. uj^., and 14 virgates of land and 
12 acres in villeinage, which are worth by the year 7 75. 6d. : 
and his part of 4 mills, worth fy : and the pleas and perquisites 
by the year \ a mark. Sum, 25 65. ^d. The said John held 
nothing of the King in the said county except the said tenement, 
which he held in chief of the King by barony in pourparty with 
the heirs of Arundel ; and he and the other parceners held the 
fourth part of all the lands, tenements, and fees which were of 
the Earl of Arundel, but the jurors do not know how much of the 
service belongs to the part of the said John in Campden. 2 

The Norfolk inquest is somewhat defective, but, as Eyton 
points out, it is of great importance as proving something of what 
has been asserted above concerning the early history of the family, 
so I give an extended version of the copy at the Record Office : 8 

Inquisitio f acta per Adam de Musterell [and others] quantum terre Johannes le 
Estraunge tenuit de domino Rege in capite in comitatu Norfolciensi die quo obiit, 
et quantum de aliis, et per quod servicium, et quantum terre ille valeant per 
annum in diversis serviciis, redditibus, villenagiis et omnibus aliis exitibus terre 
et quis propinquior heres ei sit, et ejus etatis. Qui dicunt [super] sacramentum 
suum quod prefatus Johannes nihil tenuit de domino Rege in capite in comitatu 
Norfolciensi die quo obiit. Set tenuit manerium [de] Hunstanston ex una parte 
aque de heredibus comitis Arundell per servicium quinque feodorum militum. 
Et ex altera parte aque [* * *]ina de Milham per servicium feodi unius militis. 


Dicunt etiam quod idem Johannes tenuit in dominico suo xv acras terre ara- 
bilis quarum quel[ibef] acra valet per annum in omnibus exitibus viij denarios, 
unde summa decem librarum. Item tenuit inde servicia et redditos tarn liberorum 
quam villanorum unde summa est in omnibus exitibus xvj.s. i.d. Item 

1 Chancery Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. I, File 14 (4). * Ibid. 

3 Ibid., 4 Edw. I, File 14 (4) ; New Calendar II, No. 187. 


tenuit molendinum quod valet per annum xl.s. Et idem tenuit pasturam que valet 
per annum in omnibus exitibus ij .s. Item dicunt quod perquisitum curie valet per 
annum in omnibus exitibus xx.s. Unde summa summarum xxxj. li., xviij. s., 
j .d. Item dicunt quod Johannes films predicti Johannis propinquior heres ejus est. 
Et credunt ipsum esse etatis xxij annorum et amplius. 

It is not impossible from the concluding words that during 
the few years for which John (IV) held the property he and his 
son had found little time to reside much at Hunstanton, since the 
age of the heir was only a matter of hearsay ; yet that John (IV) 
was there once, at all events, is shown by the deed quoted in 
Chapter I, 1 in which he mentioned his ancestor Roland ; the fact 
that the deed, witnessed almost exclusively by Norfolk men, was 
found in the Muniment Room at Hunstanton is presumptive 
evidence that it was executed there, and has never since left the 
place. The considerable amount of land in hand, 300 acres of 
arable besides pasture, seems to imply the existence of a manor- 
house requiring a large farm to supply it. The ' water ' mentioned 
in the inquest is of course the small brook rising in the park, 
which forms the moat and, lower down, the mill waters, and 
thence runs north-east into the sea at Holme ; this watercourse 
was the boundary between the two distinct fiefs which were held 
by John (I), that on one side inherited from his father and held 
under fitz Alan by the service of five knights' fees ; that on the 
other inherited from his mother, Matilda le Bran, and held by 
service of one knight's fee under William de Albini. It would be 
interesting, but is, I fear, impossible, to ascertain which manor is 
on which side of the water. 

Hamon, the second son of John (III) and Lucy de Tregoz, 
who died in Palestine, has already been dealt with ; the third 
son, Roger of Little Ercall and eventually of Ellesmere, lived 
until 1311, all through the time of his nephew John (V), so his 
biography will more conveniently be given in the same chapter 
as that of his nephew. Robert, the fourth son, was the progenitor 
of the house of Blackmere. It has already been mentioned 2 that 
he was in arms with his brothers Hamon and Roger against Simon 
de Montfort in 1265, and that he was one of the lords Marcher 

1 Supra, p. 4. * Ibid., p. 136. 


whom the Earl of Leicester vainly endeavoured to send over to 
Ireland to get them out of his way. We have also seen l that 
when Robert went to the Crusade with his brother Hamon, the 
latter granted to him the manor of Chawton in Hampshire, as 
well as that of Wrockwardine in Shropshire ; and that, more 
fortunate than his brother, Robert lived to return and enjoy 
these manors. It was perhaps on his journey home that Robert 
experienced what was in those days a very serious loss, that of 
his seal ; so much concerned was he lest it should be put to any 
improper use that he took the trouble to appear at the Curia 
Regis in Michaelmas term 1275, and on his petition the following 
entry was made in two separate Rolls : 

Robertus le Estraunge venit et dicit quod amisit sigillum suum in quo scrip- 
turn est ejus nomen, et petit quod si aliquod scriptum decetero fuerit sigillatum 
predicto sigillo id pro nullo habeatur. 2 

We may perhaps regard this precaution as being the thirteenth 
century equivalent of stopping a cheque. 

Like his brother Hamon, Robert, after the battle of Evesham, 
was rewarded for his loyalty to the King by a grant at the expense 
of one of the rebellious citizens of London. The Patent Roll of 
October 19 records a grant 3 to Robert le Estraunge of a capital 
messuage in the City of London, late of John de Turri, the King's 
enemy. Another entry in the same Roll, on June 28, 1266, shows 
that Robert was still in the King's good graces, as a pardon is 
granted at his request to Hugh Corbet for the death of Adam le 
Ventrer. 4 

The manor of Sutton, with Rowton and Ellardine, had been 
sold between 1262 and 1269 by Madog de Sutton to John le 
Strange (III) ; he enfeoffed his son and heir, John (IV), therein, 
and the latter granted these manors to his younger brother Robert. 5 
On August i, 1267, Robert exchanged two of these manors with 
Giles de Erdington, who granted to him the manor of Marbury, 

1 Supra, p. 145. 

* Coram Rege Rolls, 3 Edw. I, bundle 18, memb. 19 ; and bundle 19, memb. 2, 

3 C.P.R. Hen. Ill, 1258-1266, p. 468. * Ibid. p. 611. 

5 Eyton, ii. 118, 120; Placite Corone, 20 Edw. I, Salop, memb. 16, dorso. 


in Cheshire, with the land of Halehurst, Salop, for the yearly rent 
of a rose at midsummer ; in return for which Robert granted to 
Giles all his land in Rowton and Ellardine for 735. yearly rent ; 
the deed was witnessed by Robert's brother Hamon. 1 

Another manor given to Robert in reward for his loyalty was 
that of Wililey or Willey, in Salop ; the previous owner, Andrew 
de Wililey, had fallen at the battle of Evesham, and Robert le 
Strange acquired the manor on the terms of the Dictum de Kenil- 
worth ; he appears to have held it for about ten years before it 
was redeemed by Burga, daughter and heiress of Andrew, and 
wife of William de Stapleton, whose claim to it, mentioned in 
the Coram Rege Rolls 2 for 1275, must have been successful, as, 
after Robert's death in the following year, the Sheriff was ordered 
to cause an extent to be made of the lands in Wililey, late of Andrew 
de Wililey, who was slain fighting against Henry III, which lands 
Robert le Strange held of the gift of that king on the terms of 
the Dictum de Kenilworth, and which lands were in the King's 
hands on account of Robert's debts ; the Sheriff was directed 
to deliver to William de Stapleton, whose son had taken to wife 
the daughter and heir of the said Andrew, the said lands to be 
tilled and sown during the King's pleasure, the Sheriff answer- 
ing yearly for the said extent. 3 On January 18, 1278, the Sheriff 
was ordered to deliver these lands to Philip and Burga. 4 

On his return from the Crusade Robert took measures to 
obtain seisin of the manors which he had acquired from his 
brother Hamon. The deed, already mentioned, by which the latter 
made over to him the Hampshire manor of Chawton is undated, 
but an entry in the ' Calendarium Genealogicum ' 5 shows that 
Robert was enfeoffed therein in the Holy Land. Wrockwardine 
had been made over before the brothers started for Palestine ; 
but after Hamon's death in 1274 the Sheriff took possession of 
it on the ground that it had been alienated without licence ; it 
was held for the King for about two years, but on May 23, 1275, 
John le Strange (IV) of Knockin quitclaimed any right that he had 

1 Cal. Anc. Deeds, P.R.O., iii. 432, D, 227. * 3 Edw. I, bundle 16, memb. 15. 
8 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 76. * Ibid. p. 91. 

Cal. Gen. Hen. Ill and Edw. I, i. 227, No. 52. 


in the manor to his brother Robert ; * and on June 10 following 
the Sheriff of Salop was ordered to deliver it to Robert, to be 
held by him in chief by the service of a twentieth part of a 
knight's fee, and at the farm due at the Exchequer, he having 
done homage for it. 2 Robert only survived his eldest brother, 
John (IV) of Knockin, for about a year : the latter was drowned, 
as we have seen, in the autumn of 1275, and Robert died before 
September, 1276, as on the loth of that month the Sheriff 
of Southampton was ordered to cause Eleanor, late the wife 
of Robert le Estraunge, tenant-in-chief, to have yearly 30 of 
the manor of Chawton, which belonged to Robert, as the King 
has committed the said land to her until dower is assigned ; 
the whole manor had been extended at 40. 3 The wife of Robert 
le Strange was Alianora, or Eleanor, second daughter and 
co-heiress of William de Whitchurch [de Albo Monasterio], from 
whom he ultimately acquired and transmitted to his descen- 
dants a considerable inheritance ; William, who died before June 
n, 1260, left four daughters ; the eldest, Berta, was an imbecile, 
and died in 1281 ; 4 the fourth of the manor of Whitchurch, 
which had escheated to the King by reason of her imbecility, was 
granted by him to her sister Eleanor to hold at will at a rent 
of 17 I2s. per annum. 5 The third daughter, Johanna, married 
William de Barentyn ; and Matilda, the youngest, was the wife 
of Robert de Brascy. Fulk, the son of Robert le Strange and 
Alianora, eventually inherited his mother's third of Whitchurch, 
and apparently purchased the two other thirds, as at his death 
in 1324 the inquest finds him to have been seised of the whole 
manor. Shortly after Robert's death his widow married Bogo 
de Knovill, then Sheriff of Shropshire, but had no issue by him. 
Eyton, to whom I am indebted for most of these particulars, 6 
mentions that she was buried at High Ercall, and that she was 
probably living in 1301, but died before 1306 ; he says that 

' Her monument consists of a slab of grey marble, sometime inlaid with 

1 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 237. * C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 48. 

3 C. CL R., 1272-1279, p. 309 ; C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 442. 

* C.I.P.M., Edw. I, ii. 226, No. 387. 

6 C.F.R., i. 127 ; C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 375. 6 x. 21-25. 


a fleury cross and two shields of arms, but the brasswork of these is gone. 
Her epitaph remains : 


That Alianora's monument existed in High Ercall Church when 
Eyton wrote in 1860 there can be little doubt, but it is a matter 
of deep regret to have to record that when I visited the church in 
September 1915 not a trace of it was to be found. The church 
was restored in 1864-5, under the direction ol the late George 
Edmund Street, R.A., an architect of the highest repute, and 
it is unthinkable that he could have failed to preserve an ancient 
monument such as this, had it then been in situ ; yet careful 
inquiries on the spot have been unsuccessful in eliciting any 
information from anyone who remembers it, or can throw any 
light on its disappearance. Fortunately a good water-colour 
sketch of it exists in the British Museum, among the Drawings 
of Ancient Monuments in Shropshire, 1792-1803, by the Rev. 
Edward Williams, 1 which in every respect confirms Eyton's descrip- 
tion, and further mentions that the slab of marble was situated 
' towards the east end of the north aisle/ 

Robert le Strange at his death left three sons, John, Fulk, and 
Robert, all of them under age, in consequence of which the eschea- 
tor took possession of his lands in the King's name, 2 regardless of 
the fact that the two younger sons had been enfeoffed during their 
father's lifetime in certain of his manors. John, the eldest son, 
inherited Wrockwardine, but the custody of that manor was com- 
mitted by the King to Anian, Bishop of St. Asaph, at an annual 
fee-farm rent of 8, until John should be of full age. 3 He made 
proof of age in September 1287, and had livery of his paternal 
inheritance, 4 but died without issue in less than two years ; the 
writ of Diem clausit is dated June 18, 1289, and the inquisitions 
find that his heir was his brother Fulk, then twenty-one or twenty- 
two years of age. 5 This John of Wrockwardine is usually styled 
Lord of Whit church, which, as Eyton points out, 6 is inaccurate ; 

1 Add. MSS. 21,236, vol. i. 129. C.F.R., i. 260. 

3 Rot. Orig. in Scacc., i. 2ja. Inq. 15 Edw. I, File 49 (13). 

6 Inq. p.m., 17 Edw. I, No. 17. x. 23. 


iiis mother, whose inheritance it was, was alive at the time of his 
death, and he consequently was never seised of Whitchurch. 

On July 16, 1289, the escheator was ordered to deliver to Fulk, 
brother and heir of John, the lands of his late brother ; 1 Fulk 
obtained a writ of Certiorari to the escheator of Salop on com- 
plaining of the seizure of the manor of Sutton Madock into the 
King's hands; an inquest was held on September 25, 1276, and 
the jurors found that Robert, before he took his journey to the 
Holy Land, had enfeoffed his son Fulk in that manor, and that 
the latter had had peaceful seisin ever since, until it was taken by 
the King, and that the worth of the manor was -12 75. g^d. z On 
this the Sheriff was directed on October 2 to cause Fulk to have 
again seisin of the manor of Sutton Madock, together with every- 
thing received thence since it was taken into the King's hands. 3 
Another mandate was sent on the same day to the same Sheriff 
to cause Eleanor, late the wife of Robert le Strange, to have 
again seisin of the manor of Whitchurch, as the King learns by 
inquisition of the Sheriff that Robert held it as the inheritance 
of Eleanor. 4 

The only sons of Robert le Strange and Eleanor of Whitchurch 
mentioned by Eyton are John and Fulk, but the Rolls show that 
there was a third son, Robert, who like his brothers had been 
enfeoffed during his father's lifetime. On the father's death 
the Justice of Chester was directed to take his lands into 
the King's hands, 5 owing to the minority of his heir. Robert 
protested, as his brothers had done ; an inquisition was 
consequently held on November 24, I276, 6 at which the jury 
found that Robert held no land in chief on the day of his death, 
but some time before held the manor of Merburi of Henry de 
Erdington for one knight's fee by service of a rose on St. John 
the Baptist's day, but in his lifetime had enfeoffed his son Robert 
thereof by charter ; that the latter was in peaceful seisin thereof 
until it was taken by the King, and that it was worth & 
per annum : further, that John, son of Robert deceased, was his 

1 C.F.R., i. 263. * Chanc. Inq. p.m., Edw. I, File 12 (4). 

3 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 311. * Ibid. 

5 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 73. * Inq. Edw. I, File 12 (5). 


heir, but they did not know his age, because he did not dwell 
within the county of Chester. I have come across no other men- 
tion of this Robert, but an entry in the Fine Rolls of January 19, 
1278, shows that on that date the manor of Merbury was com- 
mitted to Eleanor, late the wife of Robert le Strange, tenant-in- 
chief, to hold at the King's will, so that she answer for it yearly 
at the Exchequer of Chester : 1 possibly this grant was made in con- 
sequence of the death of Robert junior, and will account for his 
name not occurring again. A Robert le Strange, however, who may 
perhaps be this same individual, was among those who in 1313 
obtained a pardon as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster. 2 

An inquest of February 8, 1278, was held in the Hampshire 
manor of Chawton, which Robert senior had acquired from his 
brother Hamon ; the King's steward was directed to inquire 
who had intruded therein, to the prejudice of the King and the 
disinheriting of the said Robert's heir, who was within age, and 
in the King's wardship ; the jury found that Robert had en- 
feoffed Hugh de Cheney of 194^ acres of land, and loos, rent in 
Katerinton, saving to him and his heirs homage, suits of court, and 
all escheats from the said loos, rent, but that after Robert's death 
Hugh had appropriated to himself the said suits and escheats, 
to the value of 2os. yearly, and had also intruded on a hill pasture 
and an underwood called Lythes, the herbage of which was 
worth 5s. yearly. 3 

Professor Tout has .called my attention to the omission from 
all le Strange pedigrees of Margaret, daughter of John le Strange, 
who is mentioned in the Welsh Rolls ; she married Rhys, ap Gruf- 
fydd, ap Ednyved Vychan, and received from her husband a 
grant of the lordship of Trevgarnedd in Anglesey. On April 20, 
1284, the King allows her this lordship for life, though not regard- 
ing the grant as stable or firm. 4 Ednyved Vychan, her husband's 
grandfather, was Llewelyn ap lorwerth's right-hand man and 
steward. Rhys himself was alive on May 4, 1284, when the Earl 
of Lincoln was ordered to deliver his inheritance so far as it was 
in Llewelyn's cantred of Rhos. 5 Rhys had then just done homage 

1 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 90. * Parl. Writs, Sir F. Palgrave, ii. Div. 3, 1471. 

3 C. Edw. I, File 20 (20). * Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 285. Ibid. p. 293. 


for his lands, and entered on his inheritance. Rhys ap Gruffydd 
and Margaret le Strange had a son, known as Gruffydd Llwyd, 
wrongly celebrated as a Bardic hero, who in reality was Ed- 
ward II's right-hand man in North Wales, and defeated Mortimer 
of Chirk in 1311-2. This Margaret is not mentioned by Eyton, 
or in any printed record that I have seen, but it looks as 
if she must have been a daughter of John le Strange (IV) of 
Knockin, and I venture to include her as such, provisionally, in 
the pedigree. 

Mention occurs of the following le Stranges during the period 
covered by this chapter. 


The collection of Sir Henry Dering, Bart., of Surrenden-Dering, 
in Kent, contains ten charters of early date, which prove that 
a branch of the le Stranges held land for several generations, 
approximately from 1228 to 1348, in the parish of East Walton, 
near Westacre, Norfolk ; a well-indexed transcript of ten of these 
charters exists in the Muniment Room at Hunstanton. 1 Blome- 
field mentions 2 that the family gave their name to a manor there, 
which he says was called Strange's, from William le Strange, who 
held it in the reign of Henry III, by the fourth part of a knight's 
fee, of the heirs of Ralph de Beaufoe, the Domesday tenant ; he 
also says that in the 20 th of Edward III Robert le Strange held 
it of Hubert de Rye, and that the manor passed during the 
same reign to Sir John Howard, and was subsequently known 
as Howard's and Strange's manor. 

Of the Dering charters the six first are undated ; of these the 
first is a grant from Saxi de Fonte of Walton to Roger le Strange, 
son of Benedict, of a perch and a half of land abutting on Bene- 
dict's land in Walton. I am unable to identify any of the wit- 
nesses ; they appear to be local neighbours. 

The second deed is an exchange of three acres in Walton field 

1 I p. 17. | * ix - H6. 


between William, prior of Westacre, and the canons, and Ida, 
wife of Benedict le Strange : the first witness is Ralph le Strange. 
Blomefield 1 says that William was prior of Westacre in 12 Henry 
III, which would give 1228 as the approximate date of the charter. 

No. 3 is a sale of a small piece of land in East Walton field ; 
among the witnesses are 'Witto Exstraneo de Est Walton,' and 
Alexander de Butterwyk ; the latter name occurs in a Fine of 
22 Edward I (1294), quoted by Blomefield, 2 but at that period 
deeds were usually dated, so I incline to think that the Alexander 
who tested the Bering charter was not the same individual as the 
witness to the Fine. 

No. 4 is a grant from Peter Chiping to William le Strange, 
both of East Walton, of $%d. annual rent and certain homages 
and services therein ; the first attestation is by Alexander de 
Butterwick, so this deed must be of about the same date as the 

No. 5 is a sale of a messuage and croft by Nicholas Schreue to 
Roger, son of Roger le Strange of East Walton, for 20 marks. The 
two first witnesses are John Howard and William le Strange ; 
the first of these was probably Sir John Howard of Wiggenhall, 
ancestor of the Dukes of Norfolk, who died in 1331. 

By the 6th charter, Thomas, Richard, and Sabina de Ratles- 
dene quitclaim certain lands in East Walton, sold by them to 
William le Strange of that place. Here again the first witness is 
Alexander de Butterwyk; he is followed by John and Richard 
Boys, or de Bosco, whose niece married Sir John Howard, jun., 
who was Sheriff of Norfolk in 1345. 

The next charter, No. 7, is the first that has a date, viz. October 
20, 1316. It is a grant by Roger le Strange, perpetual vicar of the 
church of East Walton, of a messuage and croft there to Richard 
Waryn of Grimston and Isabella his wife. The first witness is 
Roger, son of William le Strange of East Walton. 

No. 8, dated January 6, 1318, is a grant by Henry fitz Ralph 
to Roger de Priketone of a rood of land in East Walton, the first 
witness being Roger le Strange. 

1 ix. 160. * v. 239. 


By No. 9, dated June 29, 1348, Margaret, widow of Roger 
Zoel, or Yol, of Aylesswethesthorp, 1 quitclaims to Thomas, 
son of Roger le Strange of East Walton, two acres of land 

The tenth and last of these Dering charters is dated January 
29, 1349, an d is a grant by Hugo Edward of Thorp, chaplain, to 
Mirielle, widow of Roger Sad of East Walton, and his daughter 
Helewisa, of a messuage and certain lands thereat, some of which 
abut on land of Roger Straunge. The grant is witnessed by Roger 
le Strange and William le Strange. 

Two charters in the British Museum supply a little more evi- 
dence about these East Walton le Stranges. One is an undated 
charter of Andrew Conteshale, of East Walton, granting a piece of 
arable land to Roger, son of Roger le Strange and Martin his 
nephew, of the same place. The two first witnesses to this grant 
are Alexander de Butterwyk and William le Strange. 2 This does 
not clear up the relationship between Roger the son of Roger and 

The second deed is a grant from Thomas Gadergod of East 
Walton, dated on May 5, 1312, to Matilda, late the wife of William 
le Strange of that place, and Roger his son of certain herbage 
and pasture there. 3 This lady occurs again in a Fine of July i, 
1327, between Roger Petigard, jun., and Matilda, late the wife 
of William le Strange, and Roger le Strange and William his son, 
concerning certain lands and tenements in Bilney, Westacre, 
and Gaytonthorpe, which Roger le Strange granted to Roger 
Petigard. 4 

On June 2, 1353, William le Strange gave by Fine 30 marks 
of silver to John, son of Thomas de Apelton and Cristiana his wife 
for some 20 acres of land in East Walton and Westacre. 5 

The ' Feudal Aids ' for 1302 record that William le Strange and 
his tenants hold the fourth part of a knight's fee in East Walton of 

1 This is not Ashwellthorpe, near Wymondham, but appears to be an old name 
of Gaytonthorpe, the next parish to the north of East Walton. 
B.M. Harl. Chart. 48, G. 45. 8 Ibid., 50, F, 26. 

4 P.R.O. Feet of Fines, 2 Edw. Ill, Case 164, File 144, No. 31. 
6 Ibid., 27 Edw. Ill, Case 166, File 161, No. 875. 


the heirs of Beaumund ; 1 and also that in 1346 Roger le Straunge 
holds the fourth part of a knight's fee in East Walton of Hugh 
de Ry, of which the Prior of Westacre holds a third part, which 
fee William le Straunge formerly held. 2 

The 'Feudal Aids' of the same year, 1346, contain several 
entries concerning Roger le Straunge and Joan his wife ; but 
whether this Roger is identical with Roger of East Walton I 
am not sure, though it seems probable. The entries are as 
follows : 

A.D. 1346. Hundr. de Deppewade. Dominus Rogerus le Straunge et Johanna 
uxor ejus tenent in Fundenhale unum feodum mib'tis de heredibus comitis Mares 
calli, et iidem de Rege, quod Johannes de Thorp quondam tenuit . . . xl.s. 

Idem Rogerus et Johanna uxor ejus tenent in Assewell Thorp unum feodum 
militis de Roberto de Benhale et Eva uxore ejus, et iidem de Rege quod Johannes 
de Thorp quondam tenuit . . . xl.s. 3 

A.D. 1346. Hundr. de Gildecrosse. Rogerus le Straunge et Johanna uxor 
ejus tenent in Wreningham unum feodum militis de Johanne Bardolf, et idem de 
Rege, quod Johannes de Thorp quondam tenuit . . . xl.s. 4 

The above-named Joan was daughter and heiress of Roger 
atte Eshe. She married, firstly, John de Thorp of Ashwell- 
thorpe, who died in 1340, [and secondly, in 1345, Roger le 
Strange who, Blomefield says, was lord of Ashwellthorpe in her 
right. 5 

The Patent Rolls of September 8, 1367, contain letters nomi- 
nating attorneys in England for one year for John le Strange of 
East Walton, who is going on a pilgrimage beyond seas by the 
King's licence. 6 In the Close Rolls of August 28, 1376, is entered 
a charter of John le Strange, lord of Walton, granting to Roger le 
Strange, Philip, Vicar of Wellesborne, and William de Offechirche, 
all the lands which he, the said John le Strange, had in Alcrynton, 
Balscote, and Wroxton, co. Oxford ; Shenyndon, co. Gloucester ; 
Tysho, Pylardynton, and Lockeleye, co. Warwick ; Totebache, 
Bradele, Evesham, and Goldecote, co. Worcester. 7 

1 Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. 408. * Ibid. p. 523. 

3 Ibid. p. 528. ' Ibid. p. 532. 

Blomefield, v. 145. C.P.R. Edw. Ill, xiv. 5. 

1 C. Cl. R., Edw. Ill, xiv. 455 and 461. 

N 2 


The pedigree deducible from these documents is as follows : 

BENEDICT LE STRANGE, = IDA * * *, occ. c. 1228. 
of East Walton. 

Roger le Strange, =* * * 

Martin le 

of East Walton. 

= Matilda * * * 
occ. as 
widow, 1312 
and 1327. 

" * Roger le Strange, 
occ. before 


William le Strange, = 
of East Walton, 
occ. 1302 ; died 
before May 5, 1 3 1 2 . 

Roger le Strange = (?)/oan, d. and h. 

of East Wal- 
ton, occ. 1316, 

of Roger atte 
Eshe, occ. 

Thomas le Strange, 
occ. 1348. 

William le Strange, 
occ. 1327, 1353. 

John le Strange, 
of E. Walton 
in 1376. 

The accounts of the chamberlain of the Corporation of Lynn 
for 20-21 Edward III (1346-7) contain the following entries, 1 
which may refer to some of the above members of the East Walton 
branch of the family : 

Itm r? de xx 8 . dat Jofei Straunge. Exp". forinsecoram. 
Itm r9 de iiij". x<*. in expens'. Wai? del Hay t Joni Straunge. 
Itm r? de vj s . viij*. solut Wifto Straunge 5 labor' suo. 
Itm r9 de xiij. iiij. da? Witto Straunge pro feodo suo. 


Emma le Strange is known to me only from the following 
entry in the Testa de Nevill* which may refer to any time during 
the reigns of Henry III and Edward I : 

Feoda que tenentur in capite de domino rege in comitatu Essex et Herts. 
Emma Extranea tenet in Sturemere feodum dimidii militis. 

1 Lynn, Chamberlain's Accounts, E, a 12, 20-21 Edw. III. 

P. 266. 



A Hugh le Strange has been mentioned * as occurring in the 
neighbourhood of Knockin in the early part of the thirteenth 
century. Eyton shows 2 that a Hugh, whose relationship to 
John le Strange he cannot certify, held land at Berrington, a few 
miles to the south-east of Shrewsbury, and he thinks that there 
may have been two persons of the name of Hugh, who were 
tenants there under the elder house of le Strange ; one of them 
had a brother named John. In or about the year 1240 Hugh 
was dead, and his inheritance was divided among females ; this 
is shown by two entries in the Testa de Nevill* which record that 
Roger Sprinchose and the heirs of Hugh le Strange hold a knight's 
fee in Binton or Biriton i.e. Berrington. Eyton has little to 
say about the co-parceners of Berrington, except one of them, 
who was a William fitz Alan. 


Eyton, quoting from the Haughmond Chartulary, 4 says that 
John le Strange, a burgess and Provost of Oswestry, witnessed 
a charter on April 2, 1258, in a full court of Oswestry Hundred. 
About the same date he also attested a grant of land in Aston 
to Haughmond Abbey. 5 Eyton also mentions that, within a 
few years of 1292, Richard le Strange was one of the co-tenants, 
along with the abbot of Haughmond, of Aston, which lies between 
Oswestry and Knockin. 6 Richard must have died soon after 
this date, as a memorandum in the Leiger-book of Shrewsbury 
Abbey, concerning the tithes of certain lands belonging to the 
parish church of Oswalster, mentions the crofts of the late Richard 
Straunge. 7 An inquest, taken at Oswestry after the death of 
Richard, Earl of Arundel, on May 18, 1302, names Juliana, William, 
and John le Strange among the burgesses of that town. 8 

1 Supra, p. 35- * vi. 35, 36. 

8 Pp. 48 and 50. * xi. 9. 

8 Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 8-22. * Eyton, xi. 13. 

7 Ibid. x. 342. >s Ibid. x. 334. 



A John, son of Ralph le Strange, appears in the county of 
Hertford in the year 1272, as is shown by the following extract 
from the Fine Rolls of Henry III : 

Hertf . Johannes filius Radulphi le Estraunge dat dimidiam marcam pro uno 
brevi ad terminam habendo. Et mandatum est Vicecomiti Hert- 
fordie. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, xxx die Julii anno regni 
Ivi . 1 

It seems scarcely probable that this John is identical with 
John, son of Ralph le Strange of Litcham, who occurs in 1259 
and 1293. 2 


The Hundred Rolls mention a Stephen le Strange in the in- 
quisitions taken in the 4th of Edward I (1275-6) : 

Ebor'. Wappentake de Rydal. De Sectis. Stephanus le Straunge subtraxit 
sectam et unum diem per idem tempus de una bovata in Amubdeby 
[Amotherby, near Malton]. 8 


A fee belonging to William le Strange in Devonshire is noted 
in the Testa de Nevill as paying two marks towards the Aid given 
to the King in that county in the 2ist of Edward I (1292-3). 4 This 
William appears again at the Devonshire inquisition, held on 
September I, 1289, for proof of age of Alan, son and heir of Roger 
la Zouche ; William Extraneus, knight, agrees as to the proof of 
age, for Alan's father made him a knight sixteen years ago last 
Christmas, when Alan, then six years old, carried the sword 
before him. 5 

A William le Strange is mentioned in the Patent Rolls of July 

1 Excerpta e Rot. Fin. Hen. Ill, curd Car. Roberts, ii. 574. 

2 Supra, p. 53. * Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. Ill et Edw. I, i. 
4 Testa de Nevill, p. 188. Inq. Edw. I, File 55 (5). 


18, 1282, in a complaint from Walter de Kancia, that Richard de 
Ernesley, knight, and many others, entered his house at Newton 
Harcourt, co. Leicester, by night, carried away his goods, and 
assaulted his men. 1 It may have been this William who came 
to an untimely end in 1298, as appears by a pardon, granted to 
Robert Poygne on September 16, by reason of his services in 
Scotland, for the death of William Lestrange. 2 

1 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 47. Ibid. p. 361. 



c/ oo" 



<U T3 C X 

ill i 




Jj T3 c3 ci 



THE Shropshire and Norfolk inquisitions show that John le 
Strange (V) was twenty-two years of age when his father was acci- 
dentally drowned in the Severn in the autumn of 1275, though it 
was not until May of the following year that he obtained seisin 
of his father's lands, and did homage for them to the King. Of 
his three uncles, Hamon, the crusader, had died two years before 
in the Holy Land ; Robert, also a crusader, had returned home, 
but died a few months later, in 1276, leaving three sons, John, 
Fulk, and Robert, the second of whom was eventually the first 
baron of the house of Blackmere. The only uncle left alive was 
Roger le Strange of Ellesmere, who, as we shall see, took a pro- 
minent part in the Welsh wars of Edward I, and ultimately 
added to the family honours a third summons to Parliament as 
a baron. 

Like his father and his grandfather, John (V) was a bene- 
factor to the Shropshire Abbey Of Haughmond. One of his earliest 
acts, after coming into possession of his lands, being to grant to 
that abbey rents in Kinton to the value of ^od. 1 He was twice 
married ; of his first wife, who apparently had no children, nothing 
but the Christian name, Alianora, has come down to us ; this is 
mentioned in a curious exchange, entered on the Plea Rolls at 
Trinity, 1276,2 between John le Strange and his wife Alianora, 

1 Harl. MSS. 2022. * Abbrev. Placit. Ric. I-Edw. II, p. 1906. 



of the one part, and John's mother, Joan de Somery, of the other, 
which is thus summarised by Eyton : 

Joan de Somery settles the manor and advowson of Midelton (Cambridge- 
shire) on John and Alianora, and the heirs of John by Alianora, but, in default 
of such heirs, with remainder to Joan. In return, John le Strange gives to Joan 
the value of half Midelton, to be taken out of his manor of Hunstanston, and 100 
solidates of land and rents elsewhere, to hold to Joan for her life. If Hunstanston 
proved non-equivalent to half Midelton, the overplus, if any, was to remain 
with John le Strange, or the deficiency, if any, was to be made good to Joan 
out of Le Strange's nearest estates. On Joan's death, and also on Alianora's 
death, without issue, Hunstanston was to revert to Le Strange. The advowson 
and capital Messuages of either manor were to pass in exchange, as if equal, 
and were not to be extended. 1 

An inquest, taken at Cambridge in the 7th of Edward I 
(1278-9), shows that John le Strange held two knights' fees at 
Middleton in that county of Simon de Insula, at a rent of a pair 
of gilt spurs worth 6d., and payment of scut age to Simon ; also 
a fishery worth 2os. per annum, view of frank-pledge, and assize 
of bread and beer, with rights oi warren in his lands. 

John's second wife was Maud, daughter and heiress of Roger 
d'Eiville, of Walton d'Eiville, Warwickshire, in right of whom he 
held that manor, which afterwards passed to their heir. Maud, 
as we shall see, survived her husband. 

An early Roll of tenants in capite, and sub-tenants in Shrop- 
shire, temp. Edw. I, from the collection of Edward Lloyd, 2 gives 
the following information as to the possessions of John le Strange. 
He held the manor of Wrockwardine with its members viz. 
Admaston, Aldescote, Leyton, Barcote, Ness, Clotley, and Walcote 
of the King at an annual rent of 8 ; of these members Hugh 
Burnell held some rents in Admaston, the abbot of Haughmond 
held Walcote in free alms, and Ralph de Clotley held that vill 
of the said John, who held the rest of the manor, and had his 
court there, with pleas of bloodshed, hue and cry, and gallows, 
which he used. The manor of Ness was also held by him in chief, 
by the service of one knight for fifteen days in time of war. The 

1 Eyton, x. 278 ; Rot. Claus. 2 Edw. I, m. 10. 
* Coll. Top. and Gen. i. 115-120. 


manor of Middle he held of John Fitz Alan, by the service of the 
fourth part of a knight at Oswestry in time of war. 

Young John le Strange succeeded to his border inheritance 
at a troublous time. The treaty of 1267 with Llewelyn was a 
truce rather than a peace, and the Welsh'prince had availed him- 
self of Edward's four years' absence from England to strengthen 
himself and prolong the unrest : he refused to pay homage to the 
King on his return, and his evasions and aggressions provoked 
the latter to declare war against the Welsh in November, 1276. 
A clear view of the campaigns, which ended in the subjugation 
of the principality to the English Crown, will be found in Mr. 
John E. Morris's ' Welsh Wars of Edward I,' which is based on 
original documents, and has special reference to mediaeval military 
history. 1 For many months preparations were made on a very 
large scale ; Edward had already had experience of the difficulties 
of attacking a mountainous country like Wales, and knew that 
the invasion of Snowdonia was no light task. His feudal forces 
were summoned to Worcester on July I, 1277, as Llewelyn had 
been most aggressive on the middle March of Powys, Radnor, 
and Salop. This was precisely the country where the le Stranges 
possessed most influence, and among those who were summoned 
to Worcester were John, the young lord of Knockin, and his 
uncle, Roger of Ellesmere. The latter, on November 16, 1276, 
had letters of protection until Michaelmas, for going on the King's 
special affairs to the March. 2 Both of them had been ordered 
to prohibit their vassals from furnishing provisions or supplies 
to the Welsh rebels ; 3 and the Patent Rolls show that on May 27, 
1277, John had letters of protection for going to Wales on the 
King's service. 4 The two le Stranges served under Roger de 
Mortimer in the army of the middle March, which drove Llewelyn 
out of Shropshire and reoccupied Powysland. Mr. John Morris 
makes an interesting point in saying that, with Edward's Welsh 
wars, the age of the foot-archer is dawning, and that the battles 

1 Oxford, 1901. 

* C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 171 ; Close Rolls, s^Edw. I, memb. 12, d. 
Part. Writ, tested at Cirencester, Dec. 28, 195, No. 3. 

* C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 210. 


of Evesham and Lewes were the last in which the heavily mailed 
horseman was quite supreme. In the war of 1277 the infantry 
from the border counties was composed of both sagittarii and 
lanceati, the latter being footmen armed with spears. The bow 
shown in the Bayeux tapestry, and in use up to the time of 
Henry III, was the weak short -bow, pulled only to the chest ; 
it was the long-bow, pulled to the ear, which, adopted and 
improved by Edward I and his grandson, eventually made the 
English infantry a real power in Europe. 

Shortly after the date of the muster at Worcester, Bogo de 
Knovill, Sheriff of Shropshire, left Oswestry to join the King, and 
Roger le Strange was brought from Derbyshire, where for some 
years he had been constable of the Castle of the Peak, and was 
placed in Bogo's stead as constable of Oswestry Castle on July 17, 
1277 ; the castle of Dinas Bran, on the middle Dee, opposite 
Llangollen, was also committed to him at a salary of 100, so that 
he could be within easy touch of headquarters at Chester, which 
was King Edward's base during the early stages of the war. 1 
On the same day authority was given to Roger le Strange to 
receive into the King's peace, until August 15, all Welsh willing 
to come in, after first receiving security for their good behaviour. 2 
Roger de Mortimer was informed of these dispositions, and that 
Roger le Strange and his nephew had been ordered ' to be inten- 
dant ' to him when necessary. 8 

It was about this time that Roger's brother-in-law, Griffith 
ap Gwenwynwyn, quarrelled with Llewelyn, and transferred his 
homage to the Crown ; he was restored as Prince of Upper Powys, 
not however with full and independent power, but as a vassal of 
England, under the control of le Strange as representative of the 
King. 4 Meanwhile, during the summer of 1277, Edward having 
closed in Llewelyn's country on the south and east, marched 
slowly round it to the north, to a ' camp near Basingwork/ where 
he stayed a month and began building at once a new castle, called 
Le Flint (i.e. La Roche), by August 23. He thence moved to 

1 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 223; Pipe Roll, 12 Edw. I, under 'Wardrobe'; Part. 
Writs, 1277. 

z C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 219. 3 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 398. * Supra, p. in. 


Rhuddlan, where he also began building a new castle, and finally 
to Con way, where he was in touch with his fleet, by the help of 
which he was able to seize the island of Anglesey, the granary of 
Wales ; Llewelyn was thus brought to bay in his mountain strong- 
hold, and, cut off from help on every side, was obliged to surrender 
on November 6, and to abandon all his territories except the district 
of Snowdon and the isle of Anglesey. The conditions were fixed 
and homage done at Rhuddlan. Among the terms of peace was 
the transference of the homage of the Welsh barons (including 
Griffith of Upper Powys), from Llewelyn to the King. Llewelyn 
went to London for the Christmas Parliament, but only remained 
there a fortnight, 1 and there was no more talk of further conditions 
until his marriage at Worcester in the following year. The feudal 
forces were dismissed, and some who had performed more than the 
forty days' service due from them received special rewards to drink 
the King's health (ad potandum), which are solemnly entered in 
the Pipe Rolls and other Exchequer accounts ; for instance, a 
batch of 250 archers from the lands of John le Strange and Lewis 
de la Pole received 385. 4^., which works out at nearly 2d. each, 
or a day's pay. 2 

On January 4, 1278, Roger le Strange was associated with 
Guncelin de Badlesmere, Justice of Chester, and three others, to 
receive an oath from Llewelyn's men, to take hostages from him, to 
release prisoners, and to see what lands were to be assigned by 
Llewelyn as dowry to Eleanor de Montfort, his affianced bride ; 3 
Eleanor, when on her way to marry him in 1275, had been captured 
at sea by one of the King's ships, and Edward had refused to 
allow her to be ransomed ; she remained under restraint at Queen 
Eleanor's Court until after the peace. In 1278 she accompanied 
the King and Queen to Worcester, where the marriage took place 
on October 13. For five years there was peace on the Welsh 
border, and the interval was employed by Edward in completing 
the erection of the strong castles begun in 1277 ; the north was 
secured by new fortresses at Flint, Rhuddlan, Conway, and Car- 

* Diet. Nat. Biog., art. on ' Llewelyn,' by Professor Tout, xxxiv. 13. 

* Morris's Welsh Wars, 139. 

* Rot. Wall. 6 Edvv. I, m. n ; Col. Chan. Rolls, various, p. 162. 


narvon ; the west by Harlech, Bere, and Criccieth ; while in the 
middle March the chief interest attaches to Builth, which occupied 
a central position of great importance ; on the east it had easy 
access to Mortimer's Shropshire fief ; on the south its posses- 
sion closed any advance from Brecon or Hereford ; on the west it 
commanded the road to Llandovery and the castles of South 
Wales ; while on the north it gave access up the valley of the 
Wye to the strongholds of the Snowdon country, and was an 
important post for checking raids from that direction. Twenty 
years previously Builth had been wrested from Mortimer by 
Llewelyn, who entirely destroyed the old castle and abandoned 
the site. Edward recognised its importance, and in 1277 began 
the construction of a new castle which took five years to build. 
The Exchequer accounts 1 show that there was a great central 
tower with six smaller towers in the curtain, and that the entrance 
was guarded by two more large towers ; there was also a hall, 
chapel, and stables ; its value is attested by the fact that it was 
never captured, though surrounded by the forces of Llewelyn when 
he invaded the valley of the upper Wye in his last campaign. Yet 
of all these buildings scarcely a stone remains in situ, though 
the lofty earthworks and deep fosses indicate the plan, and bear 
witness to the former strength of this advanced outpost among 
the Welsh hills. 

The services of John le Strange in the first Welsh war were 
recognised by a grant from the King, dated January 10, 1278, 
remitting 200, wherein he was bound at the Exchequer for the 
debts of John his father and his ancestors, 2 ' as the King has 
pardoned him this sum for his grateful service.' On February 5 
the King wrote a warm letter of thanks to him for the spontaneous 
services which he had rendered over and above those due from 
him by his feudal tenure, ' non ratione alicuius servicii nobis ad 
prsesens debiti, sed sponte et graciose.' 3 The discharge of those 
services involved le Strange in considerable expenses, which the 
income of his lands was not sufficient to meet, and the Close Rolls 
show that he was obliged to have recourse to borrowing. On 

1 See Morris's Welsh Wars, pp. 147-148. * C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 252. 

3 Morris's Welsh Wars, p. 121, from Parl. Writs, i. 196. 


June 25, 1280, he acknowledged that he owed 12 to John de 
Ubbeston, to be levied in default on his lands in Norfolk and Salop ; 
and another entry on the same day shows that he had borrowed 
23 from Acius Jacobin of Florence and Pelegrin de Kyatrino of 
Lucca, secured on his lands in Cambridgeshire. 1 On October 6 
following he acknowledged a debt of 35 marks to Richard della 
Rohere, to be levied in default on his lands, &c., in co. Salop ; z 
and also 16 marks to Philip de Belvaco, secured on his lands 
in Herefordshire and Salop ; 3 again, an entry of December 15, 

1281, records a debt of 27 marks to Nutus de Florencia, merchant, 
to be levied in default on lands in Salop. 4 Altogether in eighteen 
months he had raised 87, equivalent to over 3000 at the 
present day. 

John's mother, Joan de Somery, was still alive at this period, 
and apparently had the Norfolk property in dower ; a commission 
of oyer and terminer was issued on January 15, 1281, touching the 
persons who cut off and carried away part of a whale which had 
been cast ashore at Thornham and Titchwell, as the wreck of 
Isabella de Albini, Countess of Arundel. This was Isabel de 
Warenne, wife of Hugh de Albini, last Earl of Arundel of his line, 
and brother of Joan's mother, Nicola de Albini. At the same 
time a commission was issued to extend the manor of Hunstanton, 
held by Joan de Somery. 5 A grant was made to Joan on April 10, 

1282, of the goods of James Elfrych of Hunstanton, forfeited to the 
King by reason of a felony for which he had abjured the realm. 6 

We now come to the second Welsh war of 1282-3, which 
resulted in the death of Llewelyn, and the subjugation of the 
principality to the English Crown. In this campaign Roger le 
Strange took no inconsiderable part. For five years Welsh 
grievances had smouldered, gradually becoming more acute, 
owing chiefly to the rough conduct of the English officials, and 
resentment at their interference with native laws and customs. 
Llewelyn and his brother David became reconciled, and attempted 
to recover their independence. On March 22, 1282, they swooped 

1 C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, pp. 58-59. * Ibid. p. 66. 

8 Ibid. p. 67. ' Ibid. p. 176. 

5 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 468. 6 Ibid. 1281-1292, p. 14. 


down on Hawarden, which it was easy for David, as being lord 
of the Upper Clwyd, to attack unexpectedly ; they captured 
Roger de Clifford, who was Keeper of Hawarden and Mold, as 
the then lord, Roger of Mold, was a minor, and devastated the 
country up to the walls of Chester. Llewelyn remaining in the 
north, David rushed off to raise the south Welsh, and succeeded 
so well that he captured Llandovery and destroyed the new castle 
at Llanbadarn ; the rising was general in Brecon and Radnor, 
and the King was obliged to call for reinforcements from Ireland 
and Scotland, and even from Gascony, to quell the revolt. 

The castle of Builth, which had been four years in construction 
at a cost of 1600, under Howel ap Meyrick, was completed just 
before his death in 1281 ; the custody of it was committed in 
November to Roger le Strange, 1 no doubt because of his intimate 
acquaintance with that part of the country. He had up to that 
time been in charge of Dinas Bran, the chief castle in Bromfield, 
which with Yale was the nucleus of the possessions of the Welsh 
lords of Lower Powys. Griffith ap Madog, who died in 1269, had 
left several sons, but Edward I kept the lordships in his own hands 
and had made Roger le Strange keeper of Bromfield and Yale, 
doubtless as a measure of precaution. In 1282 Earl Warenne 
was granted Bromfield and Yale, 2 so Roger le Strange was no 
longer wanted there, and was transferred to Builth. Warenne 
built the Dinas Bran, the ruins of which still survive. The de- 
scendants of Griffith ap Madog were relegated to small estates, 
and one of their direct line was Owen Glendwr, whose connection 
with the le Stranges will be shown later. 

On the outbreak of hostilities both Roger and his nephew John 
were ordered, on March 24, 1282, to place themselves and their 
forces under the command of Roger de Mortimer, and not to have 
intercourse with the Welsh rebels, or to let them have arms or 
provisions. 3 On May 24 they were summoned to serve with the 
army at Rhuddlan ; 4 and Roger le Strange was again summoned 
to perform military service there in person, 5 but it is not probable 

1 Rot. Orig., 10 Edw. I, i. 396. * Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 240. 

3 Parl. Writs, vol. i. 222, No. i. * Rot. Wall. 10 Edw. I, m. 4, dorso. 

6 Parl. Writs, i. 247, No. 9. 



that he left the middle March for the north. The Bedfordshire 
Writs of that year mention that he was tenant by the courtesy of 
England of the third part of the barony of Beauchamp, but in 
pursuance of the summons performed his service in Ellesmere 
by the King's command in the comitiva of Roger de Mortimer. 1 
During the summer of 1282 he was holding Builth Castle with a 
small garrison, surrounded by a sea of revolt : for a long time 
he seems to have been isolated, keeping his garrison going by 
the revenues of the land belonging to it, which brought in 100 
per annum to the Crown. 2 On October 26 Roger de Mortimer 
died, and Roger le Strange, who had been doing his work for some 
time, succeeded to his place. On October 30 le Strange was ap- 
pointed to the custody of the King's castles of Oswestry, Whit- 
church, and Montgomery, and the knights of those garrisons were 
ordered to be intendant to him ; 3 he had already been directed, 
on October 14, to surrender the keepership of Builth Castle to 
John Giffard of Brimsfield, lord of Llandovery. 4 

On November 6, 1282, the royal army suffered a bad temporary 
check by the defeat of Tany on the Menai Straits, which obliged 
Edward to remain for a while on the defensive. Edward, however, 
recovered himself so well within a month or so that Llewelyn 
left Snowdon in despair of further resistance, and tried as a forlorn 
hope the effect of appearing among the numerous Welsh tenants 
of Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, and of the Mortimers, Bohuns, 
Giffards, and other mid- Welsh Marcher lords. The defence of 
the March devolved upon Roger le Strange. Roger at once took 
active measures for carrying out the preparations for the advance 
against the Welsh in central Wales ; he ordered the cutting down 
of trees in the passes ; 5 he had John Giffard with him, and young 
Edmund Mortimer was certainly acting under his orders, but 
there is some doubt as to who was in actual command at the battle 
near Builth. Mr. Morris, in his ' Welsh Wars/ commits himself 
to the statement that ' not a single authority represents 1' Estrange 
as present in person.' In this particular instance Mr. Morris 

1 Parl. Writs, i. 247, No. 9. 
1 Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 244. 
8 Welsh Rolls, June 28, 1283. 

* Rot. Orig., 10 Edw. I, i. p. 516. 
4 Ibid. p. 240. 


has certainly failed to examine his original authorities ; so far 
from not mentioning Roger as being present, several of them 
specifically record his presence, and one l even says that he 
personally cut off Llewelyn's head : 

Quod cum audisset Rogeras le Estraunge, pro tanto opprobrio indignatus, et 
non modicum iratus, illico evaginato gladio quo accinctus erat, irruit in eum, et, 
ejusdem capite amputate, corpus truncum reliquit. 

Trokelowe is perhaps not very convincing, as he makes the 
affair happen at Montgomery, but another chronicler says : 2 

E puis vint Sire Leulin e descendi de Snoudone, e vint a Mount Gumeri e la 
vint Sir Roger le Estraunge e autre marchiz e gent de la pais e pristerent Sire 
Leulin, e le occirent, e sa teste fu en veye a la Tour de Loundres. 

At least two other chroniclers mention Roger as taking a 
personal part in Llewelyn's capture and death, and the fact that 
it was Roger himself, as we shall see, who sent the despatch 
announcing the affair to King Edward, is in itself strongly pre- 
sumptive of his having been in command on the day. 

The subjoined letter from Roger to the King 3 refers mainly 
to the earlier stages of Llewelyn's southern raid. The enemy 
has crossed the Berwyns the long range of moorland shutting in 
the southern valley of the Dee between Corwen and Llangollen. 
Earl Warenne, holding Bromfield on the flank of the Berwyns, 
is not to allow them to get provisions. The lands of ' Sire Griffin * 
were doubtless those of Gruffydd of Pool, and this shows that the 
Welsh had crossed the mountains into the upper Severn Valley. 
The Mortimers, and the bailiffs of Brecon and Builth, are warned, 
a fact which shows that Roger correctly guessed the direction 
Llewelyn would take, and enhances his share in the credit of the 
victory at Orewin bridge : 

A son tre noble seigneur Edward par la grace deu Roy de Engleterre Seigneur 
de Yrlaund et Due de Guyenne Roger le Estraunge si ly plest Saluz Honurs et 
reuerences cum a son cher Seigneur. Sachez sire ke jeo ai reuisite nos marches en 
nos parties de Leu en Leu partut, et ceo ke mes alast par le conseil de vos prudes 

1 De Trokelowe et Anon. Chron. (Rolls Series, 48), iii. 40. 

1 Le Livere de Reis de Engleterre (Wroxham continuation, Rolls Series, 42), p. 304. 

1 P.R.O. Ancient Correspondence, xix. Nos. 8 and 9. 


homes ai Jeo fet adrescer a meux ke Jeo sauez et frai de Jour en Jour sicum deus 
me assensera a meux ke puisse. Endroit de ceo sire ke vus me mandastes par nostre 
lettre ke Jeo cheuauchas sus vos enemys. Sachez sire ke vos enemy s en nos 
parties sont outre Berwen 1 et outre Merugge 2 le quelle mountagnes sont si 
morouses et debeteines ke nul Host ne pourroit saunesment passer sans mettre 
vostre gent en grand peril La quele chose vus mauez defendu, ne mie por ceo ke 
kaunt ke home pourra fere de damage a eus Jeo mettrei ma peine de fere le. 
Sachez sire ke le greu n damage ke home le pourra fere de ca en auaunt ceo est de 
garder ben la marche ke viueres ne viandes ne passent a eus, la quele garde Jeo ai 
ordine a meux ke Jeo sauei, mes il en est mester si vus plest ke vus direz au Counte 
de Garenne ke il preigne garde ben la terre ke vus li auez done ke vitaille ne passe. 
Et maundez si vus plest meyme la manere a ma dame de Mortymer et a sire Emun 
son fiz et au Baillif de Buelt et de Brekenen meyme. La nuit ke ceste lettre fu 
fete si me vint nouele ke Lewelin esteit decenduz en la terre sire Griffin et por ceo 
Jeo ale Lendroit. Deu vus doint longe vie et bone. 

I trust that it will not be without interest if I go with some 
detail into a description of the skirmish except in the importance 
of its results it is hardly worthy of being called a battle as I 
have had the advantage of personally examining the ground in 
company of a most competent local antiquary, the Rev. Edmondes 
Cwen, vicar of Llanelwedd, near Builth, to whom I am indebted 
for many notes embodied in this narrative. 

John Giffard, who was then holding Builth Castle for the King, 
was connected through the family of his wife, Maud Longespee, 
with Llewelyn, and had also fought together with him at Lewes 
against Edward, but had afterwards deserted the barons and 
joined the King's side. It is said that, after Llewelyn's success 
near Bangor, he was invited by his old comrade-in-arms to 
come to Builth, Giffard promising to desert the King and help 
him. Llewelyn, not suspecting treachery, came down with a body- 
guard of only eighteen men. He spent the night of December 10 
at the little castle of Aberedw, on the Wye, a few miles below 
Builth, hoping to meet Giffard in the morning. Here Giffard 
and the two young Mortimers attempted to surprise him, but 
he escaped and took refuge in a cave on the hill above. Next 
morning he proceeded up the right bank of the Wye to Builth, 
but found the castle closed against him by Giffard's men ; he 

1 Coder Berwyn, on the borders of Montgomeryshire and Merionethshire. 
1 ? unidentified. 

o 2 


destroyed Builth bridge, and hastened to join the main body of his 
forces, which was posted on the heights near Cilmery, overlooking 
the northern or left bank of the river Yrfon, which runs into the 
Wye from the westward just above Builth. 1 From these heights, 
at a spot known long before the battle as Cefn-y-bedd (the ridge 
of the grave), a Cwm, or dingle, runs down to the Yrfon, and im- 
mediately opposite the bottom of the dingle was Orewin bridge ; 
no trace of which now remains, but the name, which means above 
the foam, indicates the site ; the bridge, no doubt a wooden one, 
was built just above a little rapid at the foot of the dingle. The 
English held the right or southern bank of the Yrfon from Builth 
upwards, but were unable to cross the river as it was in flood, and 
Llewelyn had seized the bridge and detached some of his men 
on the south side to guard it, leaving most of his force on the steep 
northern slopes above the river. Having posted his forces, and 
deeming their position secured by the river in their front, the 
prince, who had been up nearly all the previous night, retired to 
rest in a barn near the head of the dingle. Meanwhile a Welsh- 
man had pointed out to the English a ford, about a mile higher 
up the Yrfon, by which they were able to cross over to the 
northern side, and, by skirting the heights a little way from the 
river, took the men who were guarding Orewin bridge in the rear ; 
they gained possession of the bridge, and thus opened the way 
for the rest of the English army to cross over. Some of the 
heavy cavalry, with archers intermingled in their ranks, who had 
worked round higher up the slopes behind the main body of the 
Welsh, charged downhill, and threw them into confusion ; caught 
unawares between two fires, and without orders from their prince, 
the Welsh resistance was overcome, and they were driven in 
disorder from the field. At that juncture Llewelyn, awakened 
by the noise, hurried up without waiting to put on his armour, 
and was run through the body and killed, before his identity 
was recognised, by one Stephen de Frankton. The name of 
this individual supplies additional proof of the connection of 
Roger le Strange with the fight, as Stephen was undoubtedly a 

1 Ann. Monast., Dunstable, iii. 293. 

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retainer of Roger's, and was under obligations to him. Frankton 
is a small village close to the latter's manor of Ellesmere. The 
Patent Rolls of September 10, 1275, contain a ratification, at the 
instance of Roger le Strange, of a pardon granted to Stephen de 
Frankton by Henry III of his abjuration of the realm and of all 
trespasses. 1 Stephen appears again in 1287 as Centenar in com- 
mand of a company of infantry from Ellesmere. 2 

The best account of the battle, from which the above is largely 
drawn, is given by a contemporary Yorkshire chronicler, Walter 
de Hemingburgh, to whom Mr. James Gairdner gives the high 
praise of saying that ' his accuracy of statement is only equalled 
by the elegance of his style.' 8 The authorities are by no means 
agreed as to details, and not even as to who struck the fatal blow, 
but the balance of evidence appears to confirm the narrative as 
given above. 

The head of Llewelyn was cut off and sent to Edward I at 
Rhuddlan, so that he might make sure that his enemy was really 
dead, and was accompanied by the following despatch, of which 
a photograph is given opposite, from Roger le Strange to announce 
his victory. It is, as Mr. Morris remarks, 5 laconic to the point 
of being tantalising : 

A son tre noble seign r Edward par la grace Deu Roy de Engleterre, seign r de 
Yrlaund, t Due de Guyene, Rogle 9 Estraunge si le plest saluz, honurs, et reuer- 
ences : 

Sachez sire ke vos bones gens les queus vus auez assigne de estre entendant a 
moy se combatirent ou Leweln le finz Griffin en le paes de Buelt le vendredy 
prochein apres la feste seint Nhoilas, issi ke Leweln le finz Griffin est mort et ses 
gent desconfit et tote la flour de ses gent morz, sicum le portr de ceste lettre vus 
dirra, et le creez de ce ke il vus dirra de par moi. 

Surely the wording of the above despatch is sufficient to 
establish the fact that the English army at Orewin bridge was 
under the command of Roger le Strange. 

The headless trunk was buried at Cwmhir Abbey, in the modern 
Radnorshire ; the head itself was sent on to London by the King 

1 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 104. * Exchequer accounts, -fe. 

1 Gairdner's Early Chroniclers of England, p. 196. 

* Ancient Correspondence, P.R.O., xix. 8. * Welsh Wars, p. 184. 


and, crowned with a silver circlet, was carried up Cheapside on 
the point of a lance, and was then placed on the Tower as a warn- 
ing to all against future attempts at insurrection. 1 

After the death of Llewelyn his brother David endeavoured 
to make a new centre of resistance at Bere Castle in Merionethshire, 
but the Welsh had no resources at their back, and David was not 
equal to his brother as a leader. 2 On May 2, 1283, Roger le Strange 
was summoned to perform military service in person against them, 
and he and the bailiffs of his lordship of Ellesmere were required 
to muster at Montgomery. 3 He was present under the command 
of William de Valence at the siege of Bere Castle, which surren- 
dered on April 25, when Roger was appointed constable thereof ; 4 
he was left with his own troop of 20 horse and 2000 foot to patrol 
Merionethshire throughout June, and he was able to reduce the 
whole district ; his nephew John was also employed on the same 
service. 5 Prince David was finally captured on Snowdon at the 
end of June, and on the 30th of that month John and Roger were 
among the barons summoned to Shrewsbury to treat with the 
King as to what should be done with the captive ; 6 he was con- 
demned during the sitting of the Parliament at Shrewsbury, and 
was executed as a traitor on October 3, 1283. After July there 
was no longer any need to keep an army in the field ; the princi- 
pality was formally incorporated with England by the Statute 
of Wales, enacted at Rhuddlan on March 19, 1284, and Edward 
devoted his attention to castle-building in order to hold the 
annexed lands. 

It has been mentioned 7 that the castle and manor of Chartley, 
in Staffordshire, which had belonged to Thomas de Ferrers before 
the disturbances in the reign of Henry III, had been granted by 
that King to Hamon le Strange (the Crusader). After the death of 
Hamon in Palestine in 1273 the castle was seized by Robert de 
Ferrers, but as soon as Edward I returned to England his brother 
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, by the King's orders besieged and took 

1 Trokelowe, iii. 40 ; Chron. W. de Hemingburgh, ii. pp. 11-13. 

2 Pipe Roll, 12 Edw. I, under Salop. 3 Parl. Writs, 1283. 
4 Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 284. 5 Parl. Writs, 1283. 
Fcedera, i. 630. 7 Supra, p. 144. 


the castle ; some years later, viz. on December 20, 1282, a pardon 
was issued to the Earl of Lancaster, Henry de Lacy, Earl of 
Lincoln, Reginald de Grey, and others of their party, for any 
deaths caused in the siege of the castle of Chartley ; also a 
pardon for such of the rebels as the said Edmund by letters 
patent had received into the King's peace. 1 

The manor of Olney, on the borders of Buckinghamshire and 
Northamptonshire, formed part of the inheritance of Hugh de 
Albini, Earl of Arundel, a fourth part of whose lands descended to 
his sister Nicola, the mother of Joan de Somery, wife of John le 
Strange (IV). Joan, as we have seen in the last chapter, 2 had 
three sisters, so a fourth part of the above fourth, i.e. one-sixteenth 
of the whole manor, came to John (V) in right of his mother. 
This was not divisible until her death, which must have taken 
place in 1282, as on December 15 of that year the Sheriff of North- 
ampton was directed to commit to the four parceners viz. Ralph 
de Cromwell and Margaret his wife, John le Strange, Walter de 
Sully and Mabel his wife, and Maud, late the wife of Henry de 
Erdington the manor of Olney, so that they could till and sow 
the lands until Easter next. 3 On September 12 of the next year 
(1283) the escheator was ordered to deliver to the parceners the 
said manor to hold for the same purposes until a month after 
Michaelmas. 4 On December I, 1283, the manor was finally 
divided among the four co-heirs, full particulars with names of 
tenants being given. 5 Two years later they were summoned 
to show why they claimed view of frankpledge in Olney ; they 
answered that it formerly belonged to Hugh de Daubeney, 
and is held in pourparty by three co-parceners, of whom one, 
Richard fitz Alan, is under age and in custody of the King, so 
that they are meantime in possession of the franchises. 6 

The Feudal Aids granted to the King at different periods show 
in whose hands the different manors were then held. The Roll 
of Fees in Salop for 1284-5 gives the following information viz. 

1 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 53. Supra, p. 158. 

1 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 176. Ibid. i. 189. 

5 Inq. p.m., Edw. I, File 40 (nj ; Rot. Orig. in cur. Scac., i. 436, and ^6a ; C. Cl. R., 
1279-1288, pp. 196, 238, 293. Plac. de Quo Warr., Edw. I-III, p. 916. 


John le Strange held the manor of Ness and Kinton with its 
members, viz. Olreton, Hopton, and Wyvelcote, in chief by service 
of one knight's fee. 1 Alan de Glasseleye held Glazeley of John 
le Strange for half a knight's fee, and John held it of Richard 
fitz Alan, who held it of the King. 2 Roger le Strange held the 
manor of Little Ercall with its members, viz. Acton, Leyes, and 
Golstan, of John le Strange for half a knight's fee, and he of the 
King. 3 Wrockwardine was held by John in chief at the annual 
rent of 8. 4 Roger held the manor of Cheswardine of John, who 
held it of the King by service of half a knight's fee. 5 Roger de 
Lodewyche held the vill of Abbeton of Geoffrey de Lodewyche, who 
held it of John le Strange, and he of the King for half a knight's 
fee. 6 The Roll for Cambridgeshire for 1284-6 shows that John 
held two knights' fees in Middleton of Simon de Insula, but how 
the latter held was not mentioned. 7 In Staffordshire the Roll 
for the same years mentions that Wolrighton was held of him, and 
that he held it of Nicholas, Lord Stafford, who held of the King. 8 

An article about Norwich thieves in the thirteenth century 
by Henry Harrod 9 records a remarkable case which occurred 
at Hunstanton in the I4th of Edward I (1285-6). Christiana 
Gamot, and Nicholas, the son of Mariota Bagge, of Hunstanton, 
were taken to that place in custody, whence they escaped. Each 
of them took sanctuary in Hunstanton church, acknowledged 
themselves thieves, and abjured the realm before the coroner. 
Nicholas returned and broke into the house of John Norman, of 
Hunstanton, and carried away goods to the value of 26 marks ; 
flying when the hue and cry was raised, he was retaken and be- 
headed. This penalty was usually reserved for cases of treason. 

The Gaol Delivery Roll of the same year supplies particulars 
of an assault which took place at Hunstanton, in which the vicar 
and his brother, a chaplain, and a clerk seem to have been impli- 
cated. Richard the smith of Hunstanton impleaded Alexander 
le Eskermiscur, William Dunny the vicar, Thomas his brother, 
Geoffrey de Renham, chaplain, and Gocelin, a clerk of Hunstanton, 

1 Feudal Aids, iv. p. 215. * Ibid. p. 218. 8 Ibid. p. 220. 

4 Ibid. p. 221. B Ibid. p. 222. Ibid. p. 223. 

7 Ibid. i. p. 138. 8 Ibid. v. p. 2. ' Nor}. Arch. vii. 372. 


for beating, wounding, and maltreating him, and maiming his 
left hand ; William denied it, and also pleaded privilege of clergy, 
whereupon he was claimed by the Ordinary of the Bishop. The 
jury found that none of the others were guilty except Alexander 
le Eskermiscur ; he committed the assault, but the others were 
present and were also amerced, and Alexander went back to the 
vicarage after the row. Alexander had no goods or chattels, 
but William, the vicar, came afterwards and paid a fine of half a 
mark. The name of William Dunny as vicar of Hunstanton in 
1286 is not given by Blomefield. Mr. Walter Rye, to whom I 
am indebted for the above information, discovered another in- 
stance of a criminous clerk at Hunstanton in the same year ; 1 
William, the chaplain of Hunstanton, was charged with murder- 
ing an unknown chaplain at Barsham, and was found guilty. 
Mr. Rye says that the number of clergy at that period who are 
charged on these Crown Plea Rolls with different crimes would 
be incredible to anyone who has not searched such records. 

The long delay in getting his share of the manor of Olney, 
and the expenses to which he was put in connection with the 
Welsh war, had again involved John le Strange in debt ; on 
October 10, 1283, the Close Rolls contain his acknowledgment for 
100 to Robert de Stepelton, secured on his Shropshire lands ; 2 
and, on October 18, 1286, he borrowed on the same security 20 
of two merchants of Lucca. 3 The King appears to have behaved 
generously to him ; on June 3, 1285, the treasurer of the Exchequer 
was ordered to acquit him of 200 marks, as it appeared to the 
King that John le Strange, John's grandfather, at the time when 
he was the late King's Justice of Chester, paid that sum by the 
said King's order to the men of Chester for a similar amount 
which they had lent to the King. 4 Next year, on February 15, 
by a similar order he was acquitted of 14 due to the King for 
his relief, as the King had pardoned it to him. 5 He further received 
permission to alienate to John de Ludlow a moiety of the manor 

1 Crown Plea Roll for Norf., 14 Edw. I, 4(5. Norf. Antiq. Miscell., ii. 194. 

2 ) 
* C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 239. 3 Ibid. p. 437. 

4 Ibid. p. 323. See supra, p. 117. Ibid. p. 384. 


of Campden, held of the King in chief ; 1 and he was also accorded 
quittance of the common summons in Buckingham on December 5, 
I286. 2 

In 1286 Edward I went to France and reduced Gascony to 
obedience ; he stayed there three years, leaving his cousin Edmund, 
Earl of Cornwall, as regent in England. The Welsh took advan- 
tage of the King's absence to make an attempt to shake off the 
English yoke. Their leader now was Rhys ap Maredudd, lord 
of the vale of Towy, and an old ally of the English ; he had 
sided with them against Llewelyn in hopes of being placed on 
the Welsh throne in his stead, but was contemptuously treated 
by them when the war was over ; some grievances connected 
with the new position of affairs caused him to head a revolt, 
which assumed considerable proportions, in the early summer 
of 1287. On June 14 the regent summoned the barons to join 
him ' equis et armis ' at Gloucester ; 3 John le Strange had letters 
of protection on the 24th for going to Wales upon the King's 
service, and on the next day Roger le Strange was despatched 
to Wales as commander of the expedition against Rhys ; writs 
of assistance were sent to the Sheriffs of Salop and Stafford, and 
Peter Corbet, Bogo de Knovill, Fulk fitz Warin, John le Strange, 
and his cousin Owen ap Griffith of Pool were required to obey 
his commands, 4 and to provide him with 500 footmen. 5 Roger 
raised the English of Shropshire and the Marches of Powys, 
Bromfield, and Radnor, and joined Reginald de Grey, who had 
brought the men of Chester from the north. Within a month 
11,000 infantry were concentrated on the Towy, converged from 
four different points. Roger le Strange took part in the siege 
of Rhys's stronghold, Dryslwyn Castle, near Carmarthen ; he 
brought with him 1000 English from Shropshire, and 1940 Welsh 
from the Marches, 6 one of his Shropshire centenars being Stephen 
de Frankton, commanding the Ellesmere contingent. The Pipe 
Roll shows that 150 was paid to Roger for raising infantry. 7 

1 C. CL R., 1279-1288, p. 391. * Ibid. p. 406. 

8 Rot. Wall., 15 Edw. I, m. 10, d. * Parl. Writs, vol. i. 

8 Cal. Welsh Rolls, 1277-1326, p. 306. Morris's Welsh Wars, p. 209. 

7 15 Edw. I, memb. i. 


Dryslwyn Castle surrendered about September 5 and most of 
the English forces were dismissed, but early in November Rhys 
broke out again and seized Newcastle-Emlyn. Orders were at 
once sent, on November 14, 1287, to Roger le Strange to suppress 
this new rebellion, and both he and his nephew John were enjoined 
to reside on their demesnes and lordships, and not to go away 
until the revolt was put down. 1 The danger must have been 
regarded as serious, as only the day before John le Strange had 
been summoned by the King to join him in Gascony, letters of 
protection having been issued to him on November 13, as he was 
going there on the King's service for one year. 2 The suppression 
of the revolt gave continuous and considerable trouble for several 
years ; the Sheriff of Salop was ordered, on July 17, 1287, to provide 
200 diggers and 200 carpenters to come with their tools to Here- 
ford in the company of Roger le Strange, as the King needed their 
services in the expedition to Wales. 3 Mandates were issued on 
November 14, 1287, to Roger and John le Strange, and to several 
other knights on the Marches, directing them to attack and 
pursue Rhys ap Maredudd by night and by day. 4 The King was 
dissatisfied with the progress made, and, early in the following 
year, he sent William de Henley, Prior of the Hospital of St. John 
of Jerusalem, to Wales to survey the state of affairs in those parts, 
and the le Stranges and others were directed to give credence 
to his requirements. 5 On December 6 John le Strange was 
ordered to obey the commands of Peter Corbet, custos of Llan- 
badarn. 6 The rebellion was finally put down by Robert de 
Tiptoft, but Rhys evaded capture and remained at large till 1291, 
when he was taken prisoner, sent to York for sentence, and hanged 
there. After the suppression of the revolt power was given to 
Roger le Strange to receive into the King's peace all Welshmen 
of the land of Powys wishing to come in. 7 

When peace had been re-established in Wales, John le Strange, 
in obedience to his previous orders, must have joined the King 

1 Parl. Writs, p. 1287 ; Rymer, i. 680. * C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 279. 

Col. Welsh Rolls, p. 312. * Ibid. p. 315. 

8 Tbid. p. 320. ' Parl. Writs, i. 254, No. 2. 
Col. Welsh Rolls, p. 355. 


in France, as the Patent Rolls for May 5, 1289, contain letters 
of protection for him staying beyond seas with the King until 
Michaelmas. 1 Edward returned to England in August, and 
there was peace for a few years. 

In the 20th of Edward I (1291-2) the Crown claimed from 
John le Strange the manors of Kinton and Ness ; John answered 
that his ancestor John le Strange received them by grant from 
Henry II, and he produced the charter from that King. 2 He 
was then summoned to show how he claimed free warren and 
other liberties in his manors of Ness, Kinton, and Middle ; he 
replied that in Middle he only claimed free warren, but in the 
other manors he also claimed all other liberties, such as waifs, 
infangentheof, &c., from immemorial user, which was allowed. 8 

An undated deed in the British Museum 4 belonging to this 
period bears a good seal of the le Strange arms. It is a grant from 
John son of John le Strange to brother Stephen, chaplain de insula 
de Wilfreton, of two meadows in frankalmoign for the soul of 
Walter de Mucegros, whose lands in Herefordshire had been 
granted after the battle of Evesham to John le Strange (III). 5 
The seal of green wax is appendant to this charter, the legend, 
+ S. JOHANNIS LE ESTRAUNGE, is in good preservation ; the 
armorial bearings are somewhat indistinct, but show two lions 
passant not guardant, as incorrectly described in the 'British 
Museum Catalogue of Seals,' ii. 770. 

The Gascon Rolls of June 14, 1294, show that John le Strange 
was summoned among other barons to join the King at Ports- 
mouth on September I equis et armis, to fight against the King of 
France ; 6 but a writ, also tested at Westminster on June 14, shows 
that le Strange was specially excepted from this general summons. 7 
The reason is obvious ; he was wanted to help in putting down 
the third and last rising in Wales, which had been provoked by 
the compulsory enlistment of Welsh infantry for service oversea. 8 
At the beginning of the insurrection the Welsh obtained consider- 

1 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 315. z Plac. de Quo Warr. (Record Series), p. 6790. 

3 Ibid. p. 683a. * Add. Chart. 8068. 

5 Supra, p. 137. 6 Bemont, Roles Gascons, iii. No. 3449. 

7 Parl. Writs, i. 260, No. 2. 8 Morris, Welsh Wars, p. 242. 


able successes. Madog, an illegitimate son of Llewelyn, who 
claimed to succeed him as prince, led the revolt in Gwynedd, and 
there were dangerous risings in other places. A Welsh chronicle, 
called Cambria triumphans, quoted by Eyton, 1 mentions a de- 
feat of John le Strange at Knockin. Roger le Strange, who had 
also been ordered to join the King's army at Portsmouth to go to 
Gascony, 2 was despatched to uphold the King's interests in Central 
Wales, where the castles of Builth and Bere were blockaded by 
the insurgents. On September 28, 1294, a Writ of Aid was sent to 
the King's bailiff of Maelor Saesneg in favour of Roger, ' whom 
the King is sending for the expedition of certain special affairs/ 
and the bailiff was ordered to do what Roger should tell him on 
the King's behalf ; 3 on the same day similar writs were issued to 
the Sheriff of Salop, and to the King's bailiffs of Powys and the 
parts adjacent. 4 Roger was also appointed, during pleasure, to the 
custody of Welshpool (la Pole) Castle, late of Owen de la Pole, his 
nephew, tenant-in-chief a minor in the King's hands. 5 In October 
Roger was ordered to join the forces under Richard, Earl of Arundel, 
for the relief of the castle of Bere, which was in imminent danger, 
' cujus salvationem cupimus toto corde.' 6 Mr. Morris remarks that 
' the subsequent silence of documents and chroniclers alike argues 
that the relief was effected/ 7 Meanwhile Edward himself had 
hurried to North Wales, the seat of greatest danger. The Welsh 
succeeded in capturing his commissariat train early in January 
1295, and for a short time the King was actually besieged by them 
in Conway Castle, but on the arrival of relief towards the end 
of the month he obtained a decisive victory over them near the 
castle which broke the back of the insurrection ; Prince Madog 
was captured, and died a prisoner in the Tower of London. 

To return to John le Strange, it appears from an entry in the 
Close Rolls of 1295 that, some time previously, he had enfeoffed 
John de Ludlow and his wife Isabel jointly in a moiety of his 
manor of Campden ; on the death of John de Ludlow this manor 

1 x. 333. 

2 Bemont, Roles Gascons, p. 241, No. 3417 ; Parl. Writs, Sept. i, 22 Edw. I. 
8 C. Cl. R., 1288-1296, p. 395. C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 88. 

6 Ibid. ' Parl. Writs, i. 264. 7 Welsh Wars, p. 52. 


was taken into the King's hands, but on August 14 the escheator 
was ordered to restore her moiety to Isabel, as the King had taken 
her homage. 1 It has been mentioned above 2 that the manor of 
Betton, near Cheswardine, had been acquired by Hamon, second 
son of Roland le Strange, from the monks of Shrewsbury ; Hamon's 
heir was his elder brother John (I), so Betton became one of the 
manors held by the main line of Ness and Knockin. Under 
the heading of ' History of Shrewsbury Liberties/ an account 
of the descent of this manor is given by Mr. John B. Blakeway 
in the ' Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society/ 3 which is well worth giving in full : 


In the 23rd Edw. I (1295-6) it had been long enough possessed by this family 
to have acquired the distinctive appellation it still retains of Betton Strange. 
For thus it is written in the Book of Fees in the Exchequer on the Treasurer's 
side (Ashmole MSS., vol. 859), ' Bogo de Knovill et Eleanora uxor ejus tenent 
Betton Extranei de Johanne Extraneo et idem Johannes tenet de Rege in Capite.' 
This Eleanor (the daughter and co-heir of William de Blancminster, or Whit- 
church) was relict of Robert le Strange, Lord in her right of Blackmere, who died 
in 1276. She is called in the pedigrees relict of Bogo de Knovill, but it is manifest 
that he was her second husband. Betton Strange was then part of her dower, 
and held by her and her husband of the inheritance of John, her eldest son by her 
first husband. In the iyth Edward III the said John was in possession of it, 
having then a grant of free warren in his lands of Whitchurch, Corfham, Wrock- 
wardyn, Sutton Bacton, Longnolre, and Cheswarthyn. Among the Longnor 
deeds is one of 10 Edward III, in which John de Tronwell, chaplain, grants to 
Sir Hamond le Strange, knight, and Margaret his wife, in tail, his manor of 
Betton Strange, which he had of y e feoffment of y e said Sir Hamond, to be held of 
y e chief lords of y e fee. The next entry I find in the records concerning this manor 
is from the Fines of 47 Edward III in the Tower, m. 14 (Dodsworth MSS. 
vol. 32) : ' Rex commisit Johanni, filio Johannis Lestrange junioris, custodiam 
maneriorum de Cheswurdyn et Strange Betton cum pertinentiis que fuerunt 
Margarete que fuit uxor Hamonis Lestrange defuncte, et que per mortem ipsius 
Margarete, et rationis minoris etatis predict! Johannis filii Johannis filii Johannis 
consanguine! et heredis predict! Hamonis in manu nostro existunt ; habendum et 
tenendum ad licitam etatem predicti Johannis filii Johannis 10 December.' 
From this extract it appears that Betton Strange had been the property of Sir 
Hamo le Strange of Cheswardine, a younger son of Fulke le Strange of Blackmere, 
who was the brother and heir of John mentioned above as being seized of the rever- 

1 C. Cl. R., 1288-1296, iii. 422. * Supra, p. 30. Second series, i. 381-3. 


sion of it in 1295 ; that, on the death of the said Sir Hamo, it devolved to Margaret 
his widow for her life, that on her death it descended to John le Strange of Black- 
mere, her husband's great-nephew and heir, who being then a minor, it was seized 
into the King's hands, and that his majesty now granted it to him for his main- 
tenance during his minority. Before all this, however, it had belonged to Fulke, 
another younger son of Fulke le Strange of Blackmere, who is expressly styled of 
Betton. He left only daughters, in consequence of which this manor passed to 
his brother, Sir Hamo, to whom John de Tromwell granted it in n Edward III. 

John le Strange, the minor, deceasing two years after the above Fine, viz. in 
1375, without attaining full age, and leaving a daughter (who also died an infant), 
the manor reverted to the three daughters of Fulke le Strange of Betton : Johanna, 
wife of John Carles ; Eleanor, wife of Edward de Acton ; and Margaret le Strange, 
a nun of Lingbrooke, who in the same year, 1375 (49 Edward III), released her right 
in the manors of Longenorle and Betton to her sisters and their husbands, and, 
accordingly, on Sunday before the feast of St. Catherine in the following year, 
50 Edward III, we find John Carles and Johan his wife, the eldest of those daugh- 
ters, granting certain messuages and half a virgate of land in the town and fields 
of Betton Lestrange, which Gilbert son of Annote formerly held, to John son of 
Thomas Gilbertes of the same (apparently a descendant of the former) and Alice 
his wife. 

[e cartis Rev. Jos. Corbett de Logn. archidiaconi de Salop.] 

The above particulars are also set forth in an order entered 
in the Close Rolls of May 15, 1376, directing the escheator for 
Salop to remove the King's hand, and not to meddle further with 
the manor of Betton, as the heirs were of full age. 1 

King Edward, having successfully quelled the insurrection in 
Wales, was prevented, by the necessity of personally opposing 
Sir William Wallace in Scotland, from prosecuting his interrupted 
expedition to Gascony ; but he despatched an army thither in 

1296, under his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, 
who captured Bordeaux on March 28, but died shortly afterwards. 
John le Strange, no longer wanted in Wales, was among those 
sent there : an order in the Close Rolls, dated September 28, 1296, 
to the King's taker of corn in Salop, Norfolk, and Cambridge, 
directs him not to intermeddle in any way with taking the corn 
of John le Strange, who is staying in Gascony in the King's service, 
wherefore the King wishes to provide for his indemnity, as he is 
bound to do. 2 Apparently he returned to England in 1296 or 

1297, as by a writ of the latter year he is returned from the county 

1 C. Cl. R.. Edw. Ill, xiv. 314. * Ibid., Edw. I, iv. 8. 


of Salop among the barons holding land or rents to the amount of 
20 yearly value or upwards, and, as such, summoned to perform 
military service in person, with horses and arms, in parts beyond 
sea ; to muster at London on July 7. 1 There is no evidence that 
he went overseas again, and we shall see that in the following 
year he was serving in the Scotch war. 

The Close Rolls, under date April 15, 1297, give a glimpse of 
matters occurring at Hunstanton : an order was issued to restore 
to Brother James, called ' Copyn,' of the Order of the Hospital, 
Envoy of the King of Denmark, all money arrested by Nicholas 
de Holm, and Robert de la Roche, keepers of the port of Holm and 
Hunstanton, in the hands of the said James in a cog, lately arrived 
in the said port ' per maris intemperiem ' ; the said keepers were 
ordered to restore to Brother James and certain merchants of 
Flanders and Almain, all goods and wares lately arrested by them 
in the aforesaid cog, and to restore to them the cog. z 

The Chartularyof the abbey of Haughmond shows that John le 
Strange was at that place on December 13, 1297 ; on that day he 
inspected the muniments of the abbey concerning Knockin chapel, 
and confirmed to abbot Gilbert and his convent the grant thereof 
which had been made by his ancestor Ralph about 1190-95. 
Ralph's deed is enrolled in the Chartulary ; it grants the per- 
petual advowson [jus patronatus capelle de Knokiri], and is wit- 
nessed by William fitz Alan, William le Strange, and Jonas the 
chaplain. 3 On the same day of the following year, viz. December 
13, 1298, John le Strange expedited from Knockin a more general 
confirmation to the abbey, which I copy in extenso from Eyton, 4 
as it shows in detail the large elemosynary grants which had been 
made to that foundation by various members of the le Strange 
family during the preceding century : 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Johannes Extraneus quintus, cartas et 
instrumenta quae habent viri religiosi Abbas et Conventus de Haghmon super 
donacionibus et possessionibus quas possident de antecessoribus meis inspexi 
. . . que propriis dux exprimenda vocabulis : advocationem ecclesie de Hunstan- 

1 Parl. Writs, i. 291, No. 19. * C. Cl. R., Edw. I, iv. 25. 

3 Coll. Top. et Geneal., i. 369. 

4 x. 373 ; fragment of Chartulary of Haughmond, B.M., Harl. 446 (Aug.). 


eston cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, advocationem ecclesie de Cheswardin cum per- 
tinentiis suis, advocationem ecclesie de Knokyn cum pertinentiis suis, molendinum 
de Osberston cum pertinentiis suis, molendinum de brueria, stagnum et vivarium 
supra proximum, cum agistiamente aque ex utraque parte et cum omnibus perti- 
nentiis suis, Caldecotam cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, totam terrain Radulphi 
Hert quam habuit in Teddesmere, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, villam de Vinel- 
cote cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, molendinum de Ruton cum pertinentiis suis, 
dimidiam virgatam terre in Weblescote cum pertinentiis suis, duas virgatus 
terre in Baldreton cum p. s., tres acras terre in Bilemers cum p. s., totam villam de 
Naginton cum p. s., unam virgatam terre et dimidiam in Bireton cum p. s., molen- 
dinum et dimidiam cum dimidia virgata terre in Alvitheleg cum p. s., molendinum 
de Stretton super Dunnesmore cum p. s., totam terram quam habent in Cheswardin 
cum p. s., quandam partem prati quam habent in Muddleswode cum omnibus 
p. s. Quas quidem donaciones et concessiones, ratas et firmas in liberam puram et 
perpetuam elemosynam, habendas ipsis omnes et singulas, pro me et heredibus meis 
quibuscunque, iisdem canonicis et successoribus suis confirmo et presentis script! 
testimonio sigillo meo signato corroboro et warantizabo in perpetuum. Datum 
apud Le Knokyn die sabbati in festo sancte Lucie Virginis, anno gracie millesimo 
cc mo nonagesimo octavo, et anno regni regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici xxvij . 1 

The above deed, detailing merely the possessions of a single 
abbey in a single county, derived from a single family, gives some 
idea of the enormous amount of landed property held by the dead 
hand of religious houses, which had led to the passing of the 
Statute of Mortmain a few years previously. 

The King, having concluded a two years' truce with France 
in 1298, marched into Scotland and defeated the Scots at Falkirk 
on July 22 : among others, ' Johan Lestraunge ' was summoned 
to join Edward at Carlisle, ' as chevas et armes a Carloil pour aler 
avant en la busoigne d'Escoce.' z On December 12 he had quittance 
of the common summons of the eyre for common pleas in the 
county of Cambridge. 3 In the following year he was again sum- 
moned as a baron to perform military service against the Scots ; 
the muster was first appointed for June 6, 1299, at Carlisle ; it 
was adjourned to August 2, but on July 16 the barons were dis- 
charged from their attendance at Carlisle, and ordered to be ready 
to proceed on the King's service at any time on receiving forty 
days' notice ; this notice was given in the winter, for John le 
Strange received orders to join the muster at York on November I2. 4 

1 Harl. MSS. 449 ; Quatern., xi. fo. 6. Rot. Glaus., 26 Edw. I, m. 6, d. 

8 C. Cl. R., iv. 293. * Parl. Writs for 1299, i. 134, No. 22. 



On December 30, 1299, he received orders to be at Carlisle 
with the other barons at midsummer ensuing to set out thence 
against the Scots. 1 

A roll of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Essex and Hereford, 
Constable of England, contains the proffers of service made at the 
muster at Carlisle on the Eve of St. John the Baptist ; from the 
following entry therein it looks as if John le Strange, in addition 
to his own military service, performed that of another knight : 
' Johannes de Mules recognovit et offert servicium duorum feodo- 
rum militis factum per Johannem le Estraunge militem, Rogerum 
de Ryvers, et Philippum Trenchefil.' 2 

By a Fine of October 6, 1299, the manor of Mudle [Middle, 
Salop] was entailed on John le Strange of Knockin and Matilda 
his wife, and the heirs of their bodies, with remainder to the 
right heirs of John le Strange. 3 The inquest taken on his death 
shows that he held Middle under Edmund, Earl of Arundel. 4 

Writs were issued from Berwick-upon-Tweed on December 
29, 1299, for Parliament to meet at London on February 27 
following, and among those summoned we find ' Johanni 
Extraneo/ 5 It is this summons which the lawyers of later times 
have held as having created the barony by writ of STRANGE OF 
KNOCKIN, in virtue of which John le Strange (V) was described 
in later phrase as the first Lord Strange of Knockin. He was 
returned from the county of Gloucester as holding lands, &c., to 
the yearly value of 40 and upwards, and, as such, was summoned 
under general writ to perform military service in person against 
the Scots, to muster at Carlisle on June 24, 1300. The royal 
army entered Scotland early in July, ravaged Galloway, and 
returned to England in November. That John le Strange was 
present during this campaign is shown by the mention of him 
in the contemporary poem on the siege of Caerlaverock, written 
probably by one of the heralds who accompanied the King ; it 
gives in metrical form a list in Norman-French of the armorial 
bearings of the nobles and knights who were present at the siege, 
and is one of the earliest rolls of arms extant. It was printed 

1 Faedera, i. 916. * Doc. illust. Hist of Scotland, i. 226. 

Eyton, x. 67. - Ibid. ; Inq., 3 Edw. II, No. 46. 

Close Roll, 28 Edw. I. Parl. Writs, i. 849. 


with notes and a translation by Sir Harris Nicolas in 1828, and wa 
re-edited by Thomas Wright in 1864 from the MS. in the British 
Museum ; in this latter edition the coats of arms are emblazoned 
in their proper colours. The mention of le Strange is as follows * 

Johans le Estrange le ot livre'e 
Rouge o deuz blans lyons passants. 

The castle of Caerlaverock is situated near the southern 
shore of the Solway Firth, near the mouth of the river Nith ; 
it was thus one of the first fortified places encountered by 
Edward after he had crossed the border, and was besieged and 
captured by him on July 10 or n, 1300. 

It was while he was on this expedition that the King received 
the letter of Pope Boniface VIII claiming for the Holy See feudal 
supremacy over Scotland, and ordering Edward to withdraw his 
troops, release his prisoners, and desist from the war with that 
country. 1 The King replied that he must consult his counsellors 
on a matter concerning the rights of his Crown, and a Parliament 
was accordingly summoned on September 26, to meet at Lincoln 
on January 20, 1301 ; z the name of John le Strange appears 
in the list of barons to whom writs for this purpose were sent. 
Parliament met accordingly, and the reply of England to the 
papal pretensions was given in the well-known letter to the Pope, 
dated at Lincoln on February 12, 1301, and sealed by seven earls 
and ninety-six barons, or magnates, to whose territorial designa- 
tions the title dominus is attached. In no ambiguous terms the 
supremacy of the Crown of England over the realm of Scotland 
from the very foundation of the kingdom of England was asserted, 
and the Holy Father was roundly informed, on behalf of all those 
whose names were attached, as well as for the whole community 
of England, that the King would not be permitted to answer before 
him in any way touching the rights of the kingdom of Scotland, 
or other temporalities of his Crown. Among these names appear 
the following : 

Rogerus le Estraunge, dominus de Ellesmere. 
Johannes le Estraunge, dominus de Cnokyn. 
Fufco le Estraunge, dominus de Corfham. 

1 Orig. in P.R.O. Museum. Par/. Writs, i. 90. 

P 2 


It is worthy of note that, whereas several other families viz. 
Hastings, de Grey, Mortimer, and Segrave produced two members 
apiece who sealed this letter, no house except that of le Strange 
furnished three holders of baronies whose names appear therein. 
Photographic copies of the seals of these three barons will be 
found below in Chapter XI on the heraldry of the family. 1 

The Close Rolls of February 13, 1301, contain an acknowledg- 
ment by John le Strange that he owes to Aynerus de Podio 60 
marks, to be levied in default on his lands and chattels in Norfolk. 2 
The Sheriff of Shrdpshire was directed on May 21, 1301, to ascer- 
tain by inquisition whether it would be to the King's prejudice 
if leave were given to Roger, son of John, to grant in fee simple 
to John le Strange the serjeanty of the forestership of the forest 
in the county of Salop, and the manors of Buildwas, Brimneld, 
and Isenbrigg, held in chief. 3 The jury reported favourably, 
and licence to make the grant was issued on June 2. 4 

John le Strange was summoned with other barons to be at 
Berwick on June 24 to perform military service against the Scots ; 
his son John, then a youth of nineteen, was among those sum- 
moned from the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk to the same 
muster ; 5 the King invaded Scotland in July, but met with little 
opposition ; he wintered there and made a truce with the Scots 
until November 30, 1302. An order had been sent from Lincoln 
on February 14, 1301, to the bailiffs and men of Thornham and 
Holme, to be with the King at Berwick-upon-Tweed at midsummer 
with one ship well found with men and other necessaries, ready 
to set out at the King's wages against the Scots. The list of 
ships requisitioned from different places in the neighbourhood 
measures, to a certain extent, the relative importance of the 
several ports : 6 

Blakeney was ordered to furnish 2 ships. 
Heacham and Flitcham ,, i ,, 
Lynn 3 

Boston ,, I ,, 

1 Infra, Plate X. 2 C. Cl. R., Edw. I, iv. 479. 

Chanc. Inq. A.Q.D., File 34 (7). * C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 579. 

s Parl. Writs, i. 849. 6 C. Cl. R., Edw. I, iv. 482. 


The entries of sums paid to the Crown in respect of Feudal 
Aids afford evidence as to the tenure of lands ; the following relate 
to John le Strange in the year 1302 : 

In Cambridgeshire for two knights' fees in the vill of Middle- 
ton, 4.* 

In Norfolk the manor of Tottington was held for the term of 
her life by John de Thorp and Alicia his wife, of Constantine de 
Mortimer, for three parts and one-fifth, of John le Strange, who 
held it of Robert de Montalt, and Robert of the Earl of Arundel, 
the tenant in capite. John held further in Tottington the twen- 
tieth part of a knight's fee of Robert de Montalt, who held as 
above. 2 

In the parish of Mendham, which was formerly partly in Norfolk, 
though now wholly in Suffolk, John le Strange and Thomas de 
la Lathe held half a knight's fee of the heirs of Roger de Hunting- 
field. 8 In the Hundred of Smithdon le Strange is entered as 
holding two knights' fees in Hunstanton of Robert de Montalt, 
one of the heirs of the Earl of Arundel, who himself held of the 
King ; it is expressly stated that le Strange and his tenants held 
these two fees in demesne in his own manor of Hunstanton ; he 
further held a quarter and a half of a fee of the said heir, as of the 
barony of Mileham. 4 In Wesenham he appears to have held a 
moiety of a quarter of a knight's fee of Mileham of the same earl. 5 
In Sniterton half a knight's fee, a twentieth, and another twentieth 
part, were held under him by different tenants, he holding under 
the King. 6 A knight's fee in Ringstead and Holme, formerly 
held by John le Strange of Robert de Montalt as heir of the Earl of 
Arundel, had been alienated by subinfeudation to several tenants ; 
and a fourth of a fee in South Pickenham, held by le Strange, or 
John de Harsik, of Edmund fitz Alan, had been alienated in the 
same way. 7 The above entries show that John (V) in 1302 held, by 
himself or his sub-tenants, slightly more than the five knights' 
fees in Norfolk which had been held under William de Albini 
(II), Earl of Arundel, by his great-great-grandfather, John 

1 Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, i. 149. Ibid. iii. 392. 

Ibid. p. 395. ' Ibid. pp. 409-410, 438. * Ibid. p. 417. j 

Ibid. p. 424. 7 Ibid. p. 438. 


(I). 1 He is entered in the Fee Rolls for Suffolk for 1302-3 as 
holding a quarter of a knight's fee at Downham of the Earl of 
Oxford. 2 

Eyton states 3 that between the years 1299 and 1309 John le 
Strange sold the manor of Ruyton, with all its homages and fees, 
to his suzerain, Edmund Earl of, Arundel, and with it passed the 
distant manor of Glazeley, which was an appurtenance of Ruyton. 

In 1302 proposals were made for peace with France, but Philip 
refused to treat unless the Scots were included, and he also required 
that King Edward should pass over in person to negotiate ; Parlia- 
ment was ordered to meet in London at Michaelmas, and among 
those summoned was John le Strange. 4 It met on October 14, 
and refused to allow the King to go to France, treating the demand 
as an insult. Early in 1303 the Scots again rose in arms, and 
gained several successes ; Edward assembled a large army, and 
we find John le Strange among the barons ordered to muster at 
Berwick on May 26. 5 That he obeyed the summons is shown by 
a letter, dated June 14, 1303, from Phelipot de Wyndesor, vadlet 
of Sir John le Strange, attesting the receipt, for Sir John at Ber- 
wick, of 30 quarters of wheat, 4 hogsheads of wine, &c., from the 
King's stores there. 6 Edward had just concluded a peace with 
France, by which he recovered possession of Guienne, and arranged 
a marriage between the Prince of Wales and Philip's daughter 
Isabella ; the Scots, deserted both by the Pope and Philip, were 
abandoned to the vengeance of Edward, who overran their country, 
and took up his winter quarters in the great abbey of Dunferm- 
line. A list of those with him there has the following entry : 

Ces sont les noums de celx qui demorreront en le servise le Roi a Dunf ermelyn 
et aillors en Escoce ; Monsieur Johan Lestraunge. 7 

During John's absence in Scotland there was some trouble at 
his home in Wales ; the Patent Rolls contain a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, dated November 23, 1303, touching the persons 

1 Supra, p. 23. Feudal Aids, v. 32. 3 x. 114. 

* Parl. Writs, i. 115, No. 10. Ibid. i. 367, No. i. 

C. Doc. Scot. ii. 352, No. 1373. 7 Doc. Hist. Scot., Palgrave, i. 263. 


who killed Yevan ap Meiler, several Welshmen, and a man of John 
le Strange, by le Knokyn in the March of Wales, within the 
liberty of the said John le Strange of Knockin. 1 

In the following year, 1304, the only place in Scotland which 
still bade defiance to Edward was the castle of Stirling, which 
withstood a siege of three months before it surrendered. A roll of 
the magnates and others who served the King at this siege contains 
the name of ' Monsieur Johan Lestrange i estate.' 2 

An inquisition of 1318 supplies the name of a daughter of 
John le Strange, unknown even to Eyton. A writ of certiorari 
to the Bishop of St. Asaph directs him to inquire on what day 
and at what place Griffith, son and heir of Madog ap Griffith of 
Glyndyvrdwy, married Elizabeth, daughter of John le Strange. It 
is endorsed with a return that the marriage took place at his manor 
of Rhuthallt in Glyndyvrdwy, on the quinzaine of the Nativity of 
St. John the Baptist (July 8), 1304. The marriage is also recorded 
in the Red Book of St. Asaph, where Madog is described as of 
Glyndowedwy. 3 This second occasion when a daughter of a 
John le Strange married a Welsh magnate is particularly interest- 
ing in that, as has been shown by Professor Tout in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography,' 4 it is pretty clear that Elizabeth le Strange 
was the grandmother of the Welsh hero, Owen Glendower. Pro- 
fessor Tout has supplied me with information on this point, 
worked out more clearly than in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' in which he had confused the generations. 

Elizabeth's husband, Gruffydd ap Madog, was the grandson of 
Gruffydd Vychan, the grandson of Gruffydd of Maelor, or Bromfield 
(d. 1269) , the representative of the princes of Lower Powys. I have 
already mentioned B that Roger le Strange had acted as custos of 
Bromfield before that office was granted to Earl Warenne. Already 
in 1278 complaint had been made that the le St ranges were unjustly 
occupying some of his former lands. After the heirs had been 
ousted in 1282 in favour of Earl Warenne, Gruffydd Vychan, 

1 C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 270. * Doc. Hist. Scot., Palgrave, i. 268. 

3 C.I.P.M., Edw. II, vi. 80, No. 128, cf. No. 256 ; Coll. Top. et Gen., i. 274. 

4 xvi. 414, article on ' Ednyved ' ; xxi. 427, article on ' Owen Glendower.' 

5 Supra, p. 192. 


Madog's father, had received Glyndyvrdwy to hold of the King 
at the request of Earl Warenne ; 1 this was on February 12, 1283. 
Gruffydd Vychan's son Madog died on November 12, 1304, and 
his son, the Griffith who married Elizabeth le Strange, was born 
in 1298, so that he was only six years old at the time of his marriage. 
Clearly, le Strange took advantage of his position to secure more 
Welsh lands for his family. A petition of Maud, widow of John le 
Strange (V), made in the 8th of Edward II, when she was wife 
of Thomas Hastang, 2 shows that they bought the marriage from 
Madog, at a cost of 50, paid in advance. After Madog died, 
le Strange continued to act as keeper of his son-in-law's lands 
until his own death. The husband of Elizabeth was certainly 
grandfather of Owen Glendower, and no other marriage of his 
is on record. That Glyndyvrdwy was entailed on their heirs is 
borne out by a settlement thereof 3 made to a Griffith of Glyn- 
dyvrdwy, great-grandfather of Owen Glyndwr's daughter Alice, 
and to a certain Elizabeth his wife, and to their heirs. It was 
thus, through the le Strange marriage, that Glyndwr's estates were 
continued to his successors. Professor Tout gives me the following 
as a provisional genealogy, showing that Elizabeth le Strange was 
grandmother of Owen Glendower. 

Madog ap Griffith, d. 1278. 

Griffith Vychan ap Madog, received Glyndyvrdwy, 1283. 

Madog ap Griffith, d. Nov. 12, 1304. 
Griffith ap Madog, = Elizabeth le Strange, 

b. 1298. 

m. July 8, 1304. 

Alive and aged 22, 
Nov. 1320. 
Griffith Vychan ap Griffith, 

Owen Glyndwr, b. 1359. 

Alice Scudamore. 
1 Cal. Welsh Rolls, p. 266. Rot. Parl. i. 306. Rot. Parl. iv. 440. 


The ' Parliamentary Writs ' show that John le Strange was 
summoned to the Parliament at Westminster for February 16, 
prorogued to February 28, 1305. On April 5, 1306, he was 
among those summoned to treat with the King at Westminster 
concerning an aid on the knighting of Edward, Prince of Wales. 1 
He was again summoned next year to the Parliament at West- 
minster for May 30, and also to perform military service in person 
against the Scots, or to appear at the Exchequer to compound 
for such service ; the muster was to be at Carlisle on July 8. 
The reason for this was that Robert Bruce had left the English 
Court and raised the standard of revolt in Scotland. He was 
crowned King as Robert I, at Scone, on March 25, 1306, but was 
soon obliged to fly to the west of Scotland. A memorandum in 
the General Register Office at Edinburgh, relating to expeditions 
in search of Robert Bruce, details the wages of divers knights and 
soldiers in the valley of the Nith, pursuing the said Robert and 
his accomplices, the King's enemies, between March 5 and April 23 ; 
among the knights are mentioned John le Strange and Edmond 
Foliot. 2 

Le Strange was summoned to the last Parliament of Edward I, 
held at Carlisle on January 20, 1307, and his name is entered 
on the Roll accordingly. 3 The King assembled a large army at 
Carlisle in the early summer of 1307, and prepared, for the third 
time in his reign, to undertake the conquest of Scotland ; he 
had scarcely commenced his march toward the border when he 
sickened and died, after only a few days' illness, on July 7. 

A new Parliament, to which le Strange was summoned, was 
ordered to meet at Northampton on October 13 ; * by two writs, 
tested at Dover on January 18 and 19, 1308, he was summoned 
to attend the ceremony of the King's coronation on February 25, 
and a Parliament at Westminster on March 3 ; a further writ 
of the loth of that month required his attendance at another 
Parliament on April 28. 5 It was on the assembling of this body 

1 Parl. Writs, i. 136, No. i, and i. 139, No. 6. 

* C. Doc. Scot., ii. 511, No. 1923. C. Doc. Scot., ii. 511, No. 1923. 
4 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470 ; Close Rolls, i Edw. II, memb. 12, dorso. 



that complaints were made of the conduct of the King's favourite, 
Piers Gaveston, and he was banished for a time, but was made 
Governor of Ireland. Some show must have been made of an 
intended expedition against Scotland, as we find le Strange sum- 
moned with other barons to muster at Carlisle on August 22, 1308, 
for that purpose. 1 He had a further summons to a Parliament 
at Westminster on October 20 ; John, his son, had letters of 
protection while in the King's service at the same time. 2 

The Patent Rolls of April i, 1308, contain a licence for John 
le Strange to 'Kernellare mansum suum de Medle.' 3 Some small 
remains of this crenellated dwelling-house still exist. Middle 
stands about eight miles north of Shrewsbury, near the road 
leading to Ellesmere, on level ground, with no natural advan- 
tages for defence. The earthworks perhaps originally formed a 
mote castle, and were subsequently altered into a moated home- 
stead. In their present state one may trace a low rectangular 
platform with a sharp scarp faced with masonry, and surrounded 
by a plateau, in its turn defended by a moat full of water, bridged 
on the eastern side. Near the centre stands a small octagonal 
tower of three stories: A narrow arched doorway on the ground- 
floor gave access to a ruined newel staircase with windows on the 
second and third floors ; above the second floor the building 
diminished to a crenellated turret. A projecting stone on the 
external wall, just above the bold string-course, bears carved on 
it a small shield with the two lions passant of the le Stranges, still 
remaining very distinct when I visited the place in July, 1906. 
This stone is unfortunately not in its original position. A paper 
in the ' Transactions of the Shropshire Architectural and Natural 
Historical Society ' 4 gives a history of Myddle, by the Rev. G. H. 
Egerton, rector of the parish; he cites a ' History of Myddle, ' written 
by the antiquary Richard Gough in 1700, but not printed till 
1834, which says : 

After Wild Humphrey [Kinaston's] time the castle of Myddle was never in- 

1 ParL Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470 ; Close Rolls, i Edw. II, memb. 12, dorso. 

2 Rot. Scot., i. 550. s C.P.R., 1307-1313, p. 62. 
* Second series, vii. p. 10. 


habited, but went utterly to ruin ; of the one turret that remains at the present 
time part of the tower fell down in an earthquake about the year 1688. 

Mr. Egerton adds : 

When I first came to Myddle in 1847 the appearance of the top of the turret 
corresponded with Cough's account, but when the late Lord Alford visited Myddle 
a short time after, he gave his Agent orders to preserve the Tower from falling 
any worse. The Agent did so, and at the same time crenellated the top in the 
manner in which it now is. There was also at that time a stone in the wall by the 
moat with a coat of arms on it in good preservation. A lion passant, which I 
imagine was that of the Lords Strange. One day, on taking some friends to see 
it, to my horror I found it had disappeared, nor for a long time could I discover 
what had become of it, till I heard it had been taken by the Agent to Ellesmere to 
beautify his own rockery. His successor kindly restored it, and it is now placed 
on the side of the Tower, where it can easily be seen, but not easily removed. 

On March 4, 1309, a writ was issued to John le Strange to 
attend Parliament at Westminster on April 27, but it was dis- 
missed by the King without transacting any business of import- 

In the previous year severe measures had been taken against 
the Order of the Templars, whose wealth and power had excited 
the cupidity and resentment of the King. The knights were seized 
in each county on the same day, January 10, 1308, and their 
estates were placed in charge of the Sheriffs. A mandate was 
issued on May 7, 1309, to John le Strange, ' custodi terrarum et 
tenementorum Templariorum in comitatu Salopie, et vicecomiti 
ejusdem comitatus,' to hold an inquiry into the claim of the abbot of 
Haughmond to an annual rent of 175. 4^., issuing out of the lands 
in Holtprene, held by the master and brethren of the Temple ; the 
inquiry was held, and on June 18 le Strange was ordered to pay 
the rent to the abbot, with a year's arrear thereof. 1 This writ is 
actually quoted by Eyton 2 without his having noticed that it 
establishes the fact that John le Strange was Sheriff of Shropshire 
in 1309 ; Eyton, in his list of Sheriffs of Salop, mentions no one 
between Richard de Harley, who occurs 1301-3, and Roger de 
Cheney, who witnessed a deed as Sheriff in 1316. 

1 Cole, Doc. Ittust. Eng. Hist, in Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, from Records 
of Queen's Rememb. of Exchq., p. 187. * vi. 227. 



A Roll of Arms has been preserved of a tournament held at 
Stepney on May 28, 1309, at which three le Strange knights were 
present viz. Sir John, who bore gules, two lions passant argent, 
within an orle of eight martlets, or ; Sir Fulk bore argent, two 
lions passant, gules ; these two are stated to have been in the 
retinue of the Earl of Lancaster. Sir Hamon le Strange, men- 
tioned as ' de la Commune,' bore, gules, two lions passant, argent, 
surmounted by a bendlet, or. 1 

John le Strange was summoned to a Parliament to be held 
at Stamford on July 27, 1309, and by a further writ tested at 
Stamford on June 20, he was requested to prepare to join the ex- 
pedition against the Scots, in such manner as should be ordained 
in such Parliament. 2 On July 30 he was ordered to be at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne ' equis et armis ' on Michaelmas day. 3 A mandate, dated 
at Stamford on August 5, required him to raise a hundred foot- 
soldiers from his lordship at Knockin, and certain commissioners 
of Array were empowered to act in the matter. 4 On the same 
day the King wrote to Roger de Mortimer of Chirk, Justice of 
Wales, that, as the Scots do not observe the truce, an array is 
summoned against them, and lists were enclosed of the quotas 
to be sent from Wales ; among them is ' centum de hominibus 
Johannis Lestraunge de partibus de Knokyn.' 5 The Scotch Rolls 
also mention this requisition for the hundred men from Knockin ; 6 
evidently these seasoned troops from the Welsh March were 
regarded as especially useful. 

If John le Strange, as seems probable, was in the camp at 
Berwick early in August 1309, it was his last service ; he must 
have died in the first week of that month, as the writ of ' Diem clausit 
extremum ' on his death is tested at Berwick on August 8. 7 In- 
quisitions consequent thereon were held at various dates in the 
different counties in which he held land in right of himself or his 
wife, viz. in Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, Cambridge, Oxford, 
and Salop, but no mention is made of Norfolk, as his manors there 

1 Collect. Top. et Gen., iv. 63, 70. 
3 Close Rolls, 3 Edw. II, m. 44^. 

6 Close Rolls, 3 Edw. II, memb. 9. 

7 Escheats, 3 Edw. II, No. 46. 

1 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470, &c. 

Parl. Writs. 

Rot. Scot., i. 68a, 696. 


were not held in capite. The Warwick inquisition, held on 
September 25, shows that he held there the manor of Walton 
Deyville, as of the inheritance of Maud his wife, of the Earl of 
Warwick, by knight's service. 1 The Gloucestershire inquisition, 
taken at Tewkesbury on October 5, states that he held no lands 
or tenements as of fee in that county, but that he held, of the 
inheritance of Matilda his wife, at Schevyndon, one messuage, 
three virgates of land, and five acres of meadow, of the heirs of 
John le Soor by the service of id. per annum ; the said messuage 
being worth iSd. per annum, the three virgates 405., and the five 
acres of meadow los. ; price of the acre 2s ; sum, 515. 6d. 2 In 
Cambridge the jurors, writing on October 7, say that he held the 
manor of Middleton (extent given) jointly with Maud his wife, 
who still survives, of the Bishop of Ely by service of two knights' 
fees, and a pair of gilt spurs, or 6d. yearly. 3 It is not easy to 
reconcile this with the settlement of Middleton in 1276,* on John's 
first wife Alianora, by which his second wife could not have bene- 
fited ; possibly, as Eyton suggests, some intermediate trans- 
action may have taken place ; Joan de Somery, John's mother, 
to whom Middleton reverted on the death of Alianora without 
issue, may have resettled the manor on her son's second wife. 
Two days before this Cambridgeshire inquisition was held, viz. 
on October 5, the King's escheator was ordered to deliver the 
manor of Middleton and the issues received to Maud, as it appeared 
by a fine levied in the late King's Court between John and Maud, 
demandants, and William Moryn, deforciant, that the said John 
acknowledged the manor to be the right of the said William as 
what he had of his gift, and that the said William granted and 
restored the same to the said John and Maud. 5 

An Oxfordshire inquisition, held on April 3, 1310, gives an 
extent of the manor of Alcrynton, held by le Strange and his wife 
Maud of John de Lodbrook by service of id. yearly. 6 The Shrop- 
shire inquisitions, held on September 20, 1309, are very defective, 
and such as exist are in very bad condition ; the jury say that 

1 C.I.P.M., 3 Edw. II, No. 46. Chancery Inq. p.m., 3 Edw. II, No. 46. 

8 Ibid. Supra., p. 186. * C. Cl. R., Edw. II, 1307-1313, p. 179. 

6 C.I.P.M., Edw. II, v. in, No. 211. 


John le Strange held the manors of Kynton and Ness (extents 
given), including lands in Weston, the hamlet of Wyvelcote, 
Hopton, and Olreton, members of Kynton and Ness, of the King 
in chief by the service of one knight's fee ; also the manor of 
Middle (extent given), which he held of Edmund fitz Alan by 
service of one knight ; that his heir is his son John, who was of 
the age of twenty-seven years on Whitsunday last (May 18) ; 
also that he held the manor of Cheswardine. 1 The Close Rolls 
contain some entries relating to the dower of John's wife, Maud 
d'Eiville. On October 5, 1309, the escheator was directed to 
deliver to her the manor of Middle, and the issues received, as it 
appears by a Fine levied in the late King's Court, between John 
le Strange of Knockin, demandant, and Ralph de Shirleye, de- 
forciant, that the said John acknowledged the manor to be the 
right of the said Ralph, as what he had of his gift, and that the 
said Ralph granted and rendered it to him and to the said Maud 
his wife. 2 A memorandum of October 26 states that the chan- 
cellor prefixed a day, to wit, in fifteen days from Sunday next 
following, for John le Strange to be present, if he so chose, at 
the assignment of dower to Maud in the chancery of York. 3 The 
escheator was ordered, on October 30, 1309, to assign to Maud dower 
of her husband's lands, in the presence of John, his son and heir, 
he having done homage for them, saving to the said Maud her 
rights, as she has taken oath not to marry without the King's 
licence. 4 On March 28 following the escheator in the county of 
Chester had a mandate to restore to her the manors of Stafford 
and Dunham, which she held jointly with her late husband for 
their lives, of the gift of Edmund, Earl of Arundel, which manors 
the escheator had taken into the King's hands on the pretext 
that she had married Thomas de Hastang without the King's 
licence. 5 That she did marry him appears from the fact that 
in the Nomina Villarum of 1316 Thomas de Hastang stands as 
lord of Middle. 6 

John le Strange (V) left, by his second wife, Maud d'Eiville, 

i C. Edw. II, FUe 16 (6). C. Cl. R., 1307-13, P- i?9- 

Ibid. p. 234. * Ibid. p. 184. 

8 Ibid. p. 202. ' See also Rot. Parl., i. 306. 


three sons and one daughter ; the eldest son, John (VI), succeeded 
his father as second Lord Strange of Knockin ; the second son, 
Eubulo, married Alice de Lacy, and was summoned to Parliament 
as a baron from 1326 to 1335 ; of him I shall have more to say 
later. The third son, Hamon, was, immediately after his eldest 
brother's succession to the lordship of Knockin, enfeoffed by 
him in the Norfolk manor of Hunstanton, and through his de- 
scendants there carried on the name of le Strange after it had 
died out in Shropshire. Of the daughter, Elizabeth, I have men- 
tioned * all that I know, viz. that she married Griffith ap 
Madog in 1304, and became the ancestress of Owen Glendower. 


Roger, the third son of John le Strange (III), and uncle of 
John (V), had several Shropshire manors settled on him during 
the lifetime of his father. Before 1263 his father had made over 
to him ' whatever interest he had in little Ercall ' ; 2 this grant 
involved Roger in a lawsuit with the abbot of Combermere, to 
whom some part of the manor had been given for a term of years 
by John (III) ; the suit was suspended during the troublous years 
that followed, but was finally settled in Roger's favour in October 
I272, 3 and he thus became tenant-in-fee of Little (now Child's) 
Ercall, with its members, Hungry Hatton, the Lee, and Goldstone, 
holding of John le Strange, and he of the King in chief by the 
service of one knight's fee. 4 An extent of Little Ercall, made in 
October 1280, states that Roger's gross receipts were only 155. Sd. 
per annum, but, for some unexplained reason, they only valued 
a moiety of the manor. 

Cheswardine, which like Little Ercall had come to John le 
Strange (I) on the death of his younger brother Hamon, c. n6o, 5 
was one of the estates settled in fee by John (III) on his son Roger ; 
the Edward Lloyd Roll, quoted above, states that Roger held 
that manor with its members, viz. Soudley Magna and Parva, 

1 Supra, p. 215. Eyton, viii. 13. 8 Assizes, 56 Hen. Ill, m. n, dorso. 

Coll. Top. et Gen. i. 112, from a Roll in the collection of Edward Lloyd, of tenants 
in capite and sub-tenants in Shropshire, temp. Edw. I. Supra, p. 30. 


Westumscete, Chepernoll', and Hull, of John le Strange, and he 
of the King in chief ; but that Roger owed service to the King 
of one knight's fee, and had there his free court, with pleas of 
bloodshed, and hue-and-cry, and had warren, which franchises 
he had used ; we shall see later on that these franchises were 
called in question by the Crown officials. Eyton thinks l that it 
may have been between the years 1260 and 1265 that Roger, as 
lord of Cheswardine, confirmed to Haughmond Abbey its previous 
acquisitions in this manor. The extent of Cheswardine is given 
as 44 acres and two mills in demesne, the whole income of 
the manor being valued at 6 145. 8Jd 2 

It has already been mentioned 3 that in 1264 Roger, with his 
brothers Hamon and Robert, was in arms on the King's side 
against the Earl of Leicester ; he escaped with Edward in the 
defeat of Lewes on May 14, and six days after that battle he was 
ordered to be sent to Ireland, 4 but, like his brothers, he seems to 
have evaded exile, and continued to fight for the King. After 
the victory of Evesham in the following year Roger's services 
were rewarded by the grant of a capital messuage in the city of 
London, which had been forfeited by Peter Hardel, ' the King's 
enemy.' 5 He received a further reward from the forfeited lands 
of Henry de Hastings, who had been admitted to the benefits of 
the ' Dictum de Kenilworth,' but an order was made that the manors 
were not to be restored to him till Roger le Strange, who had a 
grant of the fine for their redemption, should be fully satisfied. 6 

Roger, we have seen, 7 was one of the witnesses to his brother 
Hamon's assignment of the manor of Stretton to his sister Hawise 
de la Pole, when he started for the crusade from which he never 
returned ; and that Hamon raised money for his expenses by 
enfeoffing Roger in the manors of Ellesmere, Colemere, and 
Hampton. These transactions had taken place without licence 
from the Crown, consequently the escheator for Cheshire ejected 
Roger from the three manors and seized them into the hand of 
the King, who at that time, 1273, was still absent in Palestine. 
Roger petitioned the Crown on the merits of the case, and an in- 

1 x. 32. a Forest Rolls, Salop, No. 14. * Supra., p. 136. 

Fcedera, i. 435. 6 C.P.R., 1258-1266, p. 468. 8 Ibid. p. in. 

7 Supra, p. 145. 



quisition was held, 1 with the result that, on April 20, 1274, an order 
was issued to the Sheriff of Salop and the escheator of Cheshire, 
to deliver to Roger the manors of Colemere and Hampton, which 
Hamon had purchased and held of Peter de Montfort, and whereof 
he had enfeoffed Roger and his heirs before he took his journey 
to the Holy Land, to hold by permission of the King's lieuten- 
ants in England, until the King's coming back. 2 After Edward's 
return he gave, on November 24, 1275, a grant for life to Roger, 
with reversion to the Crown, of the castle and hundred of Ellesmere, 
and the manors of Colemere and Hampton, which the said Roger 
had of the gift of his brother Hamon, and had surrendered into 
the King's hands. 3 The Edward Lloyd Tenure Roll shows that 
Hampton was held by Roger of John fitz Alan by the service 
of one knight's fee at Oswestry for fifteen days in time of war ; 
and that Colemere was held by him of Bartholomew de Burgh 
by the service of the third part of a knight's fee. 4 

The manor and hundred of Ellesmere comprised a large extent 
of territory of very considerable value. It was minutely sur- 
veyed on October 28, 1280, and the report of the Commissioners, 5 
summarised as follows by Eyton, contains many curious par- 
ticulars : 

The Lord of the manor held 4 virgates or 324 acres in demesne, worth, at 4^. 
per acre, 6 os. 8d. per annum. The fines and amercements of the Borough 
Court exceeded 305. There was an Assize on every brewing of beer, realising 2os. 
yearly. Two mills, the fisheries of all the Vivaries, except that of Colemere, 
and a garden, were items of demesne. The fines, amercements, and heriots of 
the [? manorial] Court were 6 135. $d. The gross income from the above and 
other similar sources was 28 os. $d. The rents of tenants in burgage amounted 
to 3 2s. 6%d. per annum. 

Then follows a list of the Liberi Tenentes, with their rents, 
services, and holdings. I select the following : 

Madoc fitz Ralph held 4 virgates : rent 2s. or a hawk. 

David de Otley held 3 virgates : rent 2s. 2d. ; services, to abide 40 days, 
during war, in Ellesmere Castle, at the tenant's expense : a heriot of one cuirass 
at the tenant's death. 

1 Inquis., i Edw. I, No. 37. 
8 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 125. 
6 Forest Roll of Salop, No. 14. 

1 C.F.R., i. p. 21. 

4 Coll. Top. et Gen., i. 120. 


Edenevet de Stokes. Services, suit of court, and his arms as a heriot. 

The Lady of Lunyal [now Lineal] held 5| virgates and some assarts. 1 Rent, 
2s. ; service to victual the men-at-arms [in the castle]. Heriot, the tenant's 
test beast. 

Stephen de Fraunketon z held 4 virgates in Ellesdon [now Elson], i bovate in 
Wodehouses, and i bovate in Otale. Rent, 22s. 

William de Gesnok held half a virgate. Service, to keep the Lord's woods. 
Meuric held one-third, and Lewelin Vaghan held two-thirds of the vill of Grenhul 
[Greenhillj. Lewelin Vaghan and his brethren held the vill of Astwik [Eastwick]. 
Gurgenew fitz Madoc, Madoc fitz Yareford, Wyn Vaghan, and Lewelin fitz Wylim 
held the vill of Herdewick [Hard wick]. Rent, 6s. Sd. 

Adam de Rugge and others held 4 virgates in Rugge [the Ridges]. Service, 
a fee [gersuma] of 2s. when any of the tenants' daughters married. 

Kenewric fitz Rouhard and other Welshmen held 4 virgates in the vill of 

The tenants of Horton paid 2s. rent, and were bound to victual the men-at-arms 
[in the castle]. The tenants of Leye [Lee] paid a like rent and service. The vill of 
Baggel paid 2s. rent. 

The abbot of Hawemon held Stockeyth [Stocket], Newton, and Kenewic. Ser- 
vices, suit of Court, and to victual the men-at-arms. 

Richard fitz Stephen and others held 10 acres of assarts in Birche. 

William Smith of Birche held half a virgate. Service, to do the shoeing and 
ironwork of teams and mills in the manor, and, in war-time, to abide in the castle, 
and forge all necessary implements. 

The amount of assarts specified in the Inquest was 195 acres ; but the whole 
hundred of Ellesmere contained no less than 536^ acres of assarts. 3 

An extent, dated November 4, 1280, of the manor of Welsh 
Hampton, which Roger had acquired from his brother Hamon, 
shows that the total annual value, including 44 acres of demesne, 
was 3 145. 2d.* The land there and in Ellesmere was valued at 
4^. an acre, while that at Cheswardine, where there were two 
watermills, and 2j vivaries, was reckoned to be worth Sd. an 
acre per annum. 5 A moiety of the manor of Child's Ercall pro- 
duced 5 6s. $d. a year. 

During the last years of Henry III the shrievalty of the county 
and custody of the castle of York had been conferred on Roger 
le Strange to hold during pleasure ; he was confirmed in these 

1 ' Assarts ' were clearings in the forest ready for cultivation. 

* Probably the man who killed Llewelyn at Orewin Bridge. 
8 Eyton, x. 242-244. 

* Trans. Shrops. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., xi. (2nd series), p. 260. 
5 Ibid. viii. (3rd series), p. 362. 


offices by Edward I soon after his accession, and was directed 
to render his accounts for the issues thereof ; l on December 12, 
1272, a writ de intendendo was addressed to the knights, freemen, 
&c., of the county of York for Roger le Estraunge, appointed as 
Sheriff by the late King during pleasure, to the custody thereof. 2 
There seems to have been some questions about the accounts, 
since the Fine Rolls of July 12, 1273, contains the following entry : 
The King wills that Roger le Straunge, to whom he committed 
of late the county and castle of York, which Henry III committed 
to him at will, answer at the Exchequer therefor as John de 
Oketon and William de Latymer, sometime Sheriffs of the county, 
answered. 8 On October 18, 1274, Roger was relieved of the 
custody of the castle and county of York, and was directed 
to deliver them to Alexander de Kirketon. 4 The Hundred Rolls 
of the 4th Edward I (1275-6) contain an inquest taken at York, 
at which the jury found that the servants of Roger in York Castle 
had done damage to the King in timber, tiles, stone, fisheries, &c., 
to the value of 40. 5 Repayment for this damage was not ex- 
acted, as we find that on August I, 1279, the Sheriffs of Yorkshire, 
Lincolnshire, and Bedfordshire were ordered to respite demand 
upon Roger le Estraunge for debts due to the King, no doubt in 
consideration of his services during the war. 6 He was also given 
an acquittance on November 21, 1275, for 20, surplusage of 
his accounts when he was Sheriff of York. 7 

Some trouble had arisen in the year 1273 concerning the 
possession of Chartley Castle, in Staffordshire. On May 6 a 
mandate was issued in the name of the absent King to Roger le 
Strange to deliver the custody of that castle to Richard de 
Clifford, the King's escheator, so that no contention may arise 
among the magnates until further order from the King. 3 Appa- 
rently Roger did not at once comply with this order, as a further 
mandate was issued on June 27, directing Edmund, Earl of 
Lancaster, the King's brother, to take the castle into the King's 

1 Rot. Orig. in Cur. Scacc. (Rolls series), i. 200. * C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 2. 

8 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 8. * Ibid. i. 31. 

6 Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. Ill and Edw. I, i. i2oa. 

6 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 536. 7 Ibid. p. 257. 

8 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 9. 

Q 2 


hands, and, if necessary, the Sheriff was to employ the posse of 
the county to obtain possession. 1 That he did somehow obtain 
possession is evidenced by an order of October 30, 1276, by which 
the King's clerk was directed to deliver to Roger the tools, iron 
fittings of military engines, crossbows, quarrells, armour, &c., in 
the castle of Chartley, when Roger handed it over at the King's 
command. 2 

An original letter is preserved in the Record Office, dated 
April 8, 1272, which shows that the custody of the Castle of the 
Peak, Derbyshire, had been conferred on Roger le Strange by 
Henry III ; it is an order from the Archbishop of York, Roger 
de Mortimer, and Robert Burnell, acting as Commissioners of 
Prince Edward, directing le Strange to pay over the revenues of 
the Peak for the current term to the Lady Constance ' quondam 
consors domini Henrici de Alemania,' 3 to whom they have been 
granted. This lady was the widow of the Infante Alphonso, 
son and heir of Jayme I, King of Arragon ; she was the eldest 
daughter and co-heir of Gaston de Moncada, Vicomte de Beam, 
who married Henry at Windsor on May 15, 1269.* A mandate 
of April 10, 1272, directs Roger le Strange to deliver the castle 
and bailiwick of the Peak to Walter de Kancia, to whom the 
attorneys of Edward the King's son have committed it ; this 
was accompanied by a writ de intendendo to the tenants. 5 It 
must be remembered that this order was issued only a few months 
before the King's death, when Henry was in his dotage and Edward 
in Palestine ; the grant was probably beyond the powers of the 
prince's attorneys, and it certainly was not acted on, as later 
entries in the Patent Rolls, quoted below, show that Roger con- 
tinued to exercise the office of custodian of the Peak for several 
years after the accession of Edward I. A further mandate two 
years later directs Roger le Strange, keeper of the castle and land 
of the Peak, to deliver to Constance 100 of rent in the Peak, long 
since assigned to her as dower. 6 The Close Rolls contain several 

1 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 17. J Ibid. p. 316. 

3 Royal Letters, P.R.O., No. 2493. Extended in printed vol. of Royal Letters, ii. 

346. * Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., iii. 432. 

6 C.P.R., 1266-1272, p. 642. 8 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 49. 


entries concerning Roger's office at the Peak. On September 10, 
1275, he was ordered to cause all venison in the King's larder at 
Tideswell to be delivered to the keeper of the King's larder at 
Westminster. On the following day the Justice of Chester was 
directed to permit Roger to take two stags in the forest of Wirhal 
to be salted for the King's use and sent to Westminster ; and on 
the same day the Sheriff of Lancaster was enjoined to assist Roger 
in taking ten harts in the Chace of Liverpool, and to send them 
salted to Westminster. On September 12, Roger was commanded 
to permit Queen Eleanor to have a deer-leap (sanatorium) in 
the valley of Eyedale. 1 

Roger le Strange' s wife was Maud, widow of Roger de Mowbray, 
and daughter and co-heir of William de Beauchamp, of Bedford. 
Her first husband, Roger de Mowbray, of the Isle of Axholme, 
Lincolnshire, was one of the most considerable barons of the north, 
his father, William, having been one of the twenty-five barons 
appointed to enforce Magna Charta. Roger de Mowbray died 
I266-7, 2 after her re-marriage with , le Strange ; Maud must 
have died in 1274, as an order was issued to the escheator on 
December 29 of that year to take into the King's hands the lands 
which Roger le Strange and Maud his wife, deceased, held in 
dower of the lands late of Roger de Mowbray, tenant-in-chief, 
late her husband. 3 On September 12 of the following year (1275) 
the said escheator was directed to deliver to Roger le Strange 
the wardship of all the lands which Maud, late the wife of the said 
Roger, sometime the wife of Roger de Mowbray, held in dower 
of the inheritance of the said Roger de Mowbray, to hold from 
the morrow of Michaelmas next until the full age of the heirs of 
the said Roger de Mowbray, saving to the King knight's fees and 
advowsons, and all corn, stock, and other goods in the said lands, 
and rents from the said Michaelmas, and the issues of the said lands 
until the said morrow of Michaelmas, for which the escheator is 
to answer ; so that the said Roger le Strange render 200 marks 
a year therefor. 4 

The Hundred Rolls mention several lands and tenements in 

1 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 210. * Complete Peerage, v. 410. 

* C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 38. * Ibid. i. 52. 


Bedfordshire, held by Roger le Strange by the courtesy of England 
in right of his late wife, of the inheritance of her father William 
de Beauchamp. At an inquest, taken in the 4th of Edward I 
(1275-6), the jury say that Roger holds in chief the vill of Scot- 
field, belonging to the barony of Bedford, and has tithe and assize 
of bread and beer. 1 In Midelton he held a knight's fee of the 
barony of Beauchamp, paying to the King los. hidage and 55. for 
suit and ward. 2 In the hundred of Wylye he held, in right of 
his wife, a certain tenement by scutage for half a hide. 3 His 
services in the first Welsh war of 1276 were requited by a grant, 
made by the King on November 18 of that year, by which he 
pardoned to Roger 100 marks yearly of the 200 marks which 
he was bound to render for the custody of the lands that his late 
wife Maud held in dower of the lands that belonged to her first 
husband, Roger de Mowbray, during the minority of his heir. 4 
Roger le Strange had a further grant, on November n, 1278, when 
the King ordered Roger de Mowbray to permit him to make profit 
of pannage 5 in the woods lately in his hands by reason of the 
wardship of de Mowbray's inheritance. 6 

On the outbreak of the insurrection in Wales Roger le Strange, 
from his knowledge of the country, was likely to be of more use 
to the King's service on the Welsh March than in Derbyshire ; 
he 1 was accordingly directed, on November 10, 1275, to transfer 
to Thomas de Norman vill the castle, manor, and forest of the Peak, 
with the receipts thereof from the previous Michaelmas. 7 Perhaps 
in order to square his accounts on this transfer he was reduced 
to the necessity of borrowing money, as we find, from an entry 
in the Close Rolls of November 10, 1275, that he acknowledged 
to owe to Nutus and Burgesius, merchants of Florence, the sum 
of 142 is. 8d* 

Of the prominent part played by Roger in all three of the 
Welsh wars during the next ten years full details have already 
been given, and there is little else to record of him during that 

1 Hundred Rolls, temp. Hen. Ill and Edw. I, i. 26. 3 Ibid. i. 46. 

8 Ibid. ii. 3240. 4 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 319. 

8 The right of feeding swine. 8 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 483. 

7 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 56. C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 56. 


period of strenuous fighting. Through his brother Hamon, who 
had ejected the Welsh possessors, Roger had acquired a precarious 
title to the manor of Kinnerley in Shropshire. Letters patent 
were issued on November 13, 1277, ordering an inquisition to be 
made as to Roger's seisin therein. It was held at Salop on De- 
cember i ; the jurors found that Hamon had ejected the Welsh 
intruders, and had held the manor since 1264 ; that Roger derived 
his title from his brother, and not from any feoffment of Madoc, 
formerly lord of the manor. The jurors, however, added that 
William de Audeley had a better title, as his father had been 
enfeoffed therein by Thomas ap Madoc, son of the original 
possessor. 1 

The interval, 1278 to 1281, between the first and second Welsh 
wars was a period of comparative quiet for Roger. On June 23, 

1278, the Justice of the Forest beyond Trent was directed to 
cause him to have four bucks in the forest of Galtres of the King's 
gift, 2 but apparently there was some difficulty in getting them, 
as the entry is marked 'vacated because otherwise below* Three 
months later the Justicie of Chester was told to cause Roger to 
have four bucks of the King's gift. 3 Among those who had 
quittance of the common summons of the eyre, on January 20, 

1279, in the county of York, we find the name of Roger le Strange. 4 
On April 20 Peter de Montfort, from whom Roger had bought 
the manors of Colemere and Hampton five years previously, 
acknowledged that he owed the latter 150 marks ; the entry is 
noted ' cancelled on payment.' 5 The custody of the castle of Oswestry 
was given on April 20 to Isabella de Mortimer for a year from 
Easter at a rent to the abbot of Vale Royal of 200, and for 
as long as she was willing to give 200 ; Roger was ordered to 
deliver it to her with the armour therein by chirograph. 6 The 
Justice of Chester had a mandate on August 4 to cause Roger 
to have in the forest of Delamere four bucks of the King's gift. 7 

John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, during his tenure 
of office (1272 to 1292) was engaged in several attempts to magnify 

1 P.R.O. Misc. Chanc. Inquis., File 35 (3). * C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 465. 

8 Ibid. p. 477. Ibid. p. 554. * Ibid. p. 559. 

* C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 309. 7 C. Cl. R., 1272-1279, p. 536- 


ecclesiastical authority at the expense of the temporal power, 
and was suspected of mischievous designs by the King, who 
issued a notification on January 5, 1280, to him and other prelates 
who had been convoked at London, that Roger le Strange and 
Hugh fitz Otto, steward of the household, ' were sent to make 
appeals on the King's behalf that in the said convocation they 
presume nothing against the King's Crown or dignity, and to com- 
mand them not to hold their council touching anything pertaining 
to the Crown as they love their baronies, and to exhort them to 
make a fitting subvention to the King.' 1 The result of the arch- 
bishop's policy was that Parliament promptly supported the 
supremacy of the royal authority, and passed the Statute of 
Mortmain, by which all lands given in future into the ' dead 
hand ' of the Church without the King's special licence were 

The Close Rolls for 1280 contain an enrolment of an agreement 
between Sir Roger le Strange, knight, and Guy le Blunt, clerk, 
whereby the latter demised to Roger for life his houses in Wode 
Street, in the parish of St. Peter's, London, excepting shops facing 
that street, and 205. of yearly rent in the street of Goderonelan[e], 
with provision that sufficient chambers shall remain to Guy and 
his wife and children for their residence ; Roger to do repairs and 
build at his own cost. For this demise Roger released to Guy all 
his right in the said houses by grant of Henry III. 2 Another 
entry in the same Rolls, under date of November 26, 1280, shows 
that the manor and fishery of Shotwick pertaining to the fishery 
of Chester was in the hands of Roger le Strange. 3 The Exchequer 
Calendars for 1282-3 record that Roger received the sum of 10 
sterling by precept from the Keeper of the Wardrobe. 4 

During the early part of 1283 Roger le Strange appears to 
have been in Ireland, as a receipt from him exists at the Record 
Office, dated at Tewein [Tuam] on May 2 of that year, for twenty 
casks of wine, the gift of the King, and four casks, the gift of the 
Queen. 6 

1 C.P.R., 1272-1281, p. 359. C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 44. 

3 Ibid. p. 70. * Kalendars of the Exchequer, i. 76, No. 6. 

8 C.A.D., iii. 322, c. 3045, Ireland. 


After the defeat and death of Llewelyn the great services 
which had been rendered by Roger le Strange were rewarded 
by his appointment by Edward to the important and lucrative 
office of Justice of the Forest south of the Trent in succession to 
Luke de Tany, who had been slain in the previous November at 
the disastrous defeat at Bangor. The patent, issued on October 21, 
1283, commits the office to Roger during pleasure, ' so that the 
bailiffs and ministers, and others whom he shall charge with the 
issues and other things belonging to the King answer to the King, 
and so that he bring his Rolls to the Exchequer at the end of each 
year.' 1 For the discharge of the multifarious duties of the office 
he received an annual salary of 100, with numerous fees and per- 
quisites in addition. 2 The following entries in the Rolls of the next 
few years will give some idea of the varied duties and emoluments 
attached to and accruing from the office, as well as the wide extent 
of his jurisdiction. In 1285-6 he was ordered to sell wood within 
the bounds of the forest of Rockingham on the view of Richard 
de Holebrok. 3 On November 15 he had a writ of summons for 
the eyre for pleas of the forest in Norfolk before himself and 
others. 4 On March 5, 1284, he was ordered to cause the Bishop 
of Lincoln to have in the forest of Rutland six live bucks and 
fourteen live does ; 5 on the i8th of that month to cause John de 
Grey to have twelve oaks at Haule and Salcey ; 6 to allow Grimbald 
Pauncefot to have in the forest of Dean twelve oaks of the King's 
gift ; * on May 10, 1284, he was allowed himself to have an oak 
yearly in the hay [enclosure] of Welynton, and his men to have 
estover [an allowance] of dead wood. 8 By mandate of May 13, 
1285, he was commanded not to molest Edmund Earl of Cornwall, 
to whom the King has granted leave to pass through the forest to 
hunt and take certain stags within their chaces. 9 He had a com- 
mission on June 4, 1284, to hold a court of Oyer and Terminer 
touching those who hunted and carried away deer, and felled 
and carried away trees in the park of Eleanor, late wife of Robert 

1 Pat. Roll, of ii Edw. I, 101, m. 5. * Liberate Rolls, 542-5, p. 506, No. 5. 

8 Rot. Orig. in Cur. Scacc., i. 516. * C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 379. 

5 Ibid. p. 257. * Ibid. p. 259. 7 Ibid. p. 260. 

8 Ibid. p. 266. 9 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 161. 


de Ferrers, at Chartley, Salop. 1 Mandate was issued to Roger, 
dated April 7, 1290, to permit Ela, Countess of Warwick, the 
King's kinswoman, to have one cartload of firewood daily in the 
forest of Wychwood from old oaks : z an order on March 27, 1286, 
to cause trenches to be made in the common passages [passibus] of 
the forest of Chet, and the underwood to be cut down and sold, 
pursuant to the statute provided herein for the preservation of 
the peace, and safety of travellers through the King's forests and 
woods. 3 A similar order as to passages in the forest of Rocking- 
ham. 4 Roger was directed on January 28, 1289, to cause Queen 
Eleanor to have in the forest of Selewode twenty oaks, to make 
palings to enclose her park at Camel, of the King's gift. 5 He had 
an order on March 2, 1291, to permit John Luvel to fell underwood 
of his wood within the forest of Wychwood, and to enclose it with 
a small ditch and low hedge, so that the King's deer may go in and 
out of it. 6 On September 18 of the same year he had a mandate 
to permit the abbess of Romseye and her tenants, within and 
without the bridge of Bradebrugg, to be acquitted of the lawing 
[expeditatio] of their dogs. 7 After holding an inquisition ad 
Quod Damnum, Roger was bidden, on April 20, 1284, to permit the 
abbot of Shrewsbury to enclose ten acres at Astleye, by Bridg- 
north. 8 In fact, the Patent, Close, and Fine Rolls of this decade 
are crowded with instructions sent to Roger le Strange as Justice of 
the Forests with respect to gifts from the King, of timber, under- 
wood, bucks, and deer ; as to trespasses of venison, and other 
encroachments, in places as far apart as Sarum, Essex, Devon, 
Southampton, Windsor, Winchester, and Rutland ; he was ap- 
pointed at different times a Justice in Eyre to hold pleas of the 
forest at Derby, Buckingham, Oakham, Chelmsford, Huntingdon, 
and Northampton. A very considerable part of his time must 
have been occupied in riding all over the Midlands and the southern 
counties in performance of these various duties ; small wonder 

1 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 208. Ibid. p. 349. 

C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 225. * Ibid. i. 227. 

6 C. Cl. R., 1288-1296, p. 3. Ibid. p. 163. 

7 Ibid. p. 178. This was the cruel obligation on tenants within the royal forests 
to cut out the ball of their dog's feet. 8 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 119. 


that, on one occasion of a petition for the redress of some griev- 
ance, King Edward directed his justices then sitting at Shrews- 
bury to inquire into the matter, ' seeing that Roger le Strange, 
Justice of the Forests beyond Trent, had no leisure to do so.' * 
It is worth pointing out that ' cis and ultra Trentam ' were merely 
terms relative to the King's abode at the date of the issue of a 
writ, and in the last-mentioned instance show that the writ was 
issued in the north. 

In addition to the grant of this lucrative office, and of the 
extensive manor of Ellesmere, Roger received several smaller 
favours from the King. On the conditions of the Dictum de Kenil- 
worth he had held the lands of William de Byrmyngham, a 
rebel killed at the battle of Evesham. 2 He had a gift from the 
King on July 22, 1284, of the houses and rents late of Guy le Clerke 
in London, which came into the King's hands by the forfeiture of 
the said Guy, to be held by the services due to the King and 
other lords of the fee. 3 The King, on May 9, 1284, ratified grants 
for life made by Roger le Strange to his retainers out of the manor 
of Ellesmere of small portions of land forfeited by Welsh rebels, 
and enlarged the same into fee simple. 4 

In spite of these grants and enfeoffments Roger was unable 
to meet the expenses of his position without again having recourse 
to loans, as to which the Close Rolls contain several entries. We 
find him, on May 27, 1280, acknowledging a debt of 10 marks to 
John de Aqua, 5 with Roger de Clifford and Henry de Erdington 
as his sureties. 6 In the next year he acknowledged that he owed 
to Guncelin de Badlesmere forty marks, to be levied in default on 
his Shropshire lands. 7 In 1825 he borrowed 60 from Bonrencinus 
Gwalterii and his fellows, merchants of Lucca. 8 

The Roll of fees held of the King in chief which were assessed for 
Feudal Aids in different counties during the years 1284 to 1286, 
mentions the following as being held by Roger per legem Anglie, 

Placita de Juratis, 20 Edw. I, m. 27, dors. ; Eyton, iii. 216. 

Abbrev. Placit., Ric. I-Edw. II, p. 2o8a. 8 C. Ch. R., 1257-1300, ii. 276. 

C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 120. 5 Acqua, near Ferrara. 

C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 51. 7 Ibid. p. 123. 

Ibid. p. 379. 


in right of his late wife : Ryarsh in Kent for half a knight's fee, 
rendering 305. to Rochester Castle, suit to the hundred, and 35. 4^. 
to the Sheriff ; * in Bedfordshire one knight's fee in Middleton, 
of the heirs of Beauchamp ; 2 another in Hatteleye ; 3 half a hide 
of land in Stockton, of the Barony of Bedford ; 4 in Great Hole- 
welle a moiety of three parts of a knight's fee ; 5 in Goldington 
half a knight's fee of the barony of Bedford. 6 The same Rolls 
mention that he held in his own right the manors of Ercalewe and 
Cheswardine in Shropshire of John le Strange. 7 

Dean Hook, in his ' Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,' 
says : 8 

The King suspected Peckham of un-English designs to such an extent, that, 
when that Primate on the 30th April 1286, assisted by three Prelates and some 
doctors, met only to consider some erroneous propositions concerning the body of 
Our Lord after His death, the King sent Roger L'Estrange and Hugh Fitz Otto to 
watch their proceedings. 

These were the same emissaries who had been employed by 
Edward six years earlier to check the manoeuvres of the arch- 
bishop. 9 

A precept, tested at Westminster on February 16, 1288, 
directed Roger le Strange to give credence to William de Henley, 
prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, concerning the 
matters which he was commissioned to declare. 10 King Edward 
was at this time in Gascony, and had left his cousin Edmund, 
Earl of Cornwall, as regent ; the latter, on October 13, summoned 
a council to meet at Westminster, and among the barons to whom 
writs were directed we find the name of Roger le Strange. 11 

The Patent Rolls of January 15, 1290, contain a confirmation 
of a grant in fee simple by Roger le Strange to William de Farndon, 
citizen and goldsmith of London, of certain houses and rents there 
formerly granted to the said Roger by the King when they escheated 
on the forfeiture of Guy le Clerk ; 12 we have seen that this grant 

I Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, vol. iii. 2 Ibid. i. i. 8 Ibid. i. 3. 

4 Ibid. i. 5. 6 Ibid. i. 5. * Ibid. i. 6. 7 Ibid. iv. 220, 222. 

8 iii. 345. Supra, p. 231. 10 Parl. Writs, i. p. 1288. 

II Parl. Writs, i. ; C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, p. 519. " C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 336. 


was made in 1284. l Roger was one of the witnesses to a quit-claim, 
enrolled at Westminster on May 15, 1290, from John, son of 
Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn to his eldest brother Owen of all his 
father's lands in England and Wales. 2 A commission of Oyer and 
Terminer was held on June 10 of that year, touching the lands 
which Roger le Strange, late Bailiff of Builth, took into the King's 
hands on account of the discord between the heirs of Owen, son 
of Meuricus. 3 

King Edward, while engaged in Gascony in 1287 in arbitrating 
between the French and Arragonese on account of Sicily, was seized 
with severe illness which induced him again to assume the Cross. 
On his recovery Pope Nicholas IV granted to him in 1288 the 
tenth of the revenues of all ecclesiastical property in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland to enable him to carry out the crusade 
which he had promised to undertake. The assessment of the value 
of this property, known as the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, was 
not completed until 1291, the year of the fall of Acre, and the last 
remnant of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem on the mainland of 
Syria ; this did not, however, prevent Edward from collecting 
the money assigned for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and he made use of it for his war against France. The Rev. 
William Hudson has made a carefully tabulated collation of this 
assessment with a similar one made in 1254, known as the Norwich 
Taxation, as far as relates to the diocese of Norwich. 4 An extract 
from this, given below, shows the differences in value at those two 
dates of Church property in the parishes comprised in the Hun- 
stanton estate. 

During the summer of 1291 King Edward obtained from the 
three competitors to the Scottish throne Balliol, Bruce, and 
Hastings the admission of his claim as lord paramount to hear and 
determine the right of succession ; the minor competitors, and 
many other Scots barons, followed the example of the three chief 
claimants ; but the Pope had also a claim to feudal superiority 
over that kingdom, so Edward sent envoys to Rome to obtain 
from Nicholas IV a confirmation of the recognition which had 

1 Supra, p. 235. Rot. Wall., 14-23 Edw. I, m. 7, dors. 

* C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 401. Norf. Arch., xvii. 46-157. 



been made by the competitors that the Scottish Crown was depen- 
dant on that of England. The envoys chosen for this purpose by 
Edward were John of St. John and Roger le Strange. Letters of 
protection were issued on September 19, 1291, until a fortnight after 
Easter, to Roger le Estraunge, going beyond seas on the King's 


Norwich Taxa- 
tion of 1254 

Taxation of 
Pope Nicholas 
of 1291 

s. d. 

s. d. 

Snettisham ...... 

16 o o 

26 13 4 

Vicaria ...... 


Heacham ....... 

16 o o 

22 13 4 

Vicaria ...... 



Ringstead Parva ..... 


Great, St. Peter's 

13 6 8 

14 13 4 

,, ,, St. Andrew's 


8 13 4 

Hunstanton ...... 

16 o o 

18 o o 

Vicaria ...... 

4 14 3 

6 13 4 

Portio Prioris Sci Wynewaloci 


o 13 4 

Portio Prioris de Sporle 


Holme, cum Vicaria ..... 

22 13 4 

40 o o 

Portio abbatis de Rameseye . 

o 13 4 

o 13 4 

Portio Prioris de Sporle 


Portio Radulphi de Berry 

i 6 8 

Sedgeford, Personatus ..... 

20 O O 

30 o o 


131 4 3 

180 10 o 

affairs by command of the King, and to Henry de Urtiaco, his 
knight, going with him ; 1 from the Italian name of the latter it 
looks as if he were taken out as interpreter. Similar letters were 
issued on September 24 to Robert Body, going with Roger beyond 
seas till midsummer ; z on October 26 to Lewis de la Pole, going 
to the Court of Rome as King's messenger for one year ; 3 and, on 
December 17, to Philip de Say, clerk of Roger le Strange, going 
with him beyond seas. 4 Apparently, therefore, the envoys did not 

1 C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 445. 
* Ibid. p. 443. 

Ibid. p. 446. 

3 Ibid. p. 447. 


start until Christmas-time. They arrived in Rome and presented 
their letters of credence in February 1292, as is shown by the 
following letter addressed by the Pope to King Edward on Feb- 
ruary 12 : 

John de St. John and Roger called Lestrange, knights, the King's Envoys, 
have presented their letters of credence. It is not fitting that great and grave 
matters should be treated in letters of credence, nevertheless the Pope has 
received them and the Envoys with paternal affection, and is glad to hear that 
the King's zeal and fervour about the Holy Land are not less than before. With 
regard to the tenth of those realms whose rulers have not gone personally to the 
Holy Land, for which the King asks, any residue shall be disposed as he desires ; 
from France none has come to hand, nor from Castile, Pope Gregory having 
granted it to King Alfonso ; from Almain and the north very little has come ; 
expenses are great, but whatever can be produced shall be sent. With regard 
to the remainder of the tenth from England, the Pope is ready to hand over to 
the King the residue agreed on between him and the Church, but reminds him that 
it is assigned to him on condition of his setting out for the Holy Land, and the 
compact must be carried out. 1 

It will be noticed that there is not a word in the above letter 
about Scotland, and it is evident that both King and Pope were 
desirous of discussing and settling other and more weighty matters, 
besides the succession to the Scottish throne. This is confirmed 
by another letter written by Nicholas IV to Edward a few days 
later (on February 18) : he complains that Papal Letters relating 
to ecclesiastical affairs are not allowed to be presented in England ; 
his own letters of complaint have received no answer, though the 
King's envoys, John de St. John and Roger called ' Lestrange,' 
have declared that the King is at peace with the prelates and 
clergy of his realm. The Pope calls on the King to give an answer 
to each particular. 2 Lingard says, with respect to confirming 
the recognition by the competitors that the Scotch Crown was 
dependant on that of England, that the pontiff , having consulted his 
cardinals, gave a civil but positive refusal, as such approval might 
injure ' that right which the Roman Church itself possessed in the 
kingdom of Scotland.' 3 This refusal, if given, was certainly not 
persisted in, and it is evident that St. John and le Strange's 

1 C. Pap. L., 1198-1304, i. 555. Ibid. i. 556. 

8 Lingard's Hist, of England ii. 264. 


diplomacy was successful, as on March i, 1292, the Pope wrote 
to King Edward that he granted the petition of the envoys, 
praying him to confirm the submission made to him by certain 
persons who assert their right in Scotland. 1 Roger must have 
stayed some time longer in Rome, as on April 18 a further letter 
of protection was issued for him until Michaelmas, staying beyond 
seas on the King's service. 2 He was home by August, as on the 
i8th of that month he and two others were appointed Justices in 
Eyre of the forests in Essex for this turn. 3 That he was busily 
employed during the winter of 1292-3 is shown by his being 
granted a quittance of the common summons of the eyre for 
Salop on August 10, 1292,* and again on February 19, I293. 5 
The following entry in a chronicle shows that he was sitting at 
Chelmsford to hold the pleas of the forest for the whole winter 
from Michaelmas 1292 until Lent 1293 : 

A.D. 1292. Rogerus Extraneus, Capitaneus Justiciarius foreste citra Trentam, 
et socii sui, videlicet Symon de Elesworth et Johannes de Crokesle, incepemnt 
placita foreste apud Chelmesforde in quindena Sancti Michaelis, et sederunt 
usque primam ebdomadam quadragesime. 6 

During his absence abroad some busybody on behalf of the 
Crown contested his right to certain franchises in his manor of 
Cheswardine, and he was summoned to show how he claimed to 
hold pleas of the Crown, and to have waifs there. 7 He called his 
nephew, John (V) of Knockin, to warranty, who appeared coram 
Rege in Easter term 1293, and produced the charter of Henry II, 
granting Cheswardine ' cum pertinenciis ' to - his ' antecessor ' 
Hamo, whose heir he was. 8 John argued that the scope of the 
word ' pertinenciis ' must be determined by the immemorial 
usage of his ancestors. The King's attorney replied that view of 
frankpledge, wayf, and infangthef, being integrals of the Crown, 
could not be conveyed in any but special terms. 9 Eyton says 
that he finds many adjournments but no decision on the point. 10 

1 C. Pap. L., 1198-1304, i. 557. s C.P.R., 1281-1292, p. 485. 

3 Ibid. p. 506. * C. Cl. R., 1288-1296, p. 271. 

8 Ibid. p. 311. ' Flores Historiarum (Rolls series), iii. 85. 
7 Plac. de Quo Warr., Edw. I-III, p. 7206. 8 Supra, p. 25. 

9 Plea Rolls coram Rege, 21 Edw. I, 36 dors. 10 x. 33. 


The name of Stephen de Frankton, Roger's retainer who had 
killed Llewelyn, turns up again in 1293. It has been mentioned l 
that in 1275 Roger had obtained for him a pardon for his abjura- 
tion of the realm ; either the validity of this pardon had been 
called in question, or else Stephen had got into fresh trouble, as 
on May 10, 1293, the Patent Rolls record a pardon, granted at 
the instance of Edmund, the King's brother, to Roger le Strange, 
who was charged before the Justices in Eyre in the county of 
Suffolk with harbouring Stephen de Frankton, a felon, who had 
abjured the realm of Henry III. 2 

During the years 1293-5 the Rolls show that Roger was busily 
engaged as Justice of the Forest south of Trent. On June 4, 
1293, he held an inquisition in Essex ; 3 on the Sunday after 
Michaelmas 1293 we find him holding an inquisition ad Quod 
Dampnum as to a grant to Hugh le Despenser of 30 acres in 
the forest of Bradenham. 4 On November 15 following he sat 
on a commission of Oyer and Terminer, on a complaint by William 
de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, that certain persons had hunted 
deer and felled oaks and other great vert in his free chace of Sutton, 
in the counties of Warwick and Stafford. 5 A pardon was granted 
on August i, 1294, to Walter le Hunte, in Colchester gaol, who 
had been condemned to three years' imprisonment before Roger 
le Strange and his fellows, Justices in Eyre in the forest of Essex, 
for trespass in taking bucks and does in the park of Hugh, son of 
John de Nevill, of the residue of the sentence, on condition that 
he serve in Gascony. 6 

Roger le Strange was summoned on June 24, 1295, to the 
Parliament which was to meet at Westminster on August I, 
and again to that at Westminster on November 13, which was 
prorogued to the 27th of that month. 7 He was regularly sum- 
moned as a baron to Parliament after that date, and therefore 
was later regarded as the first of his family who became a baron 
by writ. 

1 Supra, p. 197. * C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 13. 

8 Ibid. p. 19. . Chanc. Inq. A Q.D., Edw. I, File 19 (8). 

8 C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 42. 6 Ibid. p. 82. 

7 Parl. Writs, edited by Sir F. Palgrave, i. 29, No. 2. 



A significant entry, ordering a gift of venison, appears in the 
Close Roll of April 21, 1296 ; it is addressed to Roger le Strange, 
Justice of the Forest, or to him who supplies his place, 1 and 
looks as if he were unable to discharge the duties of his onerous 
office, which however he did not give up until the following year. 

Edward I pursued a more liberal policy than his ancestors 
had done with regard to the vexatious Forest Laws, by affording 
facilities for acquiring enclosures in the royal forests ; on several 
occasions we find directions given by him empowering a Justice 
to rent, or even to grant portions to private individuals ; for 
instance, on April 24, 1296, power was given to Roger le Strange 
to arrent, in fee simple or otherwise, to persons willing to take 
them, such of the King's wastes in divers forests, as, by the assize 
of the forest, belong to him to arrent, and to sell underwood, 
dead and dry wood, accounting therefor to the Exchequer. 2 On 
June 30, 1297, licence was accorded to the abbot of Haughmond, 
after inquiry ad Quod Dampnum before Roger le Strange, to 
enclose twenty acres of wood. 3 On May 31, 1296, Roger le Strange 
and Simon de Ellesworth made an arrentation of forty acres in 
the forest of Morf, and leased them at zd. per acre. 4 

Roger was relieved of the office of Justice of the Forest south 
of Trent by a mandate of February 12, 1297, which directed 
him to deliver to Hugh le Despenser the rolls, memoranda, and 
other things relating to it, as the King has committed that office 
to the said Hugh to hold during pleasure. 5 On July 7 of the 
same year Roger was returned among those holding lands, &c., in 
the county of Salop of the yearly value of 20 or more, and as 
such summoned under the general writ to perform military service 
in person in parts beyond seas, to muster at London on July 7, 
1297. 6 There is no evidence that he served on any foreign cam- 
paign this year : the King had a quarrel with the Earls of Norfolk 
and Hereford, whom he requested to lead a force in Gascony, 
whilst he went to Flanders, but they maintained that they were 
not bound to go abroad except in attendance on him. 

1 C. Cl. R., 1288-1296, p. 479. 2 C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 187. 

3 Ibid. p. 257. * Eyton, iii. 217. 

C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 382. 6 Parl. Writs, i. 291, No. 19. 


In the following year Roger was incapacitated by sickness ; 
the King issued letters patent on May n, 1298, nominating 
John de Gostwyk and Roger le Loreng for two years on account 
of his illness. 1 On June 3 an order was made to respite until 
Michaelmas next any demand on Roger le Strange for the issues 
of his lands forfeited before any Justice of the King, as the King 
has pardoned them to him ; z this no doubt had reference to 
his accounts as Justice of the Forest, for the satisfaction of 
which his own lands were liable. This order was followed by 
another a year later, viz. on June 19, 1299, directing that, in 
the debts due from him to the Exchequer, he was to be allowed 
the arrears of his fee for the time when he was Justice on this 
side Trent ; 3 that he was still high in favour with the King 
is witnessed by a mandate of August i, 1299, to Hugh le 
Despenser, his successor, as Justice of the Forest, to cause 
Roger to have in the forest of Whichwood eight bucks of the 
King's gift. 4 

When King Edward invaded Scotland in the summer of 1300 
Roger le Strange was not, like his nephew John (V) of Knockin, 
present at the siege of Caerlaverock ; he was probably kept away 
by illness. Humphrey de Bohun, as Constable of England, issued 
a Roll containing proffers of service made at the muster at Carlisle 
on the Eve of St. John the Baptist, and among these we find that 
Roger proffered, in respect of his Bedfordshire property, the 
service of one knight's fee, to be done by Simon Germeyn and 
Thomas Arnald, and the service of half a knight's fee, to be 
rendered by Stephen Crevequer s 5 It has already been mentioned 6 
that Roger, as Lord of Ellesmere, was one of the three le Stranges 
who sealed the barons' letter to the Pope on February 12, 1301 ; 
and although this is not conclusive as to his presence at Lincoln, 
since messengers were sent all over England to obtain the seals 
thereto of absent barons, it is not improbable that he was 
sufficiently recovered from his illness to attend in person the 
Parliament held at Lincoln during that month, since the Close 

1 C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 350. C. Cl. R., 1296-1302, p. 165. 

3 Ibid. p. 254. * Ibid. p. 263. 

* Doc. Hist. Scot., ed. by Sir F. Palgrave, i. 224, 226. 8 Supra, p. 211. 

R 2 


Rolls of February 24 contain the following entry, dated from 
Lincoln, and addressed to the Treasurer of the Exchequer ; it 
recites that it has been shown to the King, by petition of Roger 
le Strange, that whereas the King some time ago granted to 
Roger for his good service 100 yearly of land for life, and that 
there was assigned to him the King's manor of Hitchin, co. Hert- 
ford, which is extended at 62 yearly only, and that the Treasurer 
and Barons of the Exchequer have not yet assigned to him the 
remaining 38, at which the King marvels ; he orders them to 
cause what is lacking of the aforesaid 100 yearly of land to be 
assigned to Robert [sic] from other lands in the King's hands 
without delay. 1 

Roger lived for about ten years after the date of the above, 
but his fighting days were over, and there is little to record of 
his doings during those years. The Feudal Aids for 1302-3 
mention the following lands as held by him in the county of 
Bedford : the thirtieth part of a knight's fee of his demesne at 
Caysho of the barony of Bedford ; he, with four others, held in 
demesne in the vill of Bromham the fourth part of a knight's 
fee of the King in capite ; the manor of Stotfold in demesne, of 
his portion of the barony of Bedford, to the third part of which 
he was assessed [de/endit se] for one knight's fee : Haynes, Ronhale, 
and Ravensden with Salvo : and the third part of the barony of 
Bedford in Ronhale and elsewhere for one knight's fee. 2 On 
February 2, 1302, Roger had letters from the King, by reason of 
his sickness, nominating John de Stamford and William de Stronge- 
ford his attorneys for two years. 3 In 1303 he sends the service 
of one knight's fee in Bedford and Bucks, for which Bartholomew 
de Badlesmere obtains a writ of exoneration. 4 He obtained a 
charter from the King on July 24, 1304, for holding a weekly 
market at Cheswardine on Mondays, and also a yearly fair there 
of three days' duration, viz. the eve, the day, and the morrow of 
the Translation of St. Swythin (July 14, 15, and 16) ; 5 on which 
Eyton remarks that it is a good instance of the theory that fairs 

1 C. Cl. R., 1296-1302, iv. 432. * Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, i. 12, 14, 16. 

* C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 13. * Parl. Writs (Palgrave), ii. div. 1471, 3. 

8 Col. Rot. Chart, and Inq. a.Q.D., 1350. 


and wakes were usually sought to be held on the anniversary of 
the patron saint of the Church. 1 

A royal grant of April 6, 1306, sets forth that, in consideration 
of the long service and great expenses of Roger le Strange in the 
King's service, the executors of his will shall not be impeded after 
his death by reason of his debts to the King, or of any account for 
the time that he was the King's minister, from having sufficient 
of his goods to bury the body of the said Roger, and from perform- 
ing his obsequies in a fitting manner. 2 On November 10, 1306, a 
grant was made to John de Britannia, the King's nephew, 8 of 
[inter alia] the reversion of the manor of Hitchin, after the death 
of Roger le Strange, who holds it of the King for life. 4 A grant 
for life is recorded in the Patent Rolls of June 18, 1307, to Matilda, 
wife of Roger le Strange, in case she survive her husband, of 10 
a year from the farm of the town of Bedford by the hands of the 
bailiffs, as the said Roger only holds lands for life and holds none 
in fee whereof she might have dower. Who this Matilda was does 
not anywhere appear ; his first wife, Maud de Beauchamp, died, 
as we have seen, 5 in 1274, and these very Bedfordshire lands were 
held by Roger, in right of her, by the courtesy of England. 1 
find no mention as to the parentage of this second wife : that he 
left a son and a daughter, whom Eyton supposes to have been 
illegitimate, we shall see later. 6 

Edward I died on July 7, 1307, and under the new King a 
grant was made, on June 18, 1308, to Robert de Kendale and 
Margaret his wife for their lives of the reversion of the manor of 
Hiche, 7 upon the death of Robert [sic] le Strange, tenant for life. 8 
On July 14 this grant for life was enlarged into a grant to them 
and the heirs male of their bodies, on the death of Roger ; 9 and 
on October 4 Roger was ordered to attorn to Robert de Kendale 
and his wife, to whom the King had granted the reversion of the 
manor. 10 An entry on the Plea Rolls for the 2nd of Edward II, 

1 Eyton, x. 33, n. * C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 422. 

8 John de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond, born 1266 ; son of John (II) Duke of 
Brittany, by Beatrix, second daughter of King Henry III. 
4 C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 471. Supra, p. 229. 

Eyton, x. 222. ' Hiche = Hitchin. 

8 C.P.R., 1307-1313, p. 79. * Ibid. p. 133. w Ibid. p. 139. 


' cor am domino rege et consilio suo,' sets forth that Roger was 
impleaded for divers extortions made by him in Derbyshire while 
he was bailiff of the Honour of the Peak ; J but there is nothing 
to show whether the matter was followed up. The reversion of 
the manor of Ellesmere was given by Edward II on April 30, 

1309, to Queen Isabella, to hold at pleasure. 2 An entry of June 5, 

1310, states that Roger le Strange who is in bad health has letters 
nominating John de Staunford and Richard de Hawems his 
attorneys for two years. 3 

The King's writ of Diem clausit extremum, ordering the es- 
cheator to hold his inquest on the death of Roger le Strange, was 
issued in error on July 26, 1311, five days before he actually 
died ; the first inquisition was held at Leighton Buzzard, in Buck- 
inghamshire, but is not dated ; the jury found that Roger held 
no land in that county of his own, but held certain lands per legem 
Anglie de Hereditate Matilde de Mountbray, his wife, and certain 
lands for life by the demise of Roger de Mountbray, and that 
John de Mountbray, son and heir of Roger de Moubray, is 
nearest heir of Matilda de Moubray, and is of the age of twenty- 
two years and more. A further inquisition was held at Bedford 
on August 19 concerning the castle of Bedford, and lands held 
by Roger in right of his wife ; it ends up : 

Et dicunt quod Rogerus Extraneus xxvj die Julii, quo die Rex per breve 
suum supposuit ipsum esse defunctum, superestes fuit, et quod obiit ultimo die 
Julii. 4 

The same inquest gives the following list of lands held by 
Roger ' de hereditate Matilde uxoris sue ' : 

Linchelade tenementa ibidem 1 
Bedeforde castrum J 

Situs castri de Bedeforde 
Hawnes cum maneriis de 

Wylynton et Scottefeld extentis 
Bromhum tenementa ibidem 
Bereford tenementa ibidem 
Wutton tenementa ibidem 


1 Abbrev. Placit., Ric. I to Edw. II, p. i8ya. 2 Ibid - P- J 5 6 - 

3 Ibid. p. 229. * Chanc. Inq., 5 Edw. II, File 27 (2) ; old reference No. 67. 


That Roger le Strange did marry a second wife, also of the 
name of Matilda, is conclusively proved by three entries in the 
Close Rolls. The bailiffs of Bedford were ordered, on December 18, 
1311, to pay out of their farm 10 yearly to Matilda, late wife of 
Roger le Strange, which the late King had granted her because her 
husband did not hold any lands in fee whereof she could be 
maintained according to the requirements of her estate in case she 
survived the said Roger. 1 On October i, 1312, the Treasurer and 
Barons of the Exchequer had an order to allow the bailiffs of 
Bedford in their farm 10, which the King ordered them on 
August 28 last to pay to Matilda, late the wife of Roger le Strange, 
which the late King granted that she should receive after the 
death of her husband from the farm of that town ; z and, on 
April 3, 1313, a similar order was issued to the bailiffs to pay her 
yearly 10 from July 31, 1311, the date of her husband's death. 3 
Further orders, enjoining payment of arrears to Matilda, were 
issued in 1314, 1315, 1318, 1331, and 1332.* She was still alive 
in 1337, as on February 9 of that year a receipt of hers appears 
in the Close Rolls. 5 

Roger le Strange appears to have left two children, John and 
Lucia, whom Eyton supposes to have been illegitimate. 6 John is 
mentioned as the son of Roger in the Inq. p.m. of William de 
Ercalewe, who died in 1304,' where it is stated that the deceased 
held 6os. rent at Parva Soutley under John son of Roger le Strange. 8 
John was enfeoffed by his father in Cheswardine, and is entered as 
lord thereof in the Nomina Villamm of 1316. John of Cheswardine, 
by licence dated March 1, 1315, was empowered to enfeoff Fulk le 
Strange of Blackmere in the manor of Cheswardine, held in chief, 
and for the latter to devise the manor to the feoffer for his life, 
with remainder to Hamon, son of Fulk, and his heirs, by fine of 
io. 9 Eyton points out that John thereby disinherited his own 
sister Lucia, and that the fine whereby this was effected was levied 

1 C. Cl. R., 1307-1313, p. 389. Ibid. p. 479- 3 Ibid. p. 523. 

C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, pp. 47, 142, 541 ; C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, pp. 218, 445. 
5 C. Cl. R., 1337-1339, p. 380. Eyton, x. 222. 

7 Inq. p.m., 32 Edw. I, No. 21. Eyton, ix. 89. 

C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 255. 


by royal warrant on November 12, 1315 ; 1 also that this explains 
how, in the inquisition taken on October 22, 1330, on the death 
s.p. of John le Strange of Cheswardine, it was found that he died 
seized of nothing in demesne. The manor, of which an extent 
is given, is said to include a ruined castle, held for his life of the 
King in chief by service of half a knight's fee, of the grant of Fulk 
le Strange, made by the King's licence, and by fine levied in the 
King's Court, with remainder in fee to Hamon, son of the said 
Fulk. John de Leybourn, son of Lucy, sister of the said John, 
aged thirty, is his next heir. Simon de Leybourn, husband of 
Lucia, died in 1309. 2 I have no evidence to show who was the 
mother of John and Lucia ; it is of course possible that they may 
have been the issue of Roger's second wife Matilda, but it is difficult 
to believe that they were legitimate, since no inquest gives John 
as the heir of Roger, and the latter would scarcely have been 
content to hold his fiefs for the term of his life only if he had an 
heir to succeed him in his lands and barony. John of Cheswardine 
was never summoned as a baron to Parliament, and no claim to 
the peerage created by his father's summons has ever been made. 
He died in 1330, when his heir was found to be his nephew, John 
de Leybourn. 3 Courthope says of him : 

Lucy, his sister, married, firstly, Guy de St. Armand, and secondly, Simon de 
Leyburne, by whom she was mother of John de Leyburne, cousin and heir of the 
said John le Strange ; he died s.p., leaving Catharine his sister and heiress, wife of 
Geoffrey de Lucy, father of Geoffrey, father of Reginald, father of Sir Walter de 
Lucy, who left two daughters and co-heirs, Eleanor wife of Thomas Hopton, 
and Matilda wife of William Vaux (grandfather of Nicholas Vaux, Lord Vaux of 
Harrowden), among whose descendants this Barony [Strange of Ellesmere] is 
still in abeyance. 4 

For fifty years, distinguished both in field and council, Roger 
le Strange had carried to a still higher degree the honourable 
traditions of his House. We have seen him loyal to his liege lord 
all through the Wars of the Barons, rewarded by the grant of 
Ellesmere, the shrievalty of Yorkshire, and the custody of the 

1 Rot. Orig. -in Cur. Scacc., 8 Edw. II, i. 2126. 

2 Inq p.m., 2 Edw. II, No. 24. 3 Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. Ill, No. 18. 
4 Complete Peerage (ist ed)., vii. 268%. 


Castle of the Peak ; moved thence on account of his familiarity 
with the Welsh March to a position of leadership during the Welsh 
wars, to the successful termination of which his defeat of Llewelyn 
greatly contributed ; then for fourteen years strenuously em- 
ployed in the administration of the Forest Laws as Justice south 
of Trent ; adding greatly to his territorial possessions by his 
marriage with the widow of Roger de Moubray and heiress of 
William de Beauchamp ; despatched as envoy to Rome to con- 
duct important negotiations with the Pope ; summoned to Parlia- 
ment as lord of Ellesmere, and crowning his career by joining 
in the famous letter in which the barons of England, speaking in 
the name of the commonalty of the realm, upheld the independ- 
ence of the Crown for all time from subservience to papal claims 
of feudal superiority over this country. His closing years were 
clouded by illness, which incapacitated him from serving in the 
Scotch wars of Edward I ; but that monarch was not forgetful 
of his old servant, and requited his long and faithful services by 
further grants, as well as by securing a provision for his widow, 
which was punctually carried out by Edward's successor on the 


A John le Strange of Ercalewe, distinct from John of Cheswar- 
dine, and from John of Knockin, appears between the years 1305 
and 1309, but I have not come across any evidence to show 
whether he was related to either of the others. He was returned as 
a knight of the shire for Salop, under the designation of ' Johannes 
le Estraunge de Ercalewe' to the Parliament meeting at Westminster 
on February 16, I305, 1 to that of May 30, 1306 ; z and obtained 
his writ de Expensis for attendance at the last-mentioned Parlia- 
ment on the same day. 3 In 1307 he was again returned for Salop 
to the Parliament of October 13 at Northampton, 4 and also to 
that meeting at Westminster on April 27, I3O9. 5 On August 26 
of that year he was appointed one of the assessors and collectors 

1 Return oj M.P.'s, i. 19. Ibid. p. 22. 3 Parl. Writs, i. 178. 

4 Return oj M.P.'s, i. 28. * Ibid. p. 31. 



for Salop of the twenty-fifth granted in the last Parliament for 
the war with Scotland ; l and, on December 18, was one of the 
three Justices named to receive and hear complaints. 2 The 
manuscripts of the Corporation of Shrewsbury comprise two deeds 
of his : the first, a grant from Johannes Extraneus, lord of 
Ercalewe, and Matilda his wife, to Sir Philip de Say, rector of 
Hodenet, of one virgate in Harpecote, which he had from Sir 
William le Botiler, of Wem ; the first witnesses are Sir Fulk le 
Strange, and Sir William le Botiler ; the second deed, dated 
October 14, 1309, is a grant from John Lestraunge of Erca- 
lewe to Sir Thomas Corbet and Robert his son of the manors 
of Morton Toret, Hemme, Hynton, &c. 3 


In dealing with this branch of the family in a former chapter, 4 
I brought down their pedigree to an Alexander le Strange who 
occurred c. 1260, and in 1275 and 1299, and mentioned that more 
of the family would appear again at a later period. The Feudal 
Aids for the year 1302 record that Ralph le Mareschal holds the 
fourth part of a knight's fee in Rougham and Fransham of Roger 
le Strange and his parceners, and the same Roger of John of Gates- 
den, and he of Earl Warenne, who held of the King. 6 On May 28, 
1312, Roger le Strange of Little Fransham granted to Adam 
Siger of Shipdham five acres of arable land in the fields of Little 
Fransham. 6 In 1315 Roger le Strange appears as a witness to 
a deed, dated at Fransham, which will be mentioned below ; 
and in 1324 he was returned by the Sheriff of Norfolk as summoned 
by general proclamation to attend the Great Council at West- 
minster on May 30.' He was deceased in 1428, as the Feudal 

1 C.P.R., 1307-1313, p. 185. z Ibid. p. 251. 

3 Hist. MSS. Comm. Report on the MSS. of Shrewsbury and Coventry Corporations, 

PP- 72, 73- 

* Supra, pp. 94-97. s Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. 416. 

6 B.M. Add. MSS. 23067. MS. Index to vol. i. of Original Charters to illustrate 
Blomefield, in Dawson Turner's printed Cat., fo. *g , 14669. 

7 Parl. Writs, ii. fo. 1834. 


Aids for that year say that Ralph le Mareschal held the fourth 
part of a knight's fee in Rougham and Fransham of the heirs of 
Roger le Strange. 1 

We have seen that in 1242 John le Strange, son of Roger le 
Strange of Fransham, held land in Little Snoring. 2 A deed in 
the Muniment Room at Hunstanton, dated July 20, 1299, is wit- 
nessed by ' Johnle Strange de pua Naringg 9 ' (Snoring), and mentions 
the meadow of John le Strange at that place. 3 Another Hunstan- 
ton charter, undated, and therefore presumably earlier, whereby 
Robert, son of Stephen of Snoring, grants for 2os. to ' Philippo, filio 
domini Radulphi le Strange' a piece of land which he may sell to 
anyone except to a house of religion, and is witnessed by Johanne 
le Strange and Willelmo le Strange ; 4 probably these are members 
of the Litcham branch of the family. 

In the inquest on the death of Robert de Toni, held at Necton 
on January 5, 1310, the first name among the jurors is ' Henrici 
le Estraunge' 5 Carthew cites a charter of April 21, 1315, granting 
2j acres of land in Little Fransham to Henry le Strange and Joan 
his wife of Little Fransham, which charter is witnessed by Roger 
le Strange. 6 Henry le Strange is also certified by writ as one of 
the lords of the township of Fransham Parva in 1316 ; 7 and again 
as such in the Feudal Aids of the same year. 8 He occurs as early 
as December 14, 1292, as witness to an agreement, preserved at 
Hunstanton, as to some lands in Lexham and Gressenhall, between 
Jordan ffolyot and John, son of Robert, of Little Palgrave ; 9 
and at about the same date his name occurs in another Hunstanton 
deed, an undated grant of homage from John Crowe to Jordan 
ffolyot ; 10 the latter died in 1299. 

The above particulars simply supply the names of three le 
Stranges connected with Fransham viz. Roger, wno occurs from 
1302 to 1324, and Henry, with his wife Joan, who occur from 1292 
to 1316, but the documents cited do not establish any connection 

1 Feuded Aids, iii. 595. z Supra, p. 95; 3 I N.K. 26. 

N.K. 19. I 5 Inq. p. m., 3 Edw. II, No. 33. 

6 Carthew, iii. 184. 7 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470. 

8 Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. 454. 9 I N.A. 37. | 10 | N.A. 27. I 


between these three individuals and Alexander, the last name 
in the pedigree already given. 1 


The ' Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society ' 2 contain some notes on deeds belonging to 
Leighton near Buildwas, which establish some connection between 
the le Stranges and the family of de Leighton which is not men- 
tioned by Eyton when dealing with that place. A deed, dated 
in I299, 3 mentions that Roger le Strange the uncle, and Roger 
his nephew, lived at Leighton. Who were these ? Roger of 
Ellesmere was alive then, but, as far as I know, had no uncle 
or nephew named Roger. An undated grant is cited, whereby 
Richard, lord of Leighton, gives four messuages in that place 
to Richard, his son by Matilda le Estrange. 

Inasmuch as five Richards de Leighton succeeded one another 
between 1165 and 1315, it is not easy, as Eyton remarks, 4 ' to 
mark the points of interval in this succession.' A deed quoted 
by Eyton as passed c. 1200 by the second Richard de Leighton, 
is attested by Hamon le Strange, probably Hamon of Wrock- 
wardine, second son of John le Strange (I) of Knockin. By a 
third undated deed 5 Sir Richard Leighton grants to Richard his 
son and Mathilde le Strange his mother, and the heirs male of the 
said Richard, a messuage and lands in Leighton which Roger, 
brother to Matilde aforesaid once held. It remains to be dis- 
covered who Matilda and her brother Roger were. 

THOMAS STRAUNGE, occ. 1302. 

The Patent Rolls of Edward I contain a pardon granted on 
February 17, 1302, at Roxburgh to William de Hothum for the 
death of Thomas Straunge, and of his outlawry for the same. 6 

1 Supra, p. 96. z ix. 398. s No. 27 (102). 

* vii. 327. 6 No. 25 (74). 6 C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 20. 



A pardon was granted on September 21, 1305, to William, son 
of Ralph de Goldyngton, in Bedford gaol, for the death of Roger, 
son of John le Straunge, as it appears by the record of the Justices 
appointed to hear and determine felonies there, that he killed 
him in self-defence. 1 

Some entries relating to Hunstanton occur in the Hundred 
Rolls for Norfolk, temp. Edward I. In the year 1273-4 William 
de Plumstede extorted [extorsif] from the town of Hunstanton 
5 marks, and in the following year 8 marks. From William Note 
he extorted 2s., and by the authority of his office he caused to 
be imprisoned the son of Roger Cloychs for theft. 2 A further 
entry states that William de Blumvill, sub-escheator, after the 
death of John le Strange [probably John (IV) who died in 1274] 
took into the King's hand the manor of Hunstanton, although it 
was not held in capite, and a horse worth twenty shillings ; and 
Robert de Perers took of him from the manor on the same occasion 
to the value of nine shillings. 3 

1 C.P.R., 1301-1307, p. 378. * Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. Ill and Edw. I, i. 4656. 
8 Ibid. i. 5236. 

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THE Shropshire inquisition on the death of John le Strange 
(V), taken on September 20, 1309, states that his son and heir, 
John, was then aged twenty-seven, and was born on May 18, 
1282. 1 He only survived his father for about eighteen months, 
but that short period sufficed for him to execute the important 
series of documents, the evidences of which will be set out in 
extenso, by virtue of which the Hunstanton estate was vested 
in his younger brother Hamon, who, on his part, counter-claimed 
Knockin to John. 

It has been mentioned z that during his father's lifetime 
John, son of John le Strange, was employed on the King's service 
in the Scotch wars ; it was perhaps this which obliged him to 
borrow 205. on December 12, 1308, from Adam de Osgodby, a 
prominent Chancery clerk under Edward II, which sum was to 
be levied in default on his lands in the county of Stafford. 3 John, 
the father, had been ordered a few days before his death to raise a 
hundred foot-soldiers from Knockin for service against the Scots ; 4 
Edward II had other matters requiring his attention, so a truce 

1 C. Edw. II, File 16 (6). z Supra, p. 212. 

C. Cl. R., 1307-1313, p. 134. Supra, p. 220. 



was patched up with Scotland, and, on September n, the custodian 
of the lands of John le Strange of Knockin was notified that the 
hundred men would not be wanted. 1 

The escheator had been directed on September 8, 1309, to 
take into the King's hands the lands late of John le Strange of 
Knockin, deceased, tenant-in-chief ; 2 a month later, on October 
6, the same official was ordered to deliver the said lands to John, 
son and heir of John le Strange, he having done homage ; saving 
to Maud, late the wife of John, her dower. 3 

Before the death of his father John (VI) had married a lady 
of the name of Isolda or Yseult, but who she was has not been 
recorded, though she was of sufficient importance to have been 
enfeoffed jointly with her husband in Knockin and other estates. 
Their first act after succeeding to them was the settlement of 
the Shropshire and Norfolk properties. Eyton says in a note : 4 

It seems from various documents (still in the possession of H. L. Styleman le 
Strange, Esq., of Hunstanton) that Hamo le Strange had some title to the Manor 
and Castle of Knokyn, and that he accepted Hunstanton in lieu thereof. The 
settlements connected with this exchange commence on September 6, 1309, and 
were completed by a Fine in Easter Term 1310. Knokyn was settled by Hamo le 
Strange on his brother John and on Isolda, John's wife, and the heirs of their 
bodies, with remainder to the right heirs of John. Hunstanston was settled by 
John and Isolda on Hamo and the heirs of his body, to be held under John and 
Isolda by a rose-rent, with remainder to John and Isolda and their heirs. 

Eyton can hardly have seen these documents, as the third 
of them, the grant by Hamon of December 8, 1309, supplies the 
explanation of his interest in Knockin. The solution is a very 
simple one. John (V) was anxious to make good provision for 
his younger son Hamon ; the eldest, John, was to have Knockin 
and the other Shropshire properties ; so his father executed a 
Statute Merchant Bond (Statutum) under the royal seal, whereby 
he covenanted to pay a thousand marks to Hamon, or to his heirs 
and executors, the said bond being deposited for safe custody with 
the prior of Wenlock. 5 On the father's death, which occurred 

1 Rot. Scot., i. 740 ; Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470. 

z C.F.R., 1307-1319, ii. 49. a Ibid. p. 50. 4 x. 279. 

B Hunstn Evidence Room ] A. 4. | 


about July 1309, John (VI) succeeded to this obligation, the 
principal security for which was the Knockin property ; and as 
it was not convenient for him to pay up so large a sum to his 
brother, Hamon agreed to accept Hunstanton from his brother 
in full satisfaction for the debt, and on that manor being con- 
veyed to him, to give John a release from any further claim on 
the Knockin property. 

The four documents by which this transaction was carried 
into effect have fortunately survived, and are in the Muniment 
Room at Hunstanton ; they are of sufficient interest to be well 
worth giving here in extenso. The first in point of time is an 
agreement between the two brothers, dated at Shrewsbury on 
September 6, 1309 ; this must have passed a very few weeks after 
the death of their father : John undertakes to enfeoff Hamon 
and the heirs of his body in the manor of Hunstanton before 
Christmas next ; and if Hamon should die without leaving heirs 
of his body, that the said manor shall revert to John and Isolda, 
and the heirs of their bodies ; Hamon on his side undertook in 
the same form to enfeoff his brother John and Isolda his wife 
and the heirs of their bodies in the castle and manor of Knockin ; 
if John and Isolda should leave no heirs of their bodies, then the 
said castle and manor shall revert to the right heir of John : for 
further security to John, his brother Hamon has delivered a bond 
for a thousand marks, made in his favour by his father John, to the 
custody of Henry, Prior of Wenlock, to be kept by him until the 
full completion of the present agreement ; on completion whereof 
the said bond shall have no further value or effect, and shall be 
immediately handed over by the prior to John. The first witnesses 
to this deed were the prior of Wenlock, the lord Fulk le Strange 
(of Blackmere), John le Strange, lord of Ercalewe, and William 
of Ludlow. 

The deed itself runs as follows : 

Die Sabbati proxima ante festum Nativitatis beate Marie Virginis Anno regni 
Regis Edwardi filii Regis Edwardi tertio apud Salopiam. Ita convenitur inter 
dominum Johannem, filium domini Johannis quondam domini de Knokyn ex 
parte una : Et dominum Hamonem, fratrem predicti domini Johannis filii 
domini Johannis ex parte altera : Videlicet quod predictus dominus 


Johannes fideliter promisit et corporal! juramento se astrinsit, ante festum 
Nativitatis Domini proxime futurum feoffare predictum dominum Hamonem 
de manerio de Hunstanstone in Comitatu Norfolciensi. Tenendum et Hab- 
endum sibi et heredibus suis de corpore suo procreatis. Et si contingat 
predictum dominum Hamonem sine herede de corpore suo procreate in fata 
decedere, tune predictum manerium cum omnibus suis pertinentiis predicto 
domino Johanni et Isolde uxori sue et heredibus de iisdem procreatis libere et 
integre revertatur. Et predictus dominus Hamo in eadem forma, et ante pre- 
dictam diem Natalem Domini feoffabit predictum dominum Johannem fratrem 
suum, et Isoldam uxorem eius et heredibus [sic] de corporibus suis procreatis de 
castro et manerio de Knokyn cum omnibus suis pertinentiis. Et si contingat 
predictos dominum Johannem et Isoldam uxorem eius sine herede de corporibus 
suis procreato in fata decedere, tune predictum castrum et manerium cum 
omnibus suis pertinentiis heredi predicti domini Johannis libere et integre rever- 
tantur. Et ut securius predicto domino Johanni de predictis conventionibus 
caveatur, predictus dominus Hamo Unum Statutum continens mille marcas quod 
dominus Johannes Lestraunge, pater dicti Hamonis sibi fecerat tradidit fratri 
Henrico, Priori de Wenlok custodiendum quousque predicte conventiones plenarie 
compleantur : quibus completis concedit idem Hamo quod ex tune predictum 
Statum nullam vim habeat nee virtutem, set statim per predictum Henricum 
Priorem predicto domino Johanni fratri suo tradatur. Et ad istas conventiones 
fideliter tenendas predicte partes sigilla sua alternatim presentibus apposuerunt. 
Hiis testibus ffratri Henrico Priore de Wenlok, Domino ffulcone Extraneo, 
Johanne Extraneo domino de Ercalewe, Ricardo de Harele, Willelmo de Lode- 
lowe, militibus ; Reginaldo de Charnes, Galfrido Randulfo, Willelmo Hord, 
Griffino de Kynenarstone, Thoma Champoneys, Randulfo Pain et aliis. 1 

The above agreement between the brothers was duly carried 
out. By an indented deed, executed at Knockin on Sunday, 
November 30, 1309, John le Strange and Isolda his wife (who was 
no doubt joined with him in order to bar any claim on Hunstanton 
for her dower) granted to his brother Hamon the whole manor of 
Hunstanton, with all its members and appurtenances whatsoever, 
and all knight's fees belonging thereto, to be held by him and the 
heirs of his body of the capital lords of the fee by the services 
belonging thereto : should Hamon die without heirs of his body, 
then the said manor shall revert to John and Isolda and the heirs 
of their bodies. The grant was attested by Fulk le Strange, John 
le Strange of Ercalewe, and several of the Shropshire witnesses 
who had attested the previous agreement ; but it is remarkable 

1 A. i. I 


that it is also attested by seven or eight Norfolk witnesses, Who 
must have come all the way from Norfolk to Knockin for the 
especial purpose of having cognizance of this important trans- 
fer of a Norfolk fief to a younger branch of the house of le 

The document itself was, as usual, an indenture, and, for those 
who are not familiar with the meaning of that term, it may be 
well to explain it. A sheet of parchment was taken, a line was 
drawn across the centre, and along that line some word, usually 
the word CHEIROGRAPH, was written in capital letters ; then, on 
each half of the parchment, commencing from the centre, identic 
copies of the document, word for word the same, were written ; 
their accuracy and identity was established by reading them over 
in presence of the two parties and of the witnesses ; the first 
party attached their seal or seals to one copy, which was known 
as the deed itself, and the second party attached their seal or 
seals to the other, which was called the counterpart ; then a 
knife was drawn in a wavy or indented line through the word 
written across the centre, and of the two documents, thus sepa- 
rated, one, bearing the seals of the first party, was handed to the 
second party, while the other, bearing the seals of the latter, was 
delivered to the first party ; thus, at any time, the authenticity 
of either document could be established by bringing it into juxta- 
position with the other, and seeing that the teeth of the indenture 
fitted into each other accurately. By some curious chance, in 
the present instance, both the original deed and its counterpart 
have been preserved in the Hunstanton Muniment Room, and the 
photograph opposite will show that the lettering, cut through 
upwards of six hundred years ago, absolutely fits along the in- 
dented line. The seal of John le Strange, bearing the legend, 
S' Joms EXTRANEI DE KNOCKIN, is still attached to the original 
deed, but that of his wife Isolda is gone, leaving only the strip of 
parchment to which it was once attached. On the counterpart, 
unfortunately, no seals remain, though slits at the bottom show 
that two were originally attached. A photograph of the original 
and counterpart, placed in juxtaposition to show the indented 
line, is given opposite. 

S 2 


The following is an extended transcript of this indenture : 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod dominus Johannes Extraneus miles, films domini 
Johannis Extranei, dominus de Knokyn, et Isolda uxor mea dedimus concessimus 
et hac present! carta nostra confirmavimus domino Hamundo Extraneo, fratri 
nostro, pro quadam summa pecunie quam nobis dedit premanibus totum manerium 
nostrum de Hunstanston in Comitatu Northfolchiensi cum omnibus membris et 
pertinentiis suis quibuscunque. Et cum omnibus feoudis militum dicto manerio 
pertinentibus sine aliquo retenemento. Habendum et Tenendum de capitalibus 
dominis feoudi predicto Hamundo et heredibus suis de corpore suo legitime 
procreatis, in feoudo et hereditate inperpetuum, libere, quiete, bene, et in pace 
cum omnibus suis pertinentiis et eysiamentis per servicia que ad illud manerium 
pertinent. Et si contingat, quod absit, dictum Hamundum infata decedere sine 
herede de corpore suo legitime procreato, tune predictum manerium cum omnibus 
suis pertinentiis quibuscunque una cum feoudis militum predictis, nobis et heredi- 
bus notris de corporibus nostris legitime procreatis redeat et revertatur in per- 
petuum. Et preterea Nos predicti Johannes et Isolda uxor mea et heredes nostri 
totum predictum manerium de Hunstanston cum omnibus membris et pertinentiis 
suis quibuscunque una cum feoudis militum dicto manerio pertinentibus predicto 
Hamundo et heredibus suis de corpore suo legitime procreatis pro predicto dono 
contra omnes Mortales Warantizabimus et defendemus inperpetuum. In 
cujus rei testimonium huic presenti carte sigilla nostra apposuimus. Hiis 
testibus : dominis Folcone Lestrange, Johanne Lestrange de Ercalewe, Ricardo 
de Harleye, Thoma Corbet, Willelmo de Lodelawe, Johanne Louel, Thoma de 
Ingalthrop, Thoma de Snyterton, militibus, domino Thoma de Holm, Willelmo 
de Seggeford, Willelmo Cayly, Roberto de la Roche, Georgio de Holme, et aliis 
Datum apud Le Knokyn die dominica infesto Sancti Andree apostoli, anno 
regni Regis Edwardi filii Regis Edwardi tertio. 1 

The next step in this complicated legal process was for Hamon 
to enter into a covenant with his brother John for the voidance, 
on completion of the conveyance of Hunstanton, of the statute- 
merchant bond for a thousand marks, to which obligation John 
had succeeded on the death of his father. In addition to this 
recognisance John had, subsequently to that event, executed a 
similar bond in his own name, but for a thousand pounds instead 
of marks i.e. one-third more which document had been deposited 
in the custody of his cousin, John le Strange of Ercalewe. In this 
last-named bond were joined, with John (VI), Agneta, the widow 
of Laurence de Ludlow of Stokesay, and her son William de 
Ludlow. Who was this Agneta ? and why were she and her 

1 | A. 2 and 3. | 




















son parties to the bond ? Laurence de Ludlow had acquired 
Stokesay c. 1281 from John de Grey, and was the builder of what 
is, perhaps, the best extant example of a fortified manor-house, 
now known as Stokesay Castle, close to Craven Arms Station in 
Shropshire ; he had obtained a licence to crenellate it in 1290-1, 
and died in 1296. His wife, Agnes, is mentioned by Eyton as 
complainant, together with her son William, in a fine concerning 
some land at Stanton-Lacy, but of what family she was does not 
appear. Their son, William de Ludlow, who died in 1316, married 
c. 1300, Matilda, daughter and sole heiress of William de Hodnet. 1 
I can find no connection between the Ludlows and the le Stranges, 
such as would explain the association of the two families in this 
bond, and can only surmise that it lay in the personality of 
Agnes ; may she, for instance, have been a sister of John and 
Hamon le Strange, who, because she was not an heiress, has not 
been otherwise mentioned ? Apart from possible family connection , 
neighbourship may account for her intervention, as the castle of 
the Whitchurch le Stranges is only a few miles from Stokesay, 
higher up Corvedale. 

Such being the position of affairs between the two brothers, 
Hamon, on December 8, 1309, entered into the subjoined covenant : 

Universis ad quos presentes litere pervenerint Hamundus Lestraunge, films 
domini Johannis Lestraunge de Knokyn salutem in Domino. Noverit univer- 
sitas vestra me, ex mera voluntate mea concessisse domino Johanni Lestraunge 
fratri meo et Isolde uxori sue quod, si contingat ipsos me dominum Hamundum 
de manerio de Hunstanston cum suis pertinentiis in Comitatu Northfolchiensi 
mihi et heredibus meis de corpore meo legitime procreatis citra quindenam post 
festum Purificationis beate Virginis Marie proximo future feoffare, et securitatem 
inde facere quam Curia Domini Regis in forma supradicta considerare voluerit, 
Volo et concedo pro me, heredibus et executoribus meis quod Statutum domini 
Regis mille marcarum sub sigillo de recognitione debitorum mercatorum, in quo 
statute continetur quod dominus Johannes le Straunge, pater meus, se obligavit 
mihi, heredibus et executoribus meis in predictis mille marcis, et quod quidem 
Statutum in custodia fratris Henrici, Prioris de Wenlok, remanet. Et etiam quod- 
dam aliud statutum sub dicto sigillo de recognitione debitorum mercatorum 
in quo continetur quod dictus dominus Johannes le Straunge, frater meus, Agneta 
que fuit uxor Laurentii de Lodelawe, et Willelmus de Lodelawe, films eiusdem 
Agnete, in mille libras argenti mihi heredibus et executoribus meis obligantur. 

1 Eyton, v. 36, 37 ; vii. 58. 


Et quod quidem Statutum in custodia domini Johannis Lestraunge de Erkalewe 
remanet, vel ubicunque predicta Statuta alibi inveniantur pro nullis habeantur, 
seu nullam vim vel effectum extunc optineant, set omnino cassentur frustrentur et 
adnullentur, non-obstantibus quibuscunque conventionibus literis seu instru- 
mentis quoquo modo inter me dominum Hamundum et predictum dominum 
Johannem, fratrem meum, super premissis vel eoram aliquibus penes aliquo 
modo confectis. Et si contingat predictos dominum Johannem fratrem meum 
et Isoldam uxorem eius, me dictum Hamundum in forma supradicta de dicto 
manerio de Hunstanston cum suis pertinentiis citra predictam quindenam dicti 
festi Purificationis non feoff arent, volunt et concedunt predict! Johannes et 
Isolda quod supradicta Statuta de recognitionibus mercatorum extunc in suo 
robore et effectu perseverent, et predictis Hamundo liberentur sine contradic- 
tione vel impedimento dictorum domini Johannis et Isolde uxoris sue, Agnete et 
Willelmi. In cuius rei testimonium huic presenti scripto indentato, tarn ego 
dictus Hamundus ad unam partem, quam dictus dominus Johannes et Isolda 
uxor eius ad aliam partem, sigilla nostra apposuimus. Hiis testibus, dominis 
Johanne de Sibeton, ffulcone Extraneo, Johanne le Straunge de Erkalewe, Regi- 
naldo de Charmes, Willelmo Hord, Grifnno de Kynenerstone, et aliis. Datum 
apud le Knokyn die lune in festo Conceptionis beate Marie. Anno regni regis 
Edwardi filii Regis Edwardi tertio. 1 

[The seals are gone.] 

It will be seen from the above document that, if Hamon was 
not enfeoffed of Hunstanton by February 16, 1310, the penalties of 
the two bonds were recoverable by him. The matter was not 
carried through by that date ; it was not completed until May 10 
following, but it is not likely that any penalty was exacted for the 
law's delay. 

The ' Final Concord/ by which the manor of Hunstanton 
was actually conveyed by John (VI) of Knockin to his younger 
brother Hamon in fee tail for a rose rent, is expressed as follows : 

Hec est finalis concordia facta in Curia domini Regis apud Westmonasterium 
a die Pasche in tres septimanas anno regni Regis Edwardi filii Regis Edwardi tertio, 
Coram Willelmo de Bereford, Lamberto de Trikingham, Henrico de Stanton, 
Johanne de Benstede, et Henrico le Scrop, Justiciariis et aliis domini Regis fideli- 
bus tune ibi presentibus. Inter Hamonem Extraneum querentem et Johannem 
Extraneum de Knokyn et Isoldam uxorem eius deforciatorem, de manerio de 
Hunstanston cum pertinentiis, unde placitum conuentionis summonitum fuit 
inter eos in eadem curia, scilicet quod predictus Hamo recognovit predictum 
manerium cum pertinentiis esse Jus ipsius Johannis ; Et pro hac recognitione, 


fine, et concordia iidem Johannes et Isolda concesserunt predicto Hamoni pre- 
dictum manerium cum pertinentiis ; Et illud ei reddiderunt in eadem Curia ; 
Habendum et Tenendum eidem Hamoni et heredibus de corpore suo procreatis, de 
predjctis Johanne et Isolda et heredibus ipsius Johannis in perpetuum. Reddendo 
inde per annum unam rosam ad festum Natiuitatis sancti Johannis Baptiste, 
pro omni seruicio, consuetudine, et exactione ad predictos Johannem et Isoldam 
et heredes ipsius Johannis pertinente ; Et faciendo inde Capitalibus domini feodi 
illius pro predictis Johanne et Isolda et heredibus ipsius Johannis omnia alia 
seruicia que ad ilium manerium pertinent. Et predjcti Johannes et Isolda et 
heredes ipsius Johannes Warantizant eidem Hamoni et heredibus suis predictis 
predictum manerium cum pertinentiis per predicta seruicia sicut predictum est 
contra omnes homines in perpetuum. Et si contingat quod predictus Hamo 
obierit sine herede de corpore suo procreato, tune post decessum ipsius Hamonis 
predictum manerium cum pertinentiis integre revertetur ad predictos Johannem 
et Isoldam quiete de aliis heredibus ipsius Hamonis Tenendum de capi- 
talibus dominis feodi illius per seruicia que ad illud manerium pertinent in 
perpetuum. 1 

A second copy of this Fine exists among the muniments at 
Hunstanton, 2 and the original is preserved among the Feet of 
Fines in the Public Record Office. 3 Thus was the Hunstanton 
estate finally made over by the lord of Knockin to his younger 
brother Hamon, in whose issue it has been vested, and the family 
name carried on in lineal descent to our day, long after the elder 
line and other branches in Shropshire had died out, or merged 
with their honours in other noble families. 

Of other matters in which John le Strange (VI) took part 
during the few months for which he held the barony of Knockin 
but little mention has come down to us. Eyton points out 4 that, 
in the transaction with his brother Hamon respecting Hunstanton, 
John made use of the instrumentality or trusteeship of his brother 
to effect an entail of Knockin on the heirs of himself and his wife 
Isolda, and this will account for the finding of the inquest on his 
death that he and Isolda had acquired that manor from Hamon. 
The same arrangement was also made with regard to Melverley, 
part of le Strange's feoffment under fitz Alan. 5 

Immediately after his father's death John le Strange (VI) was 
summoned, by writ dated at York on October 26, 1309, to attend 

1 j A. 5. | 2 1 A. 6. 1 3 Case 162, File 125, No. 136. 

4 x. 370. Ibid. x. 378. 


the Parliament to be held there on February 8 following. 1 The 
place of meeting was altered by another writ of December 12 to 
Westminster, in consequence of the refusal of the barons to meet 
the King and his favourite, Gaveston, at York. In the autumn 
of 1310 Edward invaded Scotland, and John le Strange was 
one of the barons summoned to the muster at Berwick on Sep- 
tember 8. 2 The King had difficulties in getting the barons to 
come, and another writ was directed to le Strange on August 2, 
earnestly requesting him to attend the said muster according to 
the preceding summons. The Parliamentary writs show that, 
in place of going in person to the muster at Tweedmouth on 
September 18, he proffered the service of half a knight's fee, per- 
formed by one serviens with one barded horse. 

In the autumn of 1310, instead of fighting for the King in 
Scotland, John le Strange was at Haughmond ; on September 3 
he confirmed to that abbey the grants of his progenitors, especially 
the churches of Hunstanton, Cheswardine, Knockin, and many 
lands ; this was witnessed by Fulk le Strange of Blackmere, and 
by the grantor's brother Hamon. 3 On October 10, by another 
charter also dated at Haughmond, in which he styles himself 
'Johannes Extraneus sextus dominus de Knokyn, 3 he again con- 
firmed all grants of his ancestors to the abbey, ' sicut pater meus 
ante me fecit,' and especially mentioned the new chapel at Knockin, 
together with the soil on which it was built. 4 

John le Strange (VI) must have died early in 1311, probably 
during the month of January ; the writ of ' Diem clausit extremum ' 
upon his death is tested at Berwick-upon-Tweed, February 6, 1311 ; 
the Cambridgeshire inquisition respecting his property was held 
on February 21, and a full extent is given of the manor of Middleton 
held by him of the Bishop of Ely in chief, by the service of three 
knights' fees, and a pair of gilt spurs, or sixpence, yearly. The 
Shropshire inquisition was held on March i, and also gives extents 
of the manors that belonged to him ; Ness and Kynton were held 
by him in chief, by the service of one knight's fee, and eighteen 

1 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1470. 2 Writ tested at Westminster, June 18, 1310. 

8 Fragm. Registri Monast. de Haghmond, B.M. Harl. MSS. 446 (Aug.) fo. 15. 
4 Ibid. 


acres of land were held of Meurik de la Benet, lord of Felton Botiler, 
rendering 35. yearly. The manor of Knockin, with its members, 
including a castle, was held jointly by the said John, with Yseult 
his wife, of Thomas de Halgton, by homage only, which manor 
they acquired from Hamon le Strange l to be held to them and 
the heirs of their bodies. Melverly, part of the original le Strange 
fief under fitz Alan, and eventually part of the fee of Knockin, 
was held under a separate tenure, namely, of the Earl of Arundel, 
at an annual rent of los. ; and Middle was held at a similar rent 
of 6s. 8^. of the heirs of John de Burgton. John's heir was found 
to be his son John, aged fourteen on October 9, i3io. 2 In addition 
to the above he held in Warwickshire the manor of Walton Dey- 
ville, and in Gloucestershire a messuage, three virgates of land, 
and five acres of meadow at Schevyndon. 3 

The escheat or beyond Trent was ordered, on March 30, 1311, 
to deliver to Isolda, late the wife of John le Strange of Knockin, 
a tenant-in-chief, the manor of Knockin, and the town of Milver- 
legh, co. Salop, together with the issues of the same, taken into the 
King's hands on the death of the said John, as it appears by in- 
quisition that he and Isolda acquired the same jointly from Hamo 
Lestraunge, and that the manor is held of Thomas de Halgton 
by homage, and the said town from Edmund Earl of Arundel by 
service of los. yearly, and that the said John and Isolda held the 
same jointly at the time of John's death. Two days later, namely, 
on April i, 1311, the same escheator was further directed to assign 
to Isolda dower of her late husband's lands in the presence of 
John of Knockin, to whom the King had granted the custody of 
two parts of the said John Lestraunge' s lands during the minority 
of his heir, if the said John de Knockin choose to attend, the said 
Isolda having taken oath before the King not to marry again 
without his licence. 4 This John de Knockin had already, on 
February 24, obtained a grant, in which he is styled the King's 
yeoman, of the wardship of the lands late of John le Strange, in 
the King's hands by reason of the minority of the heir, to hold 
until the full age of the latter, rendering so much as any other 

1 Vide supra, p. 263. a Inq. P.M. 3 Edw. II, File 20 ; C.I.P.M. V, No. 264. 

3 Cal. Inq. p.m. (1806), i. 2376. * C. Cl. R., 1307-1313, p. 305. 


will give, with the marriage of the heir for such a price as any 
other will give. 1 The Fine Rolls contain a further entry, dated 
November 2, 1311, of a sale for 300 to the King's yeoman Roger 
[sic] de Knockin of the wardship of two parts of the manors of 
Ness and Kynton, Salop, and Middleton, co. Cambridge, late of 
John Lestraunge of Knockin, extended at 39 135. iof-d. a year, 
to hold until the full age of the latter's heir, John, and if John die 
before his full age, his heir being a minor, until the time when he 
would have been of full age, saving, &c., as above, viz. knights' 
fees, advowsons, reliefs, &c. 2 An order was issued, on January 23, 
1312, to the Treasurer and Barons of the Exchequer to cause en- 
rolment to be made, pursuant to the King's grant to his yeoman, 
Roger de Knockin, that of the 250 marks wherein he is held to 
the King of the 450 marks wherein he made fine for the wardship 
of the lands late of John le Strange of Knockin, then in the King's 
hands, he pay 10 a year. 3 These entries in the Fine Rolls respect- 
ing Roger de Knockin must be a mistake for John de Knockin. 
Eyton mentions no such person as Roger : John de Knockin was 
lord of Faintree, near Bridgnorth, in March 1316 ; 4 he had a 
grant of Ellesmere for life from the Crown on the death of Roger 
le Strange in I3ii, 5 and he himself died in 1320-1. 6 Similar 
entries concerning these transactions are entered in the Patent 
Rolls of August 8 and November 2, 1311,' and a further entry of 
January 19, 1313, shows that Roger de Knockin, the King's yeo- 
man, received a pardon for the 235 marks in which he was bound 
to the King at the Exchequer, for the custody of the lands of 
John Lestrange, deceased, which the King committed to him. 8 
These lands, as is shown above, had been granted to John, and 
not to Roger de Knockin. 

Sir Hamon le Strange of Hunstanton was already a knight at 
the time of the tournament held at Stepney in May I3O9- 9 His wife 
was Margaret Vernon, who in the pedigree in the Hunstanton 
Muniment Room, made by Roger 1'Estrange of Hoe in 1686, is 

1 C.F.R., 1307-1319, ii. p. 85. z Ibid. p. no. 3 Ibid. p. 123. 

4 Nomina Villarum. 5 Pat. Rolls, 12 Edw. II, pars. 2, mem. 9, dors. 
6 C.I. P.M., 14 Edw. II, No. 31. 7 C.P.R., 1307-1313, pp. 380, 397. 

8 Ibid. p. 520. 9 Supra, p. 220. 


stated to be the daughter and co-heiress of Richard Vernon de 
Molton, descended from the ancient Lords Vernon of Shipbrooke, 
in Cheshire. Edmondson 1 makes her the daughter, but not the 
heiress, of Sir Ralph, or, according to others, Sir Robert Vernon 
of Mottram, in Cheshire, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Urian de St. Pierre. The le Stranges, as a family, sided with the 
Earl of Lancaster and the Ordainers in the agitation which resulted, 
in 1312, in the death of Ga vest on ; Sir Hamon was one of those 
who obtained a special pardon, on October 16, 1313, for having 
borne arms as an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster, ' or in any 
other manner touching or concerning Peter de Gavaston, or that 
which befell him.' 2 

The Feudal Aid for 1316, dealing with the Hundred of Smith- 
don, states that it was in the hands of Robert de Montalt, and that 
Hunstanton was held under him by Hamon le Strange and William 
Lovel. 3 Sir Hamon was also certified, pursuant to a writ tested 
at Clipston on March 5, 1316, as one of the lords of the township 
of Hunstanton. 4 The other lord thereof, William Lovel, held a 
knight's fee in Hunstanton, Walpole, and Walton, pertaining 
to the castle and honour of Clare. 5 This return of the names of 
lords of townships was ordered for the purpose of effecting the 
military levies ordained by the Parliament at Lincoln in 1316. 

At the request of Roger de Mortimer, of Chirk, a grant was 
made on November 27, 1313, to John de Mortimer (probably his 
grandson), of that which pertains to the King of the marriage of 
Isolda, late the wife of John le Strange of Knockin ; viz. any 
fine to be made for that marriage, or forfeiture incurred by her 
for marrying without the King's licence, or that of the said John 
de Mortimer. 6 There is nothing to show that Isolda ever re- 
married after the death of her husband. During the year 1314 
she was involved in some legal controversy arising out of her 
husband's will ; on May 7 Nicholas Daumary, executor of that 
will, appointed attorneys to receive in Chancery the 300 marks 
that Thomas, son of John Hastang, and John, son of Robert de 

1 Baronagium Genealogicum, v. 493. z C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 23. 

3 Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. 452. * Parl. Writs (Roll Series), ii. 308, No. 4. 

5 Cal. Inq. p.m., Edw. II, v. 346, No. 538. C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 44. 


Felton, had acknowledged to him in Chancery in 1309-10 ; J 
and on November 18 Hastang and Felton appointed attorneys 
' against Nicholas Daumary and other executors of the will 
of John le Strange, to wit, Isolda, late the wife of John le 
Strange, and William de Lodelowe, in a plea of deceit/ 2 William 
de Ludlow has already been mentioned 3 in association with John 
le Strange in the bond for 1000 given to his brother Hamon ; 
and Thomas de Hastang, who occurs shortly after this time as 
lord of Middle, is conjectured by Eyton to have married a le 
Strange widow. 4 

Isolda's name occurs on August 8, 1316, as being required 
to furnish a jury from her lands to determine a complaint as to 
the forest of Ellesmere. 5 Shortly after this Margaret, the widow 
of Sir Hamon le Strange of Hunstanton, purchased from her 
sister-in-law Isolda, for the sum of 510, the wardship and marriage 
of Hamon, son and heir of Sir Hamon. The original deed for 
this purpose, written in Norman-French, exists in the Muniment 
Room at Hunstanton Hall ; 6 it recites that whereas Margaret, 
late the wife of Sir Hamon le Strange, lord of Hunstanestown, 
has acknowledged in Chancery that she owes Isoude, late the 
wife of Sir John le Strange of Knockin, the sum of 510, in order 
to have the grant from Isoude of wardship of the lands of Hamon, 
a minor, and, if the said heir die whilst a minor during Isoude's 
life without issue, for the wardship of the said lands until Edmund 
his brother come of age, saving to Isoude the reversion of the 
tenements that Margaret holds in dower, in case she die during 
the minority of the heirs, as security for payment to Isoude of 
30 yearly until the end of seventeen years, the period of nonage 
of the heirs, for the wardship. Isoude grants that if Hamon die 
leaving issue of his body, wardship of which issue Isoude has 
reserved to herself, or if he die under age without issue after 
Isoude's death, by reason whereof Margaret may not have the 
wardship of the said lands until the end of the seventeen years, 
then Margaret shall pay the above yearly sum until Hamon 's 

1 C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, p. 100. * Ibid. p. 201. 3 Supra, p. 258. 

4 Eyton, x. 68. C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 558. 6 | A. 7. | 


death, and that after his death she shall be acquitted thereof, 
and that if Edmund die a minor and heir of Hamon, she shall be 
quit in like manner. The deed was dated at London on December 
2, 1317, and bears a memorandum that Isoude came into Chancery 
on the same day, and acknowledged the above deed. The Close 
Rolls of November 28, 1317, contain an enrolment of this deed 1 
and an acknowledgment by Isolda's attorney that it was can- 
celled on payment of the 510 to him in October 1320. 

There is no inquisition in the Record Office on the death of 
Sir Hamon of Hunstanton, but the above-cited enrolment in the 
Close Rolls proves that he died before the end of November 1317. 
His sister-in-law Isolda survived certainly until 1324, as is shown 
by writs directed to her as Lady of Knockin, but the necessities 
of the war with Scotland rendered it desirable that the command 
of the castle should not be vested in a woman. A mandate of 
January 16, 1322, directed to all in the castle of Knockin, orders 
them to deliver it to Peter Giffard and Morgan Llwyd, 2 and, four 
days later, Richard de Leghton was appointed by the King during 
pleasure as ' Superior Keeper ' thereof, a writ of aid for him being 
directed to ' Isolda de Knokyn, lady of that castle.' 3 She, or 
her bailiff, was required on February 14 to raise 50 foot-soldiers 
from her lordship of Knockin, and to allow certain commissioners 
to act therein ; 4 and she was again required, on April 9, 1322, 
to raise fifty footmen to go to Newcastle-on-Tyne. 5 A mandate 
of June 10 requests all persons of the land of Knockin to come 
properly armed to the King's assistance in the Scotch expedition, 
as their laudable assistance when the King was pursuing the 
rebels in the marches of Wales makes the King confident that 
they will be ready to do so. 6 The last writ directed to Isolda 
was dated May 20, 1324, requiring her to furnish from her liberty 
a jury to try the case of Griffith de la Pole of Powys. 7 

The rolls of the period contain several entries relating to 
maritime matters at Hunstanton. A commission of Oyer and 
Terminer was issued on November I, 1317, on complaint by 

1 C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, p. 582. * C.P.R., 1321-1324, p. 49. 

3 Ibid. p. 50. Ibid. p. 74. 8 Ibid. p. 98. Ibid. p. 136. 

7 Ibid. p. 452. 


Robert de Montalt, touching persons who, on the sea-coast at 
Hunstanton, took and carried away his goods out of a ship, which 
he by his men had taken from the King's Scotch enemies. 1 The 
Sheriff of Norfolk was directed on January 4, 1318, to take into 
the King's hands a ship of Flanders and Zeeland lately arrested, 
as it is contained in an inquisition, taken by the King's orders, by 
Henry Burgeys of Hunstanton and others, that a great part of 
the goods are in the said Henry's custody, and the mariners 
detained in prison by him. 2 The same Sheriff was directed, on 
January 2 6, to bring personally to Westminster the merchants 
and mariners of Flanders and elsewhere, lately arrested in a ship 
of Sirice [ = Zieriksee in Zeeland} on their voyage from Scotland 
at Hunstanton, and to ascertain what goods were in the ship, 
their value, into whose hands they came, and if any have been 
abstracted. 3 A commission of Oyer and Terminer was issued on 
October 2, 1318, on the complaint that Roger, son of Nicholas de 
Holme, several men from Holme and Hunstanton, Geoffrey ' the 
levediesneve Lestraunge/ and others, assaulted him at Hun- 
stanton, and broke his right arm. 4 A similar commission was 
issued on December 26, 1318, on the complaint of Robert de 
Montalt, that, although he and his ancestors, from time whereof 
memory exists not, had wreck of sea in all his lands along the 
sea-coast of Norfolk, William de Sedgeford and others took and 
carried away divers goods at Wiggenhull, Snettisham, Heacham, 
Hunstanton, Thornham, and Titchwell, cast ashore by the sea 
upon his soil, which, as wreck of the sea, ought to have pertained 
to him. 5 On April 20, 1322, protection for one year was granted 
to Robert Spark of Hunstanton, merchant, and his men, going 
with a ship to southern parts to buy corn and victuals and convey 
the same to York and Newcastle not elsewhere undertaking 
not to communicate with Scots or Flemings. 6 A commission of 
Oyer and Terminer was issued on May 18, 1322, on the complaint 
of Nicholas de Hamburgh, merchant, of Almain, that, whereas he 
freighted ' la Welyf are del Brele ' [Brill, in Holland] with divers 

1 C.P.R., 1317-1321, p. 91. 2 C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, p. 519. 

3 Ibid. p. 521. 4 C.P.R., 1317-1321, p. 284. 

5 Ibid. p. 297. Ibid. 1321-1324, p. 109. 


wares at ' Grippeswold in Estland ' [ = Greifswald, in Pomerania] 
to trade to Kingston-on-Hull, fifty-three or more men (amongst 
them William Baret of Hunstanton) boarded the ship near Blake- 
ney, carried away his goods, and assaulted him. 1 Edmund Bacon, 
John Howard, Robert Banyard, and Robert de Erpingham were 
appointed, on August 16, 1326, in the ports and towns of Great 
Yarmouth, Little Yarmouth, Blakeney, Lynn, Spalding, Hun- 
stanton, Holme, and Snettisham to see that they join John de 
Sturney, admiral of the fleet, in the north. 2 


Concerning Eubulo, ultimately the fourth of his house to be 
summoned to Parliament as a baron, Professor Tout has called 
my attention to the question as to whether he was the second or 
the third son of John le Strange (V) and Maud d'Eiville ; after 
careful examination of such information bearing on the point as 
exists I have come to the conclusion that he was the youngest 
of the three brothers, in spite of the fact that Dugdale 3 says 
that Hamon was Eubulo's younger brother, and that Blomefield, 4 
probably following Dugdale, also states that Hamon was the 
youngest. I have no direct evidence to offer, but the following 
points are material. 

The eldest brother, John (VI), was born, as we have seen, on 
May 18, 1282 ; his father, at some period before his death (which 
occurred on October 7, 1309), made a large endowment for his son 
Hamon by means of the Statute Merchant Bond for a thousand 
marks in his favour ; the date of this bond is not recorded, but 
as no mention is therein made of any other son, it seems probable 
that it may have been made before the birth of Eubulo, whose 
career suggests that he must have been considerably younger 
than his brothers. Eubulo was certainly not present at the tourna- 
ment at Stepney on May 28, 1309, when both John and Hamon 
were present as knights. Further, Eubulo was not a witness to 
any of the documents of the family compact concerning the 

1 C.P.R., 1321-1324, p. 159. * C.P.R., 1324-1327, p. 311. 

* Baronage, i. 668. * x. 316. 


feoffment of Hamon in Hunstanton, which were executed during 
that and the following year. His name does not appear, as far 
as I am aware, before 1313, when ' Eble Lestraunge ' is included 
with his brother Hamon, and his cousins Fulk and Robert of 
Blackmere, in the pardon, granted on October 16, to the adherents 
of the Earl of Lancaster for the death of Ga vest on. 1 I have seen 
no further mention of him until May 20, 1322, when he ob- 
tained letters of protection for one year, 2 but the purpose thereof 
is not stated. In 1326, although apparently not yet a knight, 
he was returned by the Sheriff of Salop, pursuant to a writ tested 
at Westminster on May 19, in the list of ' homines ad arma ' sum- 
moned to attend the Great Council. 3 

The Complete Peerage* on the authority of Blore's Rutland 
(p. 228), makes Eubulo the son of a second wife of John, ist 
Lord Strange of Knockin, viz. daughter and heiress of Eubulus 
de Montibus, of Ketton, Co. Rutland, and says that from the 
name it seems likely ; but I know of no other authority for 
the existence of this second wife. 

By his marriage with Alice de Lacy, which must have taken 
place at about that period, Eubulo acquired large possessions in 
many parts of England. Alice was the only surviving daughter 
and heiress of Henry de Lacy, last Earl of Lincoln of his line, and 
was therefore, in her own right, Countess of Lincoln, while, in that 
of her mother, she was also Countess of Salisbury ; she had been 
married at the age of eleven, in 1294, to Thomas Earl of Lancaster, 
son of Edmund ' Crouchback,' and grandson of Henry III, the 
leader of the barons of England against the favourites of Edward II, 
who was captured by the King's forces at Boroughbridge, and 
beheaded at Pomfret Castle in 1322. The personal honour of 
Alice does not seem to have been above reproach, though a vile 
story, chronicled by Thomas of Walsingham, 5 and a contemporary 
Westminster monk, Robert of Reading, 6 and quoted by Kennet, 7 
to the effect that Alice de Lacy was claimed as his wife in 1317 by 

1 C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 23. z Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1468. 3 Ibid. 

4 ist Ed n , vii. p. 268. 5 Chron. Mon. S. Albani, i. 148. 

6 Flores Historiavum (Rolls Series), iii. p. 179. 

7 Parochical Antiquities of Ambroseden and Burcestre, i. 539. 


an undersized hunchback, named Richard de St. Martin, on the 
ground that he had carried her off and married her before she 
was betrothed to the Earl of Lancaster, is at all events partly 
disproved by the fact of the tender age at which she was married 
to the said Earl. The facts seem to be that in 1317 Alice was 
' abducted ' by Earl Warenne. Warenne was a man of disreput- 
able character, and it is pretty certain that his chief object in 
abducting her was to humiliate Thomas of Lancaster. 1 A circum- 
stantial account given by another contemporary chronicler, the 
' Continuator of Trivet/ Edw. Hall, pp. 20-21, bears testimony to 
the fact that Alice did go off with some lover, but I demur to the 
suggestion made by Professor Tout in his ' Place of Edward II in 
English History/ 2 that that lover was ' a certain lame squire, 
Eubulo 1'Estrange.' That Alice should have left an unprincipled 
ruffian like Lancaster, to whom she had been married when a 
mere child, is small matter for wonder, and perhaps scarcely for 
blame, but that Eubulo should be identical with the ' cuidam 
armigero claudo,' spoken of by Robert of Reading, is incompatible 
with his strenuous and honourable career under Edward III, and 
the many trusts and rewards conferred on him by that monarch. 
That Alice herself was for a time under a cloud, partly perhaps 
from her own misconduct, and still more as the widow of the traitor 
Thomas of Lancaster, is more than likely, and that she had to 
extricate herself from a weak position by paying hush-money to 
the Despencers and to those who wielded the powers of the Crown 
towards the end of the reign of Edward II ; but after her marriage 
with Eubulo it is evident that she did succeed in reinstating herself 
materially, and, let us hope, morally as well. 

After the execution of her first husband at Pomfret his own 
possessions and honours were forfeited by his attainder, and his 
widow, to make her peace with the King, surrendered into his 
hands on June 26, 1322, a great part of the lands which she had 
inherited from her father, in order to secure the confirmation of 
some portion of these possessions to herself. Many of the sur- 
rendered lands were granted by Edward II to the Despencers, 

1 Chron. de Melsa, ii. 334-5 ; Canon of Bridlington, p. 54 ; Annales Paulini, p. 280. 
* P. no. 



and on their forfeiture subsequently reverted to the King. 1 On 
September 20, 1322, Edward granted the constableship of Lincoln 
Castle to Alice as her right and inheritance, 2 and restored to 
her for life the annuity of 20 which her father had received in 
lieu of the third penny of the county of Lincoln. 

The marriage with Eubulo le Strange took place before Novem- 
ber 10, 1324, on which day the Sheriff of Lincoln was ordered to 
pay to him and ' Alice, daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, 
late Earl of Lincoln, now his wife, the arrears of 20 yearly for the 
third part of the county of Lincoln, and to pay the same here- 
after/ 3 It may have taken place as early as the previous Easter, 
as certain issues of Lincoln were paid to Alice and Eubulo for 
Easter term i8th Edward II. 4 The mandamus as to the annuity 
in lieu of the third penny of the county of Lincoln has given colour 
to some to call Eubulo Earl of Lincoln jure uxoris, but, as has 
been pointed out by Mr. Francis Townsend, in his additions to 
Dugdale's Baronage, it is certain that he never really enjoyed that 
honour, as we find him regularly summoned to Parliament up 
to the date of his death by the name of Ebulo le Strange only, 
and ranked among the barons, nor does the inquisition on his 
death give him any other title. 5 The date of the writ for his first 
summons to Parliament was December 3, I326, 6 the last was on 
April i, 1335, and there is proof in the Rolls of Parliament of his 
sitting. 7 He was, apparently, not knighted until about a year 
after his marriage, viz. in the igth of Edward II (1325-26), when 
he was made a Knight of the Bath and received robes as a 
Banneret. 8 

By a commission tested at Norwich on January 24, 1326, 
Eubulo was appointed one of the four supervisors of Array in 
the county of Lincoln, with special powers ; 9 and by a further 
commission he was directed, on July 23, to assist and counsel 
the Earl of Arundel as captain and chief supervisor of the Array 
in Lincolnshire. 10 The last mention of him during the reign of 

1 C.P.R., 1324-1327, pp. 63, 103. 

3 C. Cl. R., 1223-1227, p. 245. 

5 Misc. Top. et Gen., vi. 150-1. 

7 Complete Peerage, vii. 268. 

C.P.R., 1324-1327, p. 220. 

z C. Cl. R., 1327-1330, p. 28. 
4 Ibid. p. 626. 

6 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1468. 
8 Ibid. vii. 268. 
10 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1468. 


Edward II is on December 9, 1326, when he obtained letters ot 
protection for a year. 1 

Eubulo and Alice appear to have experienced considerable 
difficulties in securing punctual payment of the rents which had 
been granted to them out of the castle and county of Lincoln ; 
there are repeated orders in the Close Rolls of the next few years 
directing the Sheriff to pay to them the arrears, and to continue 
the payments punctually. 2 An entry of August 4, 1331, recites 
that, whereas the mayor and bailiffs of the city of Lincoln have 
hindered Eubulo and Alice since the death of Henry de Lacy from 
holding the custody of the castle, with the bailey and court 
thereof, the King orders the mayor and bailiffs to permit Eubulo 
and Alice to have the said castle and bailey, the meter and 
bounds whereof are fully set forth. 3 

A few months after the deposition of Edward II, Eubulo 
was summoned to be at Newcastle-upon-Tyne on May 18, 1327, 
equis et armis, in case of an invasion by Robert Bruce. 4 The 
young King, in pursuing the Scots, narrowly escaped capture on 
August 4, 1327. 

During the early years of the new reign all real power was in 
the hands of Queen Isabella and her paramour Mortimer, who, 
to consolidate their authority, made restitution of estates and 
honours to the partisans of the late Earl of Lancaster. Among 
these grants was one made to Eubulo le Strange for life, on 
November 28, 1328, of lands and rent of the yearly value of 500 
marks, out of the lands which he and Alice his wife hold for the 
term of her life only, and which would revert to the Crown at 
her death ; he received, accordingly, a grant of the manors of 
Colham and Edgware, co. Middlesex, and others in Oxfordshire, 
Lincolnshire, and Northampton, with those of Glasebury and 
Clifford in Wales. A memorandum is attached stating that 
Eubulo, in presence of the council, agreed to surrender the foregoing 
letters patent into Chancery, for cancellation, if the prelates and 

1 C.P.R., 1324-1327, p. 340. 

* C. Cl. R., 1323-1327, p. 462 ; ibid. 1327-1330, pp. 28, 142, 169, 283, 434, &c. ; 
ibid. 1330-1333. P- I- 

8 Ibid, p 255. Rot. Claus., i Edw. Ill, pt. i., m. 2, dors. 

T 2 


magnates of the realm did not consent to the premises. 1 At 
an inquisition held shortly before this, viz. on August 27, 1328, 
the jury found that twenty-four solidates and nine denarates of 
rent in Cowlinge, Suffolk, of the inheritance of Alice, were taken 
into the hands of King Edward II after the death of Thomas, 
her husband, and had not been restored to her. 2 

Eubulo and Alice were summoned on November 6, 1329, to 
show why they claimed frankpledge and other liberties in her 
manor of Wadenhoe, Northants. Alice said that she held them 
of immemorial user, and her claim was allowed, except that of 
wreck, which was struck out on the ground that a manor in 
Northamptonshire was too far from the sea for wrecks to be cast 
up thereon. 3 

Eytoii shows 4 that on February 16, 1330, Edward III gave the 
manor of Overton, Flintshire, the land of Maelor Saesneg, the 
manor of Grauncestre, and the manor and castle of Ellesmere, 
with its hamlets, to Eubulo and his wife. Alice, during her 
widowhood, had given several of her castles and manors to 
Edward II and the two Despencers, all of which had now devolved 
on Edward III by inheritance or forfeiture ; Eubulo and Alice 
had quitclaimed the above castles, &c., to the young King, who 
now gave Ellesmere and the other lands to them and the heirs of 
Alice, to hold by the service of two knights' fees. 5 Eyton points 
out that certain other manors, which had been given by Edward II 
to Alice for her life only, were now settled by Edward III on her 
and her husband, and her husband's heirs, but he is unable to 
solve the difficulty, viz., that (as we shall see) Ellesmere eventually 
went to the heirs of Eubulo, and not to those of Alice. 

Eubulo le Strange was one of the barons who contributed 
to the overthrow of Mortimer and Queen Isabella in 1330, and 
enabled Edward III to take the reins of government into his 
own hands. He rewarded the services of Eubulo and Alice by a 
grant, made to them on February 16, 1331, of the manors of 

1 C.P.R., 1327-1330, p. 338. 

2 Misc. Chanc. Inq. Edw. Ill, File 108 (2nd number), No. 101. 

3 Plac. de Quo Warr., Edw. I, II, and III, 51805. 4 x. 245-246. 
5 Rot. Chart. 5 Edw. Ill, No. 83. 


Colham and Edgware, Middlesex, the manor of Holborn in London, 
and other lands in Oxfordshire, Lincolnshire, and Northampton- 
shire, as also the castles of Clifford and Glasbury in Wales. 1 The 
manor of Edgware descended to the le Stranges of Knockin, and 
was subsequently alienated by Richard Lord Strange in 1423, 
and came into the possession of Chichele ; hence the original 
grant found its way into the Muniment Room of All Souls' College, 
Oxford, where it is still preserved. Richard's charter has appended 
to it a good impression of his seal of arms viz. gules, two lions 
passant, argent ; above the shield is a helm with a lion statant as 
crest, and on either side the legend : ' S. ric : leftrange dni : de : 
Knokyn.' The grant to Eubulo is enrolled in the Charter Rolls, 
and recites that it is made in consideration of the good service 
rendered and to be rendered by him, and of the quit-claim made 
by him and Alice his wife of all her right in the lands which the 
King holds of her inheritance ; and, further, that it is made with 
the consent of the prelates, earls, barons, and chief men in the 
King's last Parliament at Westminster. 2 It was also expressly 
stated that the lands granted were to be held by Eubulo and Alice, 
and the heirs of Eubulo ; which provision explains Eyton's diffi- 
culty as to why Ellesmere went to the heirs of Eubulo and not 
to those of his wife. 

A separate grant was made on the same day, also with the 
assent of Parliament, to Eubulo and Alice, in return for a release 
to the King and his heirs, of the right of the said Alice in the 
castles, towns, manors, and lands which before her marriage she 
surrendered to the late King and the Despencers, and which 
escheated to the King by the forfeiture of the latter, of the castle 
and cantred of Builth in Wales, and also of the manor of Bisham, 
co. Berks, with all their appurtenances, to hold for the life of 
Alice. 3 

A few weeks before, viz. on December 21, 1330, a writ of aid 
had been issued for Eubulo le Strange, and William and Edward 
de Bohun, sent to bring Queen Isabella from Berkhampsted to 

1 Cat. of Archives of All Soul's Coll., Oxon, p. 34. 

1 C. Ch. R., 1-14 Edw. Ill, vol. iv., p. 213, memb. 31. 

8 C.P.R., 1330-1334. P- 74- 


spend Christmas at Windsor. 1 This shows that, although her 
movements were controlled by her son, Isabella was not kept a 
prisoner as foreign chroniclers relate. 

The Constable of Bristol Castle was ordered, on July 5, 1331, 
to deliver from prison there Hugh le Despencer, as Eubulo le 
Strange and ten others had mainperned before the King for his 
appearance in fifteen days before the King and Council to stand 
to right. 2 This was the son and grandson respectively of the 
two Hugh Despencers, executed in 1326, whose honours had 
been forfeited on their attainder ; he was restored to favour, 
and subsequently summoned to Parliament as a baron in 

A certain amount of insubordination, which survived as a 
legacy of the last reign, was strongly suppressed by the young 
King. In Lincolnshire Eubulo le Strange's name appears as 
the first of eight others, who were appointed with him on March 
21, 1332, as keepers of the county, to arrest disturbers of the 
peace ; 3 and on the same day another patent repeats the appoint- 
ment to put a stop to the lawlessness now prevalent. 4 Further 
evidence of these disturbances appears in a patent of July 22 
following, whereby, in consequence of cross complaints of trespass 
made by the abbot of Crowland and Thomas Wake against each 
other, and of the existence of assemblies of armed men in the 
parts of Holland on account of dissensions maintained by the 
abbot, directions were given that the prior of Spalding, Eubulo 
le Strange, and Thomas Wake should make inquisition touching 
such unlawful assembly. 5 

The year 1332 saw the renewal of the attempt to bring Scot- 
land under feudal subjection to England, but the enterprise met 
with no permanent success. On July 24 the Sheriff of Lincoln was 
ordered to cause archers to be chosen to help the King in his 
approaching expedition to Ireland, and, for this purpose, Eubulo 
le Strange was required to find eighty archers. 6 I can find no 
evidence of any contemplated expedition to Ireland at this time, 

1 C.P.R., 1330-1334. p- 36. z c. a. R., 1330-1337. p- 325- 

3 C.P.R., 1330-1334, p. 293. 4 Ibid. p. 348. 

6 Ibid. p. 351. 6 C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, p. 487. 


and have little doubt that the real objective was Scotland, which 
Edward did not care to acknowledge openly, as he was bound 
by the treaty which had been made for him whilst still under 
tutelage. Balliol's victory at Dupplin Moor furnished Edward 
with the argument that, as Scotland had changed her King, 
previous treaties were no longer binding ' Once more a Balliol 
was to be a puppet king in the hands of an English overlord/ x 
Balliol was soon driven out of Scotland, but Edward proceeded 
"with his own attempt to reduce the Scots to subjection. For this 
purpose the King had need of the services of Eubulo le Strange, 
and he was relieved of his functions as keeper and justice in 
Lincolnshire, and was directed on November 25, 1332, to send in 
his rolls and indictments. 2 By patent of March 4, 1333, Richard 
de Wylughby was appointed keeper of the county of Lincoln in 
place of Eubulo, ' who is engaged on business of the King and 
unable to act/ 3 This business was to repel the invasion of the 
Scots, who had expelled Balliol at Christmas-time, and resumed 
the offensive by invading England. The feudal levies were 
called out, and Eubulo was among those summoned to be at 
Newcastle, equis et armis, by Trinity to repel the Scots. 4 He held 
a prominent command in this campaign ; the abbot of St. Mary's, 
York, receiver of monies of the tenth and fifteenth, was directed to 
pay him a hundred marks on March 26 ; 5 and the prior of Spalding 
petitioned, on May 3, to be excused providing a cart and five 
horses for the King's carriage to Scotland, on the ground that 
his convent had already given so much aid to Eubulo le Strange, 
patron of his house, in horses and carriages for Scotland, that 
they had none for their own use. 6 Edward marched into Scotland 
and laid siege to Berwick, which, owing to the fortifications 
erected by his grandfather, offered a tough resistance ; on July 
15 an agreement was entered into between Patrick Dunbar, Earl 
of March, and the English King that the town, if not relieved before 
the 20th, should be surrendered ; this agreement was sealed, 

1 England in the Later Middle Ages, by Kenneth Vickers, p. 151. 

2 C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, p. 617. 3 C.P.R., 1330-1334. P- 44 1 - 

4 Rot. Claus., 7 Edw. Ill, pt. i., m. 19, dors. 5 C. Cl. R., I333~i337. P- 2I 

6 C. Doc. Scot., 1307-1357, iii. p. 194, No. 1076. 


inter olios, by ' Monsieur Ebol L'Estraunge ' ; * the Regent, 
Douglas, had marched to its relief, but was defeated and killed 
on the iQth at Halidon Hill, a battle in which the English knights 
and men-at-arms dismounted and fought on foot, while the day 
was practically decided by the archers on the two wings, before 
the men-at-arms had struck a blow. William Cole, in his collec- 
tions made at Cambridge in 1776, says that in this battle ' Sir 
Eubulo le Strange was one of the principal leaders, under whose 
banner the lords John Willoughby and John Fauconberg fought 
valiantly/ 2 The young King, David II, fled to France, and 
Edward Balliol was received as King of Scots by a Parliament 
held at Perth in October. 

Eubulo having left Lincoln, the payment of his rent of 20 
from the castle thereof had again fallen into arrear, so he procured 
an order, dated October 10, 1333, directing the Sheriff, as long 
as he held office, to pay that amount to him and Alice. 3 By a 
patent of March 2, 1334, Eubulo was allowed to nominate attorneys 
in England until Michaelmas, as he was going beyond seas, but 
nothing is stated as to the occasion of this journey. 4 A commission 
of Oyer and Terminer was issued on September 30 following, on 
his complaint that, whereas he and other lords of the manor of 
Friskeneye, Lincolnshire, time out of mind have used wreck of 
the sea therein, certain persons have carried away a whale, worth 
100, cast ashore by the sea within that manor. 5 Even allowing 
for the value of sperm oil for lighting purposes in those days, it is 
difficult to believe that any whale could have been worth a sum 
equivalent to 1000 to 1200 of our money to-day. Eubulo was 
rewarded on September 25, 1334, by a grant, in consideration of 
his charges, risks, and labours in the King's service, that, if he 
survive his wife Alice, he shall retain for his life the castle and 
cantred of Builth, in Wales, with its appurtenances, in enlargement 
of the late grant by letters patent of these and the manor of 
Bisham, co. Berks, to them for the life of Alice. 6 This grant was 
further enlarged on April 4, 1335, by another patent which pro- 

1 Rot. Scot., 7 Edw. Ill, m. 14. B.M. Add. MSS. 5849, p. 461. 

c. a. R., 1333-1337, P . i 4 o. * C.P.R., 1330-1334. p- 5 12 - 

6 Ibid. 1334-1338, p. 64. 6 Ibid. p. 34. 


vided that, if he survived his wife Alice, he should retain the 
manor of Bisham for his life. 1 The Patent Rolls of July 14, 1335, 
contain a notification that, in Easter term last, by judgment of 
the justices of York, Eubulo and Alice recovered against the 
sub-prior and convent of Spalding the presentation to the church 
of Gate Burton, as pertaining to them by reason of the priory 
being void and in their hands. 2 

Edward again invaded Scotland in 1335, but never got into 
touch with the Scots, who retired before his advance, and refused 
to meet him in the open field. On March 27 a requisition was sent 
to Wales for 2000 footmen and 20 men-at-arms to be selected, 
for the defence of the kingdom in the marches of England and 
Scotland, from the King's lands in Wales, and from the domains 
' dilecti et fidelis nostri Ebulonis le Strange de Buelt in Suth Wall'.' 
Eubulo himself was enjoined to help in their selection, and to 
join the King at Newcastle, with horses and arms, for the expedi- 
tion against the Scots. 3 Special orders were sent two months 
later that the 2000 footmen were all to be Welshmen, unmixed 
with Englishmen living in Wales, 4 and Eubulo, lord of Builth, 
was among the English magnates, holding lands in Wales, to whom 
directions were sent that they were to guard the seaports and 
coasts, and to resist the Scots manfully if they made incursion 
into Wales. 5 

The above were the last mandates directed to Eubulo, who 
took part in the invasion of Scotland and lost his life there, but 
whether by accident, disease, or in some nameless skirmish does 
not appear. Writs of ' diem clausit extremum ' were issued on 
September 17, 1335, to the Sheriffs of the various counties in 
which, in his own right or that of his wife, he held land, and the 
jurors stated that, as they believe, he died ' in partibus Scotie ' on 
September 8, 1335, and that his nephew, Roger le Strange of 
Knockin, aged forty years and more, was his heir. The respective 
inquisitions show the extent of his possessions to have been as 
follows : 6 

1 C.P.R., 1330-1334, p- 85. * Ibid. p. 155. Rot. Scot., i. 330-332. 

Ibid. i. 3480. s Ibidf 

P.R.O. Chancery Inq. Edw. Ill, File 43, No. 42. 



A capital messuage in Holborn, in the suburbs 
of London, formerly belonging to Henry 
de Lacy 1 

The manor of Colham, with the hamlet of 
Uxbridge, as of the Honour of Walling- 

The manor of Edgeware, with hamlet of Kings- 

Colston Bassett 

The manor of Kingston Lacy, and the borough 
of Blandford 

The castle and cantred of Builth 

The manor of Bisham 

Land and tenements in Avington 

Rents in Newbury 

The manor of Great Amesbury 

A messuage and three carucates of land 

The manor of Burcestre 
The manor of Mudelynton 

Lands and tenements in Holmer 
Two water-mills in Denham 
Lands and tenements in Westbury and Rad- 
clyve, as of the Honour of St. Waleric 

The manor of Wadenhoe 
The manor of Gransete 

The castle of Clifford 

The manor of Ellesmere, with hamlets of Col- 
mere and Hampton. 

The manor of Saltfleetby, capital messuage 

and lands 
A moiety of the manor of Scartho, a lordship, 

and 20 yearly rent 

> Middlesex. 

[ Dorset. 



f Bucks'. 


Hereford and 
the Marches. 

- Lincoln*. 

1 Professor Tout suggests that this capital messuage, which had belonged to the 
Earl of Lincoln, may have given the name to Lincoln's Inn. 


Lincoln the custody of the castle and baili- 
wick, with 20 yearly rent for the 
penny of the county 

The manor of Sedgebrook, as of the Honour 
of Eye 

The manor of Horbling ) Lincoln', 

The manor of Halton 

Lands and tenements in Alkborough and 

The castle of Bolingbroke 

The manor of Badenhoo 

The King's escheators in many of the above counties were 
directed, on October 9, 1335, not to interfere with these castles 
and manors, taken into the King's hands by reason of Eubulo's 
death, but to restore them to Alesia, as they had been confirmed 
to her for her life. 1 

The executors of Eubulo's will were the abbot of Barlings, the 
abbot of Revesby, Henry de Halton, and Alice herself ; 2 he was 
buried at Barlings Abbey, near Lincoln, 3 and as he left no issue 
his peerage expired with him. 

Alice, with her rich inheritance, was not likely to remain a 
widow for long, though she was at this time about fifty-two 
years of age. Early in 1336 she had become the wife of Hugh 
de Freyne, who had been Constable oi Cardigan, Warden of Ber- 
wick-upon-Tweed, and Justice of Chester ; the marriage had taken 
place without the King's licence, so orders were sent to the 
Sheriffs of Lincoln, Oxford, and many other counties, to take 
into the King's hands the lands, goods, and chattels of Hugh de 
Freyne and Alice, Countess of Lincoln, and to keep the same 
until further order ; the said Hugh and Alice having escaped from 
the castle of Somerton, where the King had ordered them to 
be kept separately, because Hugh took her from the castle of 
Bolingbroke by force. 4 Apparently the offence was condoned, 
probably by payment of a fine, as an order was issued on March 20, 

1 c. a. R., 1333-1337. p- 444- 

3 Complete Peerage, vii. 268. 

* Ibid. p. 536. 

C.F.R., I333-I337. P- 554- 


1336, to deliver to Alice and Hugh de Freyne a messuage at 
Newbury, Berks, 1 and other manors were restored to her in the 
following year. 2 Hugh de Freyne was summoned to Parliament 
as a baron by writ of November 29, 1336, but died at Perth in 
the following month, leaving no issue, so his honours became 
extinct. 3 The Countess of Lincoln thus became a widow for the 
third time, but did not contract any further marriage. The 
escheat or beyond Trent was ordered, on March I, 1337, not to 
interfere with certain manors, taken into the King's hand by 
reason of the death of Hugh de Freyne, who had married Alice, 
late wife of Eubulo le Strange, but to restore the same with their 
issues to her. 4 A licence was given to her on June 20, 1337, to 
grant to Roger le Strange, of Knockin, a life estate in Ellesmere, 
Salop, and Overton Madok, Flint ; 5 and the castle and cantred 
of Builth, with their issues, were also restored to her on March 12, 
1338. 6 A commission was issued next year to make inquisition 
touching reported defects in the castle of Builth, now held by 
Alice, Countess of Lincoln, for life with reversion to the King, 7 
Two commissions of Oyer and Terminer were issued in February, 
1340, on the complaint of the countess that certain men had 
carried away two fish called baleyn, worth 200, washed ashore 
in her Lincolnshire manor of Friskeney, and another baleyn at 
Sutton. 8 The annual payment of 20 to her in lieu of the 3rd penny 
from the county of Lincoln was constantly in arrear, and fresh 
orders to the Sheriff to pay it had to be issued in 1341, 1342, and 

I345- 9 

Alice de Lacy died at the age of sixty-five, without issue by any of 
her three husbands, on October 2, 1348, and was buried at Bar- 
lings Abbey, near her second husband, Eubulo le Strange. The 
earldom of Lincoln, which, according to the original grant in 
1232, ought to have fallen into abeyance among her own cousins, 
was diverted in favour of the Royal Family, and given to Henry 

1 C. Cl. R., 1333-1337, p. 554. * Ibid. i337- I 339, PP- l8 and 19. 

8 Complete Peerage, iii. 404. * C. Cl. R., 1337-1339, p- 25. 

6 C.P.R., 1334-1338, p. 465. 6 Pat. Rolls. 

7 C.P.R., 1338-1340, p. 284. 8 Ibid. pp. 483 and 487. 
* C. Cl. R., 1341-1343, pp. 2, 429, 608 ; ibid. 1343-1346, p. 499. 


Plantagenet, brother of her first husband. 1 After her death the 
King's escheator was directed not to interfere with the manor of 
Edgeware, as the King had learnt by an inquisition that Alice, 
Countess of Lincoln, at her death held no lands in chief, but that 
she and Eubulo, her late husband, held the manor for them- 
selves and Eubulo 's heirs, and that Eubulo died during Alice's 
life, wherefore the reversion of the manor descends to Roger le 
Strange, as Eubulo's kinsman and heir, and Roger granted by 
fine that the said manor, which Alice held for life of his inherit- 
ance, should remain after her death to Nicholas de Cantelupe, 
knight, for life, and that Alice surrendered to the said Nicholas 
the said manor and her estate therein, and the manor is held in 
chief by service of rendering 45. yearly, and the King has taken 
Nicholas's fealty. 2 

Thus of all the extensive manors which Alice had once pos- 
sessed in right of her inheritance as Countess of Lincoln and of 
Salisbury, it seems that she had none to leave to anyone after 
her death ; for in many of them, which had been forfeited by the 
attainder of her first husband, the Earl of Lancaster, she had, 
on their restoration, accepted a life interest for herself; while 
others, which she held with her second husband, Eubulo le Strange, 
had been entailed on his heirs, and went to Roger, Lord Strange 
of Knockin. 

The subjoined curious deed, in Norman-French, shows that she 
divested herself in her lifetime of all her castles and goods, mov- 
able and immovable, as a gift to her cousin, Nicholas de Cantilupe, 
and, in token of his seisin thereof, had delivered to him with 
her own hands all her silver plate : 3 

A toutz ceaux qe ceste Ire verront ou orront Aleise de Lasci countesse de 
Nicole et de Saresbir' salutz en dieux. Sachez nous avoir donez et grauntez a 
nre chier Cosyn Monsier Nicholas de Caunteloup toutz notz biens et chateaux, 
meobles et nounmeobles, qucumqes qe nous auons en toutz notz chastels et 
manoir pmy toute Engleterre et Gales le jour de la conieccion de cestes ; Jssint 
qe nous ne notz executors, ne nul dep nous, desore auauant en les chateaux 
auant ditz claym puis soms metre ; En tesmoignaunce de quele chose et en 
affermentent de nre dit doun lui auons liverez p notz mayms meyne tout nre 

1 Misc. Top. et Gen., viii. 155. 2 C. Cl. R. 1346-1349, p. 566. 

3 B.M. Add. MSS. 6118, p. 535. 


vessel dargent en noun de plenere seysine des toutz les biens et chatoux, meobles 
et noun meobles auaunt ditz. Sauuant tout ditz les biens et les chateaux qe 
sount a la purpartie de nre tres chier Seigneur MonS Oble Lestrange, qe dieux 
assoille. En tesmoignaunce de quele chose a ceste nfe pnt doun auons mys nre 
seal, p iceaux tesmoignes. MonS Johan de Wylugby. Mons Willem Deyncourt, 
Mons Adam de Welle, Mon Norman Darcy. Mon Henri de Halton, Mon 
Wauter de Fauconberge, MonS Robt de Silkeston chivalers et autres. Don a 
Bolingbroke lendemayn de la Natiuite saint John Baptist Ian de regne Rei Edward 
tiertz puis le conquest unzieme. [25 June, 1337.] 


We have seen * that John le Strange of Litcham died on May 
21, 1305, without issue, leaving his brother Ralph as his heir. 
In March 1304, John and his wife dementia presented to the 
rectory of Wellingham, theadvowson of which, after John's death, 
descended to dementia, who presented in 1311, 1313, and 1315. 2 

The manor of Wellingham was conveyed to John by Ralph, 

son of John le Strange of Litcham, in the 2nd of Edward II 
[1308-9] . 3 In the loth of Edward II [1316-17] the same Ralph fined 
the advowson and mediety of the manor of Little Snoring to 
Alexander de Walcote and Matilda his wife ; 4 and in the following 
year Alexander and Matilda made fine in Little Snoring to de- 
mentia, widow of Johnle Strange of Litcham. 5 The Feudal Aids 
for 1316 show that the hundreds of Launditch and South Greenhoe 
were in the hand of dementia, and that she was one of the lords 
of the manors of Wellingham and Little Snoring. 6 Isabella, the 
mother of dementia's husband John, was surviving in 1316, as 
writs of March 5 of that year certify her as holding part of the 
township of Litcham, and also the township of Bolas, Salop. 7 


A John le Strange, whom I am unable to connect with any 
branch of the family, occurs as canon residentiary of Exeter and 
vicar of Frome at this period. In the will of Thomas de Bitton, 

1 Supra, p. 48. * Carthew's Launditch, iii. 434. 

3 Rye's Feet of Fines for Norfolk, pt. ii. , p. 224, No. no. 

4 Ibid. p. 246, No. 539. 5 Ibid. p. 252, No. 661. 
6 Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iii. pp. 453, 455, 460. 

" Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1471. 


Bishop of Exeter (1310), among payments to be made to divers 
persons, is mentioned ' to John Straunge and other Canons re- 
siding in the church of Exeter, vii dishes [disci] of silver, with 
as many salt-cellars of silver of the value of xli., x]s., ]d. ; viz. to 
each of them one dish with a salt-cellar.' 1 He occurs again in 
the proof of age made by Andrew, son and heir of Nicholas Braunche 
of Somerset, on June 10, 1333, wherein it is found that the said 
Andrew was born at Frome, and baptized in the church there by 
Sir John Straunge, then vicar of the same, anno 5Edw. II [1312] . 2 
There is a letter addressed to him in Bishop Stapeldon's Register ; 3 
but Strange is a common name. In the same register there is a 
reference 4 to Roger Strange, and to Nicholas Strange, canon of 
St. Crantock. 

1 Account of the Executors of Thos. de Bitton, Bp. oj Exeter, Camden Soc., 1874, p. ag. 
1 C.I.P.M., Edw. Ill, vii. 380, No. 540. 3 Ed. Hingeston Randolph, p. n. 

4 Ibid. p. 384. 

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OF Robert, the progenitor of this House, the fourth and youngest 
son of John le Strange (III) of Knockin, some account has already 
been given. 1 He died before September 1276, and his eldest son, 
John, who had been committed during his minority to the custody 
of Eineon, Bishop of St. Asaph, came of age on September 17, 
I287, 2 and was admitted to his inheritance on October 6 following ; 
a memorandum of the same date states that John came into 
Chancery at Westminster, and acknowledged that his marriage 
belonged to Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, the chan- 
cellor. 3 No marriage took place, and John died within two 
years ; on June 14, 1289, the escheat or south of Trent was ordered 
to take into the King's hands the lands late of John, son of Robert 
le Strange, deceased, tenant in chief. 4 At the inquisition, held 
at Chester on July 17, the jury found that John, when he died, 
held in chief the manor of Marbury by service of one knight's 
fee, worth 10, and that of the third part thereof his mother 
Eleanor, wife of Robert, was dowered ; also that Fulk, son of the 
said Robert, and brother of John, is heir, and of the age of twenty- 
two years. 5 The authorities did not even wait for the result of 
the above inquisition, as, on July 16, i.e. the day before it was 

1 Supra, pp. 170-175; * Chancery Inq. p.m., 15 Edw. I, File 49 (13). 

3 C. Cl. R., 1279-1288, pp. 458 and 489. 

4 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 260 ; Rot. Orig. in Cur. Scacc., i. 612. 

5 Chancery Inq. p.m., Edw. I, File 53 (15). 

289 u 



held, the escheator was ordered to deliver to Fulk, brother and 
heir of John le Strange, the lands of his said brother, he having 
done fealty, so that he do homage on the King's coming to Eng- 
land. 1 The Hampshire inquisition, held on July 9, 1289, found 
that John le Strange held the manor of Chawton in that county, 
including a pasture called Estdone, and a wood in the forest con- 
taining 200 acres, worth no more than 55. on account of the dues 
of the foresters (dangerium forestariorum) , held of Sir Edmund, 
Earl of Leicester, the King's brother, by service of three knight's 
fees ; and that Eleanor, mother of the said John, was dowered 
in this manor. 2 

The farm of the manor of Wrockwardine, which was held of 
the King at a yearly rent of 8, 3 had fallen into arrear during the 
minority of Fulk, and the accumulated debt when John had 
livery thereof amounted to 66. Fulk obtained a grant from 
the King in 1290, pursuant to which the Exchequer was notified 
that he would pay 6os. at Easter and Michaelmas next, and loos, 
at Easter and Michaelmas following, and so from year to year 
until the debt was liquidated. 4 At the Assizes of 1292 the Brad- 
ford jurors presented Fulk, as of full age and yet not a knight, 
also as claiming free-warren, free court, gallows, and assize of 
bread and beei in his manor of Wrockwardine, 5 he was summoned 
by writ of Quo Warranto to show how he claimed those fran- 
chises ; he averred that King Henry III had granted the said 
privileges with the manor to his predecessor, John le Strange, 
whose heir he was. A day was assigned for hearing whether 
any specific grant of these royal privileges had been made. The 
pleadings are set out at length, but no decision is recorded. 6 

A licence is entered on the Patent Rolls of July 14, 1294, for 
Fulk le Strange, going on the King's service to Gascony, to sell, 
cut down, and carry timber to the value of 40 out of his wood of 
Chawton, within the metes of the forest of Porchester, in those 
places where it will be to the least damage of the said forest. 7 

1 C.F.R., 1272-1307, i. 263. * Inq. p.m., Edw. I, File 53 (15). 

3 Supra, p. 186. * Rot. Orig. in cur. Scacc., i. 656. 

8 Eyton, ix. 26. 6 Plac. de Quo Warr., Edw. I, II, and III, pp. 684, 687. 

7 C.P.R., Edw. I, 1292-1301, p. 80. 

29 1 

It is evident that he won his spurs in that expedition, as three 
years later, viz. on March 3, 1297, an order is entered on the 
Close Rolls to cause Fulk le Strange to be acquitted of 24, ex- 
acted from him by reason of the manor of Chawton, Hampshire, 
which belonged to Hamon le Strange, late Sheriff of Hampshire, 
now in Fulk's hands, which sum Hamon owed to the Exchequer 
for many defaults when he was Sheriff, as the King has pardoned 
this sum to Fulk for good service rendered in Gascony. 1 In 
1297 he was returned from the county of Salop as holding lands 
to the value of 20 yearly, and, as such, was summoned to the 
muster at London under the general writ, to perform military 
service in person beyond seas. 2 Eyton, commenting on these 
writs, says that they contain more than sixty entries of his offices, 
liabilities, and summonses both military and parliamentary, 
during a period of thirty years. 3 His name appears among the 
knights summoned from the county of Sussex to meet the King 
at York at Pentecost, 1298, thence to set out for Scotland ; 4 
this was for the campaign in which Edward defeated the Scots 
at Falkirk. Next year an order appears on the Close Rolls, 
under date of November 16, to cause Fulk le Strange, who is 
setting out for the King's service in Scotland with William le 
Latimer, to have respite until Easter for all debts due to the 
King. 5 On the same day he had letters of protection until 
Michaelmas, as he was going to Scotland with the King. 6 On 
April 14, 1300, the Justice of Chester was ordered to warn Hugh 
de Audley and Fulk le Strange to provide themselves with horses 
and arms, and to be with the King at Carlisle at midsummer, 
ready to set out at his wages against the Scots. 7 Fulk was ap- 
pointed on the same day one of the commissioners to summon 
the knights of the county of Chester for the purpose of serving 
against the Scots, and he was enjoined on April n to enforce 
the levies of the men-at-arms in that county, and to return the 
names of all defaulters into the wardrobe. 8 It was perhaps 

1 C. Cl. R., Edw. I, 1296-1302, iv. 19. Parl. Writs, i. 848. 

3 Eyton, ii. 122, n. * Parl. Writs, i. 312. 

6 C. Cl. R., 1296-1302, iv. 286. 6 C.P.R., 1292-1301, p. 456. 

7 C. Cl. R., 1296-1302, p. 381. Parl. Writs, i. 848. 

u 2 


because he was engaged on these duties that he was not present, 
as was his cousin John (V) of Knockin, at the siege of Caerlaverock 
in July. 

Fulk le Strange acquired a considerable extension of property 
through his wife Eleanor, daughter and co-heiress of John Giffard 
of Brimsfield, co. Gloucester, who died on May 28, 1299, at which 
date Eleanor was twenty-four years of age. 1 Her mother, Maud, 
who had predeceased John Giffard, was daughter and co-heiress 
of Walter de Clifford (III), and on the division of the Clifford 
estates between the co-heiresses, the important manor of Corf- 
ham, in Shropshire, fell to the share of Eleanor. Corfham was 
an ancient demesne of the Crown, which had originally been given 
by Henry II to Walter de Clifford (I) for love of fair Rosamond, 
his daughter. 

Though not summoned to the Pailiament at Lincoln in 1301, 
Fulk's name appears among the barons who sealed the letter to 
the Pope on February 12. The legend on his seal, a copy of 
which is figured in the chapter of the heraldry of the family, 2 is 
simply : 


without any territorial designation ; while, in the body of the 
original document, as printed by Lord Howard de Walden. 3 
and also in the ' Complete Peerage,' 4 it is given as ' D'n's de 
Corsham. ' This, I venture to believe, is an error, due to the simi- 
larity in the MS. of the long ' s ' to the letter ' f .' It may even 
have been an error made by the scribe who wrote the original 
MS., who perhaps knew Corsham in Wiltshire, but had never 
heard of Corfham in Shropshire. It is, however, somewhat 
curious that Fulk should have adopted as his designation the 
name of a Shropshire manor, which, as ;we have seen, he only 
held in right of his wife, instead of calling himself Lord of Wrock- 
wardine, or some other manor which he held in his own right. 

1 Inq. 27 Edw. I, No. 55. 2 Infra, p. 371, PI. x. 4. 

3 Some Feudal Lords and their Seals MCCI. With an Introduction by Lord Howard 
de Walden, p. 140. * ist ed. vii. 271. 


The designation of Lord of Corfham leads to the same confusion 
in other instances. The Calendar of Papal Letters published 
in the Rolls Series contains two letters from Clement V, dated 
at Poitiers on November 21, 1307, to Fulk le Strange, Lord of 
Whitchurch, in the diocese of Coventry, and Margaret, daughter 
of the late John Giffard, Lord of Corsham, in the diocese of Here- 
ford. 1 The mention of the diocese proves that Corfham was 
intended, since Corsham in Wiltshire is not in the diocese of Here- 
ford, but in that of Salisbury, while Corfham in Shropshire is in 
the diocese of Hereford. The Pope's letters convey a dispensa- 
tion, the necessity for which is difficult to explain. The first letter 
is written to Fulk and Margaret his wife ; probably it was found 
out at once that her name was not Margaret but Eleanor, since 
the second letter of the same date and tenour names her cor- 
rectly as Eleanor, daughter of John Giffard; it empowers them 
to continue in the marriage which they have contracted in 
ignorance that they were related in the fourth degree of 
kindred, with legitimation of issue, past and future. A careful 
examination of the pedigrees of Fulk and Eleanor, so far as 
1 have been able to trace them, fails to disclose any relationship 

Richard fitz Alan, lord of Clun and Oswestry, and Earl of 
Arundel, had died early in 1302, leaving his son Edmund a minor. 
The custody of the castles of Clun and Oswestry, with several 
Shropshire manors belonging to him, was committed during 
pleasure to Fulk le Strange in the 33rd of Edward I. 1 

In 1306 Edward again invaded Scotland, and Fulk was among 
those summoned to Carlisle on July 8 to perform military service 
in person, or to appear at the Exchequer to compound for such 
service. 3 The Close Rolls of May 15, 1308, contain an order to 
the Treasurer of the Exchequer acquitting Fulk le Strange of 
loos, rent in Acton Round, Salop, demised by Richard, late Earl 
of Arundel, to John de Siboton. 4 Another entry, on December 12 
of the following year, directs the Treasurer to allow to Fulk, son 
and heir of Robert le Strange, the sums levied by the Sheriff 

1 Papal Letters, 1305-1342, ii. 32 and 38. * Rot. Orig. in cur. Scacc., i. 656. 

3 Parl. Writs, i. 848. C. Cl. R., 1307-1313, p. 36. 



of Salop and Stafford from Robert, in part payment of debts due 
to the late King. 1 

The name of John, son of Fulk le Strange, appears in an 
inquisition Ad Quod Damnum, held in 1307, respecting ' Chalghton 
bosc infra metas foreste pro maeremio (timber) ibidem prostrato.' 2 
This, no doubt, had reference to the licence granted to Fulk in 
1294 3 to cut down 40 worth of timber in Chawton wood. On 
May 4, 1309, Fulk was placed with others on a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer respecting Ivo de Sutton's misappropriation 
of moneys. 4 On July 30 of that year he was summoned to be at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, ' equis etarmis,' on Michaelmas day, to proceed 
against the Scots who do not observe the truce. 5 On Septem- 
ber 6, 1309, he attested the important family arrangement for 
assuring Knockin to John le Strange (VI), and enfeornng the 
latter 's brother Hamon in the manor of Hunstanton, 6 and he also 
witnessed the further documents of November 30 7 and Decem- 
ber 8 8 for carrying that arrangement into effect. I have already 
mentioned 9 that he was one of the three le Strange knights 
present at the tournament at Stepney in June, 1309. 

The barony of Strange of Blackmere is considered by modern 
peerage lawyers to have been created by the writ addressed to 
Fulk le Strange on January 13, 1309, summoning him to attend 
Parliament, 10 and by usage of a later date he is set down as the 
first peer of that creation. Although descriptively a baron, that 
designation was scarcely as yet a title ; by contemporaries he 
was simply styled ' dominus ' or ' miles ' ; our translation of dominus 
as = * sir' when speaking of a knight, and=' lord ' when speaking 
of a baron obscures the similarity of the mediaeval use of the 
term for both classes alike. 

The Parliamentary Writs for the next fifteen years teem with 
summonses addressed to Fulk. 11 In 1309 he was summoned to 

1 C. CL R., 1307-1313, p. 187. z Cal. Rot. Chart. Inq. a. Q.D., p. 2216. 

3 Supra, p. 290. * C.P.R., 1307-1313, p. 172. 

6 Rot. Glaus., 3 Edw. II, m. 44, dors. 6 Hunstn. Evidences j A. i. I 

7 KM- |_A._2. I 8 Ibid. |T. 4 7| 

9 Supra, p. 220. 10 Complete Peerage (ist ed.), vii. 271. 

" Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, p. 1468. 


a council to be held at Westminster on February 23 ; to a Parlia- 
ment there on April 27 ; to another to be held at Stamford on 
July 27 ; to a muster at Newcastle on September 29 for military 
service in person against the Scots ; 1 to a Parliament to be holden 
at York on February 8 following, the date and meeting-place of 
which were altered by a later summons to December 12 at West- 
minster. On December 18, 1309, he was appointed one of three 
Justices in Shropshire to receive complaints of prises taken contrary 
to the statute. 2 

In 1310 the quarrel between the barons and the King's favourite, 
Piers Gaveston, was in active progress ; Gaveston had been 
deprived of his honours and banished, and Edward, in order to 
escape from the control of the barons, had gone north and in- 
vaded Scotland with such adherents as he could prevail on to join 
him. On June 18 Fulk le Strange was among those summoned to 
muster at Berwick ; on August 2 he was earnestly requested to 
attend the muster according to the preceding summons. It looks 
as if he was unable or unwilling to go in person, as on September 
19 he proffered the service of one knight's fee, and on the 2Oth 
part of another, to be performed by two ' servientes.' In 1311 Fulk 
was requested to be at Berwick on May 28 with as many followers 
as he could raise. He was summoned to Parliament at London 
on August 8, and again to the Parliament to be held by prorogation 
at Westminster on November 5 ; he was again summoned among 
the barons to Westminster on February 13 following. 

In 1312 the barons, headed by Thomas Earl of Lancaster, 
grandson of Henry III, took up arms, and Gaveston was captured 
and beheaded ; the King was deserted by his forces, and was 
obliged to make peace with the insurgent barons, and to promise 
them pardon for the death of Gaveston. The treaty between the 
King and the Earl of Lancaster and others, made on December 
21, 1312, contained the following clause : 

Et, de ce, que monsieur Fouk Lestrange se pleint que horn li ad fait gref, et 
desseisi de puis le dit conduit, li ditz auditours appellez lez gentz le Roi, et le dit 
monsieur Fouk, et oies lor resons, il leur ferront droit dessi come desus est dit. 

1 Rot. Claus., 10 Edw. II, m. 26, d. * C.P.R., 3 Edw. II, p. 251. 

8 Rot. Claus. 6 Edw. II, m. 8, d. 


The lands and goods of Fulk le Strange, as an adherent of the 
Earl of Lancaster, had been seized into the King's hands, notwith- 
standing the safe conduct granted to the Earl and his followers ; 
but on complaint being made by Fulk, a commission of Oyer and 
Terminer was issued to the Justices on December 31, 1312. 1 He 
had been summoned to the Parliament held at Lincoln on July 
23, and by prorogation at Westminster on August 20. Three 
Parliaments, to each of which Fulk was summoned, were held 
during 1313 to settle matters. 2 At the last of these, held 
on October 16, special pardons, 472 in number, were issued 
to the barons and knights who had been associated with 
the Earl of Lancaster, one of these being granted to Fulk le 
Strange. 3 

Fulk le Strange, mindful of the blood-ties which connected 
him with the Welsh lords of Upper Powys, backed up his first 
cousin, Griffith de la Pole, in his attempt to deprive John Charlton 
of Pool Castle, which John claimed by right of his wife Hawise 
Gadarn (i.e. the mighty), granddaughter of Hawise le Strange 
and Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn, also a cousin of Fulk's (his aunt 
Hawise's granddaughter). Charlton was a prominent courtier, 
the King's chamberlain, and his pushful policy was naturally 
resented by the Shropshire lords of settled position like the le 
Stranges. An amnesty was granted on November 6, 1313, to 
Griffith de la Pole and Fulk le Strange and their adherents for 
the siege of Pool Castle, and for all deeds of arms in the lands of 
Powys and la Pole ; and for John de Charlton, who held the castle 
during such siege, and his adherents, touching all acts done by 
them at that time. 4 Roger de Mortimer, of Chirk, Justice of 
Wales, was directed on November 22 to release all those whom 
he had arrested on account of the siege of the castle, whom he 
knows to be accomplices of Griffith de la Pole and Fulk le 
Strange, as Parliament has enacted that they should not be 
molested. 5 These transactions clearly show that in politics Fulk, 
like most of the Marchers at that period, was on the side of the 

1 C.P.R., 1307-1313, p. 546. z Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, p. 1469. 

8 Pat. Rolls, 7 Edw. II, m. 15, i. * C.P.R., 1313-1317. P- 26 - 

6 C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, p. 29 ; Rot. Pat., 7 Edw. II, pt. i. f in ced. m. 15- 


Lords Ordainers ; thus, as so often happened, the course of private 
feuds and general politics ran in the same channels. 

Fulk was summoned on December 23, 1313, to be at Berwick 
equis et armis, on June 4, to set out against Robert the Bruce. 1 
A commission of Oyer and Terminer was issued to the Justices, 
on September 13, 1314, on complaint by Fulk le Strange touch- 
ing the persons who forcibly entered his free chaces of Clyes and 
Ernestre, co. Salop, hunted therein without licence, and carried 
away deer. 2 This complaint was renewed in 1318 and 1320, and 
further commissions of Oyer and Terminer were appointed. 3 In 
spite of the order of 1297 4 acquitting Fulk for 24, due to the 
Exchequer from the manor of Chawton, demands appear to have 
been still made on Fulk for that debt, as the Close Rolls of Feb- 
ruary 24, 1315, contain an entry acquitting him thereof, as the 
King had pardoned him that sum in consideration of his good 
services in Gascony. 5 

In 1314 Edward marched with a large force into Scotland, 
but was totally defeated at Bannockburn and obliged to retire 
to Berwick. A writ issued thence on June 30, six days after the 
battle, summoned Fulk to muster anew at Newcastle on August 
15, and he was also directed to attend a Parliament at York on 
September 9. The Scots ravaged Northumberland in 1315, and 
besieged Carlisle in August ; on the 3oth of that month Fulk, 
with other barons, received writs requesting them to continue 
in the northern parts during the winter campaign, and to repair 
to the King on November i. 6 A Parliament, to which Fulk was 
summoned, was ordered to meet at Lincoln on January 27, 1316. 

The settlement of the manor of Cheswardine on Hamon, a 
younger son of Fulk, in 1315, has already been mentioned. 7 In 
the Nomina Villarum, a return by the Sheriffs in 1316 of the names 
of all the villages in England and the possessors thereof, Fulk le 
Strange is entered as sole lord of Album Monasterium (Whitchurch), 
and the inquest at his death in 1324 shows that he held it of Earl 
Warenne ' by service of taking the venison throughout the Earl's 

1 Rot. Claus., 7 Edw. II, m. 14, d. * C.P.R., 1313-1317, p. 236. 

3 Ibid. pp. 293, 447. Supra, p. 291. s C. Cl. R., 1313-1318, p. 163. 

8 Rot. Claus., 9 Edw. II, m. 24, d. 7 Supra, p. 247. 



lands in England, at the charges of the said Earl/ 1 The Feodary 
of 1316 certifies him as lord of the following manors : 

Blaunchminster ( Whitchurch) . 
Rockardyne (Wrockwardine). 
Salop Corfham. 

Longenotr' (Longnor). 


Chalston (Chawton). 
Catherington. 2 

Fulk was summoned thrice in 1316 to perform military service 
against the Scots, 3 but the Earl of Lancaster refused to join the 
royal army, and the expedition was abandoned. Thrice again he 
was summoned for the same object in 1317, but nothing came 
of it. Three more summonses were issued to him in 1318 to 
attend a Parliament at Lincoln, which was as often prorogued ; 
on June 8 he had a writ, as one of the Majores Barones, informing 
him that the Parliament summoned and prorogued as above is 
revoked in consequence of the invasion of the Scots. He was 
again summoned to the Parliament which met at York on October 
2O, 4 and two days later 5 he obtained a pardon there, by consent 
of Parliament, for all felonies and trespasses committed by him 
as one of the adherents of the Earl of Lancaster, up to August 7 
last. At Christmas of this year he was at Haughmond, as his 
name appears as one of the attesting witnesses to the deed whereby 
Edmund, Earl of Arundel, confirmed the gifts made by his pre- 
decessors to that abbey. 6 In 1319 we find him included in the 
writ for a Parliament to meet at York on May 6, and again, at 
the end of the year, in the writ for the meeting of Parliament at 
the same city on January 20, 1320. He was further summoned 

1 Inq. 17 Edw. II, No. 73. 

2 Parl. Writs, i. 848 ; Feudal Aids, 1284-1431, iv. pp. 226, 227, 230, and 234. 

3 Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, p. 1419. 

4 Doc. illustr. of Engl. hist, in thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Queen's Remem- 
brancer, p. ii. 

8 Rot. Pat. 12 Edw. II, pt. i, m. 17. 6 Eyton, xi. 19. 


to that which met at Westminster on October 6 following, at 
which the supremacy of England over the narrow seas was asserted. 
On January 19, 1321, he was associated with the Archbishop of 
York and others to treat for peace with Robert the Bruce. 1 

The King was now beginning to show favour to Hugh le 
Despencer, the younger, on whom he bestowed vast estates, and 
the hand of Eleanor, one of the sisters and co-heiresses of the Earl 
of Gloucester, who had been killed at Bannockburn ; yet Hugh 
was never a favourite like Gaveston, and in 1318-19 was hardly 
one of the courtier nobles, but rather inclined to the ' middle ' 
party that Pembroke was beginning to consolidate. 2 From his 
marriage Despencer received a large share of South Wales, and 
his covetous encroachments soon embroiled him with his Marcher 
neighbours, the Mortimers and the Earl of Hereford, who in 1321 
formed an association to drive the Despencers out of the kingdom. 
Fulk le Strange, like most of the Marchers, changed sides as a 
result of their natural fear of Despencer's designs on the March : 
for very much the same reasons as in 1263 had brought about 
the change of front by the Marcher barons of that day, when 
they rallied to the King owing to the alliance between Llewelyn 
and de Montfort and the aggressive policy of the latter. 3 On 
April 21 a writ, directed to Fulk le Strange, requests him to co- 
operate in appeasing the disturbances, and also to refrain from 
attending any illegal confederacies or assemblies. 4 He was 
summoned to a Parliament at Westminster on May 15, and was 
ordered to abstain from the meeting of the ' good peers,' illegally 
convened by the Earl of Lancaster, to be held at Doncaster on 
November 29, 1321. 5 

Early in 1322 the King took up arms against the barons. 
Fulk was enjoined by writ on February 6 to raise as many men- 
at-arms and foot-soldiers as he could, and to hold himself in 
readiness to march with them to the King when thereto sum- 
moned. The summons came quickly ; he was ordered to appear 

* C.P.R., 1317-1321, p. 554. 

* T. F. Tout, The Place oj Edward II in English History, pp. 136-141. 

Supra, p. 128. Rot. Claus., 14 Edw. II, m. 7 dors, cedula. 

5 Ibid. 15 Edw. II, m. 25, dors. 


with his forces at the muster at Coventry on February 28, for the 
purpose of marching against the rebels or adherents of the Earl 
of Lancaster. The rebels retreated before the royal forces. 
Lancaster was defeated and captured at Boroughbridge on March 
16, and was executed at Pontefract a few days later. Parliament, 
to which Fulk had been summoned, met at York on May 2, and 
the King now turned his forces against the Scots. Fulk was 
among those ordered to be at Newcastle to perform military service 
against them in July ; Edward invaded Scotland without effecting 
anything, and his forces were greatly harassed on their retreat. 

The manor of Longnor, mentioned in the Feodary of 1316 l as 
one of the Shropshire estates held by Fulk le Strange, had been 
granted to him, on March n, 1312, by his first cousin, Griffith 
de la Pole, 2 apparently by way of sale. The latter further quit- 
claimed on February 5, 1321, all his rights in the said manor to 
Fulk. 3 Longnor was settled by Fulk, by deed dated at Shrews- 
bury on April 25, 1322, on his younger son, Fulk, to be held by 
a rose-rent paid to the grantor and his heirs. If Fulk should die 
without heirs, the manor was to pass to his youngest brother, 
Hamon. 4 Fulk the younger thus became lord of Longnor, which, 
consequently, is not included among the lands mentioned in the 
inquest on his father's death. 

| Another Shropshire manor of which Fulk at times styled 
himself lord was Sutton-Madock, in which he had been enfeoffed 
during his minority by his father, before Robert started for 
the Holy Land. The Chartulary of Wombridge shows that Fulk 
gave several grants to that priory out of this manor. By an un- 
dated charter, as ' Dominus de Sutton Madoc/ he released to the 
priory a tenement in Brocton, and also a meadow therein. By 
an agreement between himself and Philip, prior of Wombridge, 
he exchanged a mill at Hadinton for a messuage with orchard and 
croft. 5 

On April n, 1322, Fulk le Strange was appointed to the im- 

1 Supra, p. 298. z Eyton, vi. 63. 

3 Ibid., quoting charters at Longnor. * Ibid. p. 65. 

6 Wombridge Chartulary, quoted in Trans. Shrops. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., ix. 
(2nd series), pp. 387, 388, and 415. 


portant office of Seneschal of Gascony, 1 a position which corre- 
sponded to that of the Justices in Wales and Chester. The 
Seneschal administered the province in the name of the King in 
his capacity of Duke of Gascony, at a salary of 500, and reason- 
able expenses when absent on duty elsewhere. Fulk's appoint- 
ment was no doubt due to the King's remembrance of the good 
services which he had rendered there in 1294. 2 Charles IV (le 
Bel) had lately succeeded his brother Philip on the throne of 
France, and, in order to effect the conquest of the Duchy of 
Guienne, he sought a quarrel with the English King. The Patent 
Rolls of January 18, 1322, contain letters of protection for one 
year for Fulk Lestraunge in his manors of Whit church, Wrock- 
wardine, Sutton, Bocton, Cheswardine, Morton Toret, Corfham, 
&c. 3 Among the Gascon Rolls is a letter of April 13, 1322, from 
the King to Fulk, as Seneschal of Gascony, sending him a copy of 
a letter to the people of Aquitaine asking for an aid and subsidy 
towards the expenses of the Scotch war. 4 On May 6 Fulk nomi- 
nated John du Lee and William Datton his attorneys for three 
years, as he was going beyond seas on the King's service, 5 and 
the treasurer and barons of the Exchequer were directed, on May 10, 
to cause Fulk on that account to have respite until Christmas 
next for all debts due from him. 6 Further letters of protection, 
with clause volumus, were granted to him for a year from May 12. 7 
He took with him in his company Nicholas de Sanford, who had 
letters nominating an attorney for three years. 8 As a safeguard 
for the property which he was leaving behind, Fulk obtained a 
licence, on July 14, 1322, to crenellate his dwelling-house (mansum 
suum) of Whitchurch. 9 Instructions were sent to him from the 
King on September 28, as to how to proceed in allaying the dis- 
putes which had broken out in Gascony, 10 and further directions 
as to the complaints of the King of France were addressed to him 
on April 4, 1323." On the same day the King despatched a letter 

1 Gascon Roll, 15-17 Edw. II, m. 15. * Supra, p. 291. 

3 C.P.R., 1321-1324, iv. 50. * Rot. Vase., 15 Edw. II, m. 16. 

5 C.P.R., 1321-1324, p. 107. C. Cl. R., 1318-1323, p. 440. 

7 C.P.R., 1321-1324, p. 108. 8 Ibid. p. 128. 

9 Ibid. p. 175. 10 Rymer's Feeder a, i. 218. 

11 Ibid. i. 220. 


' dilecto et fideli suo Fulconi I'Estraunge senescallo suo Vasconie,' re- 
quiring him to exact an indemnity for injuries done to his vassal 
Bernard Trencaleo, ' domino terrefeudi Marconis.' x 

A letter of Pope John XXII, written from Avignon on March 15, 
1323, shows Fulk as Seneschal of Aquitaine ; it is addressed 
to Robert Corbet, lord of the town of Morton, in the diocese of 
Lichfield, and Elizabeth, daughter of Fulk le Strange, Seneschal 
of the duchy of Aquitaine, and conveys to them a dispensation 
to remain in the marriage which they contracted in ignorance 
that they were related in the fourth degree, and declares their 
past and future offspring legitimate. 2 Another letter from the 
same Pope was addressed to Fulk himself, as Seneschal of Aqui- 
taine, on September 13, 1323, requesting him to put no hindrance 
in the way of the restoration of a little castle to Gaston, Count of 
Foix, but to promote the treaty touching the same. 3 On May 30, 
1323, Edward II had concluded a truce for thirteen years with 
Scotland, so on June 2 a despatch was sent to Fulk le Strange, 
Seneschal of Gascony, superseding the King's order to him re- 
questing the nobles of the duchy of Aquitaine to come with 
horses and arms to set out against the Scots ; he was further 
directed to dispose of the wine and victuals purveyed for the 
expedition. 4 

Several original letters are preserved in the volumes of 
' Ancient Correspondence,' at the Record Office, from Fulk le 
Strange, in which he describes himself as ' dominus Albi Monasterrii, 
ducatus Aquitanie Senescallm ' ; the earliest of these to which a date 
is attached was addressed on April 26, 1323, ' discrete viro domino 
Ade de lumbe, Constabulario Burd.' 5 This is undoubtedly Adam 
de Lymbergh, who was appointed Constable a few weeks after 
Fulk became Seneschal. 6 The Constable of Bordeaux was the 
second of the two chief officers of the King, as Duke of Gascony, 
and had the supreme responsibility for finance. During part 

1 Rot. Vase., 16 Edw. II, m. 10. 2 Cal. Royal Letters, 1305-1342, ii. 229. 

3 Ibid. ii. 455. 4 C. Cl. R., 1318-1323, p. 217. 

5 P.R.O. Ancient Correspondence, 1. 7 ; see also xix. No. 7 ; xli. 55 ; 1. 6. 

6 Gasc. Roll; quoted in T. F. Tout's Place of Edward II in English History, 
PP- 392-7- 


of the time that Fulk le Strange was Seneschal he was too ill to 
act, and Adam de Lymbergh, the King's clerk, sent out with him 
as Constable, acted in his stead. 1 

Notwithstanding his absence in Aquitaine, Fulk's name was 
included in several writs requiring him to perform military ser- 
vice in England, or to attend Parliament there during the year 
1323. He was summoned to attend the musters at York on April 24 
and at Newcastle on July I, and was commanded to raise as many 
men-at-arms as he could over and above his contingent due by 
tenure. He was re-summoned to appear as above at York, and, 
at latest by April 18, to provide pack-saddles for the use of the 
army, in case it should be expedient to advance without the 
waggon-train. A writ of June 2 discharges him from attendance 
at the above-named musters perhaps by that time the authorities 
had discovered that he was on the King's service in France. His 
name was, nevertheless, included in the writ for the meeting of 
Parliament on November 20 and December 26, 1323, as well as 
in one for a similar purpose dated September 13, 1324. 2 At this 
time he was certainly dead. It is a little doubtful whether Fulk 
died in Gascony, though his serious illness may have kept him 
there until his death. Anyhow, after being too ill to act, he was 
succeeded as Seneschal by Ralph Basset, of Drayton, on June n, 

I323- 8 

The writ of ' Diem clausit extremum ' issued on the death of Fulk 
le Strange is tested at Fulham on February 23, 1324, and by the 
inquisitions taken thereon it was found that John, his son and 
heir, was then of the age of eighteen years and upwards. 4 By his 
wife, Eleanor Giffard, Fulk had three sons and one daughter 

(1) his eldest son, John, who succeeded him in Whitchurch, &c. ; 

(2) Fulk, who, as we have seen, 5 had had Longnor settled on him 
by his father two years before the latter's death, and also held the 
manor of Betton Strange ; 6 and (3) Hamon, who acquired Ches- 
wardine, by the remainder to him conveyed at the time of his 
father's feoffment therein by John, son of Roger le Strange, of 

1 C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, p. 101. * Parl. Writs, ii. Div. 3, 1469. 

8 Gasc. Rolls, 15-17 Edw. II, m. 10. 

4 Esc. 17 Edw. II, No. 73 (new No. File 82). 5 Supra, p. 300. Supra, p. 207. 


Ellesmere, in 1315. 1 Fulk of Longnor was deceased in 1375, and 
left only three daughters to share his inheritance ; one of these, 
Margaret, a nun, left her share in 1375 to her two sisters, of whom 
one, Joan, the eldest, was the wife of John Careles, and the other, 
Eleanor, had married Edward de Acton. Eyton states that the 
line of Careles eventually ended in a female, who married John 
Corbett, from whom the present family of Corbett of Longnor 
descends. 2 On the death of Fulk le Strange of Longnor and 
Betton, the last-named manor passed to his brother Hamon of 
Cheswardine, the third son of Fulk of Blackmere, whose wife, 
Margaret, survived him, and was dowered of Betton. 3 On her 
death it descended to John le Strange of Blackmere, her husband's 
great -nephew. The only mention which I have found of Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Fulk le Strange and Eleanor Giffard, is in the 
papal letter already quoted, 4 which shows that she was married 
to Robert Corbet of Moreton. Eyton gives the name of this 
Robert's wife as Elizabeth, but was not aware of her surname. 5 

The Nottingham inquisition, on the death of Fulk of Black- 
mere, shows that he held the third part of the manor of Thornhagh, 
in right of his wife Eleanor, of the Bishop of Lincoln as of the 
Castle of Newark. In Hampshire he held the manor of Chawton, 
extended at 485., which included a hundred acres of wood within 
the King's forest of Porchester, held of the Earl of Leicester in 
chief by service of one knight's fee and a pair of silver-gilt spurs 
yearly. 6 In Salop he held Wrockwardine by the twentieth part 
of a knight's fee, and 8 yearly, payable at the Exchequer. The 
extent mentions an iron mine ' et est ibidem quedam miner a ferri.' 
The manor was worth 135. 4^. per annum. In the same county 
he held the manor of Sutton in capite by rendering 45. per annum 
at the Exchequer, and the castle of Corfham, with Culmington 
a member thereof. This he held for term of his life in chief in 
right of his late wife by service of a knight's fee. He further held 
the manor of Whitchurch. The extent of this manor is very faint 
and illegible in parts ; it shows that it was held of Earl Warenne, 

1 Supra, p. 247. 2 Eyton, vi. 66. 

3 Fines of Edw. Ill, m. 14 ; Dodsworth's MSS., vol. 32. 

* Supra, p. 302. 5 Eyton, x. 182. C.I.P.M., vi. 309, No. 516. 


by the service of taking his venison throughout the lands of the 
said earl in England, at the costs of the said earl. There are 
payable thereout yearly to the King's manor of Aderdeleye zos. 
and a sparrow-hawk, or 2s. ; and six marks to Richard de Leylonde 
for life from the mill of Whit church by grant of the said Fulk. 
His heir was his son John, aged eighteen at the feast of St. Paul 
last [January 25, 1324]. 

In the summonses of September 24, 1324, to the Parliament 
to be held at Westminster instead of Salisbury in three weeks 
from Michaelmas, Fulk le Strange is specially excepted J he had 
certainly been dead for more than seven months ! 

The Sheriff of Salop was directed, on June 2, 1325, to receive 
from John, son of Fulk le Strange, tenant-in-chief, security for 
the payment of 600 marks yearly to the King until he come of 
age. 2 On August I following, by reason of the above security, 
the wardship of the lands of his late father, in the King's hands 
by his minority, was committed to John, to hold from midsummer 
last until his lawful age, except knight's fees and advowsons of 
churches, and dowers when they fall in, rendering 400 a year 
at the Exchequer, in moieties at Michaelmas and Easter. Licence 
was granted for the same John to marry whomsoever he will, for 
a fine of 400 made by him at the Exchequer. 3 

John, in later times, reckoned to be the second Lord Strange 
of Blackmere, came of age on January 25, 1327, the same day as 
that on which Edward III acceded to the throne. A month 
later, namely, on February 26, the escheat or was ordered to cause 
him to have seisin of his father's lands, as he had made proof 
of age and the King had received his homage ; he held by 
service of i knight's fee and a yearly payment of 8. 4 He had 
already had early training at Court as ' valettus regis,' or King's 
yeoman, of Edward II, apparently during the last years of his 
reign perhaps when his father was seneschal of Aquitaine, and 
after the latter's death ; we shall see that he soon became ' King's 
valet ' of Edward III. A mandate was issued on July 12, 1327, 
to the Treasurer of the Exchequer to allow to John le Strange, son 

1 C. Cl. R., 1323-1327, p. 311. * Ibid. p. 291. 

3 C.F.R., 1319-1327, iii. 356. * C. Cl. R., 1327-1330. p. 10. 



and heir of Fulk, in debts due from him for the custody of his 
inheritance, and for his marriage, which were granted to him by 
the late King, the sum of 90 for 134 oak trees of the best \de 
electo], felled by the late King in John's wood of Chawton during 
his minority and carried to Porchester Castle. 1 

In or before 1327 John le Strange had exercised his right of 
marrying ' whomsoever he would ' by espousing Ankaret, daughter 
of William le Botiler (II) of Wem, Salop, who eventually became 
a co-heiress by the decease of her two brothers without issue. 
Her father obtained a licence, dated May 20, 1327, to enfeoff 
William Hereward, parson of the church of Weston Turvill, in 
the manor of Dodynton, held in chief, and for the said feoffee to 
regrant it to the said William le Botiler for life, with remainder 
to John le Strange of Whit church and Ankaret his wife, in fee 
tail, with remainder to the right heirs of William le Botiler. 2 
Dodynton was held in capite by one-third of a knight's fee, and 
was worth four marks per annum. The escheat or south of Trent 
was ordered, on October 6, 1337, to deliver to John le Strange a 
moiety of the manor of Assheton and the advowson of Codford 
(Wilts), which he inherited from his maternal grandfather, John 
Giffard of Brimsfield. 3 By mandate of March 6, 1329, allowance 
was made at the Exchequer for & i6s. 2%d. paid to John le Strange, 
the late King's yeoman, then detained by illness (January 9, 
1326) at the manor of Hoxne, and for his fellow chamberlain, 
three grooms, four horses, and the physicians Who came to him, 
and to their grooms and horses for their necessaries. 4 A similar 
order was made on the Exchequer on December 30, 1330, to pay 
the expenses incurred in Aquitaine by Adam de Lymbergh, late 
the King's Constable of Bordeaux, in discharging the duties of 
Fulk le Strange, late seneschal of the duchy of Aquitaine, which 
he could not perform by reason of illness. 5 

On November 28 the escheator was ordered to deliver to 
Hamon, son of Fulk le Strange, the manor of Cheswardine, by 
reason of the death of John le Strange (son of Roger) of Cheswar- 
dine, as John held it for life of Fulk's grant, and it ought to remain 

1 C. Cl. R., 1327-1330, p. 142. * C.P.R., 1327-1330, p. 106. 

3 C. Cl. R., 1327-1330, p. 171. * Ibid. p. 433. 6 C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, p. 101. 


after John's death to the said Hamon, and the King has taken 
Hamon's homage. 1 The settlement of this manor on Hamon has 
already been mentioned. 2 

The custody of Conway Castle, with the usual fees and wages, 
was committed on November 9, 1330, during good behaviour to 
the King's yeoman, John le Strange, for his good service. 3 A 
mandate of January 12, 1331, directs the King's chamberlain of 
North Wales to pay to John such fees as were paid to others who 
had the custody thereof ; 4 and another mandate of May 7 following 
ordered the payment to him of the arrears of the fees belonging 
thereto. 5 The King further committed ' valetto suo Johanni Le- 
straunge ' the vill of Nevin in North Wales, with its appurtenances, 
to hold during pleasure. 6 King's yeoman or valet was the designa- 
tion of a large group of members of the King's household, many 
of whom were of gentle or noble families. They might become 
in due course ' scutiferi regis,' and ' milites regis,' both being higher 
ranks. Personal service and membership of the household was 
the essence of each class. 7 

An entry in the Close Rolls of May 14, 1330, recites an inquisi- 
tion concerning the lands that belonged to John Giffard of Brims- 
field, late tenant-in-chief; his nearest heirs were John, son 'of 
Fulk le Strange and Eleanor his wife, sister of the said John 
Giffard, and James, son of Nicholas de Audley, issue of Katharine 
de Audley, the other sister of John Giffard. 8 The Fine Rolls of June 
4, 1327, record an order to the escheator concerning the manor 
of Badgworth, held by John Giffard of Brimsfield, which manor 
ought to remain by the form of the gift to John, son of Fulk le 
Strange and Eleanor his wife, sister of the said John Giffard the 
son, and to James, son of Nicholas de Audley and Katharine his 
wife, like sister, a minor in the King's ward, and that the manor 
is held of the heirs of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester ; the 
escheator is ordered to make a partition thereof into two equal 

1 C. CL R., 1330-1333, P- 75- * Supra., p. 247. 3 C.F.R., iv. 198. 

C. Cl. R. t 1330-1333, p. 109. 5 Ibid. p. 229. 

Rot. Orig. in Cur. Scacc., 4 Edw. Ill, ii. 4oa. ; C.F.R., iv. 210. 

7 See ' Household Ordinances of Edward II ' in Tout's Place of Edward II in 
English History, p. 281. C. Cl. R., 1330-1333, p. 33. 

X 2 


parts, and, retaining a moiety thereof in the King's hand, to 
deliver the other to the said John le Strange. 1 

The manor of Middle, one of the fiefs which had been held 
for many years by the le Stranges of Knockin, 2 seems to have 
belonged for a short time to Thomas de Hastang, who in the 
Nomina Villarum of 1316 is returned as Lord of Mudell. Eyton 
says 3 that he cannot explain this, except on the supposition that 
Thomas had married the widow of one of the two Lords Strange 
of Knockin so recently deceased. An entry in the Close Rolls 
throws some further light on this matter, and renders it probable 
that Hastang's tenure of Middle had been acquired by lease or 
purchase. By deed, dated June 25, 1310, Thomas, son of John 
Hastang, and John, son of Robert de Felton, acknowledged that 
they owed to John le Strange, lord of Knockin, 300 marks, to be 
levied in default on his lands in the counties of Salop, Stafford, 
and Warwick. 4 Eyton then cites a charter of December 3, 1329, 
which shows that Middle had then reverted to a certain John le 
Strange, whom, however, he is unable to identify. By this charter 
Edward III allows ' his beloved valet, John le Strange,' to have 
view of frankpledge over his tenants of Medle, with other profits 
and privileges in the manor. 5 By a charter dated a year earlier, 
viz. on November 14, 1328, Edward 111 had granted by special 
grace to John Lestraunge, the King's yeoman, and his heirs, the 
right of free warren in all their desmesne lands in Mudle, Salop. 6 
We have seen John le Strange of Blackmere several times desig- 
nated as the King's valet or yeoman, so I should have thought 
it safe to accept him as the individual who, by some means or 
other, was in possession of Middle in 1329, if it were not that the 
name of John le Strange of Middle occurs, as we shall see, in 
conjunction with John of Knockin and John of Blackmere in a 
document cited below. It is evident, therefore, that Middle was 
lor some years in possession of a separate branch of the family. 
Mention occurs in the Papal Letters about twenty years later of 
Edward le Strange of Middle. Henry Earl of Lancaster wrote 
to Pope Clement VI in 1348 to signify that 

1 C.F.R., iv. 47, 52, 108. , Supra, pp. 28, 33, 121, 210. 3 x. 68. 

* C. Cl. R., 1037-1313, p. 268. 5 C. Ch. R., iv. 136-7. * Ibid. vi. 94. 


his knight Robert Corbet, who was rich and powerful, by reason of his great 
liberality in marrying his sons and daughters, is now come to want, and has 
still left unmarried an elegant and fair daughter, Amice, whom he, now labour- 
ing under perpetual infirmity, purposes to marry to the noble and powerful 
Edward Le Straunge of Myrdel, donsel, who is related to her in the fourth degree 
of kindred ; the Earl therefore prays that a dispensation may be granted for 
Edward and Amice to many. 1 

A mandate was accordingly directed to the Bishop of Lichfield 
to grant a dispensation, if the facts are as stated. 2 I have already 
shown 3 that Robert Corbet of Moreton had married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Fulk le Strange of Blackmere, seneschal of Aquitaine, 
who also seem to have been related in the fourth degree. Eyton 
points out that in 1383 the manor of Middle had reverted once 
more to the elder line, viz. to John le Strange (VIII) of Knockin, 
the right heir of the former lords of Middle. 4 

John le Strange of Blackmere was summoned to Parliament 
from September 6, 1330, to April 20, 1343, by writs directed to 
him simply ' Johanni Le Strange,' and up to March 10, 1349, by 
writs directed ' Johanni Le Strange de Blackmere' 5 In the year 
1332 he was twice appointed, namely, on March 21 and on Novem- 
ber 9, one of six keepers of the county of Salop, to put a stop to 
the lawlessness then prevailing. 6 A grant of special grace was 
made to him and his heirs on January 30, 1333, of free warren in 
all their demesne lands of Whitchurch, Corfham, Wrockwardine, 
Sutton, Betton, Longnor, and Cheswardine, co. Salop ; Chaw- 
ton, co. Hants ; Badgworth, co. Gloucester ; and Merbury, co. 
Chester. 7 He and the other keepers of Salop received special 
orders, on February 4, 1333, not to do anything to the prejudice 
of William fitz Waryn, keeper of the lordship of Montgomery. 8 
On March 21, 1333, he was summoned ' equis et armis ' to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne to repel the invasion of the Scots. 9 An order to the 
treasury of February 26, 1334, directs that Johnle Strange is to have 
respite for 86 45. 8%d., due to the King for his lands and marriage. 10 

1 Col. of Pet. to Pope, 1342-1419, i. 133. Ibid. iii. 302. Supra, p. 302. 

4 Collect. Top. et Gen., v. 180-1. 6 Complete Peerage, vii. 271. 

C.P.R., i33- I 334. PP- 294, 297, 348. 7 C. Ch. R., iv. 292. 

8 C. Cl. R., i337-*339, P- 88. Rot. Claus., 7, Edw. Ill, p. i, m. 19, d. 

10 C. Cl. R., 1333-1337. P- 201. 


A deed in French preserved at the Record Office, dated July 
27, 1334, witnesses that whereas Sir John le Strange has brought 
an 'assize of novel disseisin' against Richard de Hangelton for having 
disseised him of 300 acres of wood in Chawton forest (Hampshire), 
and two pieces of land in Kateryngton, at the Earl of Arundel's 
request it is agreed that Richard will surrender the said wood 
and lands to Sir John for ever. Richard will only claim ' housebote ' 
and ' heybote ' for the tenement which he inherited in Kateryngton, 
to be taken in the part of the wood called Estrenche, and by view 
of Sir John's bailiffs, with common for his beasts in the said wood. 1 

The Scottish Rolls for this period contain several entries 
concerning John of Blackmere. King Edward wrote from Rox- 
burgh on December 24, 1334, to his lieges in the different counties 
of England to come to him with horses and arms, as the Scots 
had levied war upon him ; among those summoned from Shrop- 
shire were no less than three John le Stranges, viz. : 

Johannes le Straunge de Knokyn. 
Johannes le Straunge de Whitchurche. 
Johannes le Straunge de Midlee* 

Apparently, therefore, there was . a John of Middle separate 
and distinct from John of Blackmere, but I am at a loss to identify 
him. His name does not occur again in the other summonses, but 
considerable doubt is thrown upon the accuracy of these entries 
in the Rolls when we come to face the fact that, in the year 1334, 
there was no John le Strange of Knockin alive ; John, the third 
baron of that line, died in 1323, and was succeeded by his brother 
Roger, fourth baron, who lived until 1349. J onn f Knockin 
and John of Blackmere were ordered, on March 27, 1335, to come 
with horses and arms to Newcastle for the expedition against 
the Scots, 3 but on April I were held excused for not coming. 4 A 
year later, namely, on August 24, 1336, John of Blackmere was 
summoned to Nottingham to treat of peace with the King of France 
and David de Brus. 5 There are several entries in the Patent Rolls 

1 P.R.O. Ancient Deeds, B, 3481. * Rot. Scot., i. 3070. 

8 Ibid. i. 3326, 333a. * Ibid. i. 3336. 

8 Rot. Claus., 10 Edw. Ill, m. 16, d. 


of his having been placed on commissions of Oyer and Terminer 
at this period. 

In 1338 John of Middle turns up again. A grant of August 2 
of that year confers on him the custody of the castle of Criccieth 
in North Wales during pleasure, with the accustomed yearly fee 
for custody at the King's exchequer at Carnarvon. 1 

On November 30, 1338, John le Strange, whom I take to be 
the lord of Blackmere, was prohibited, under pain of forfeiture, 
from making any assemblies of armed men, by reason of dissen- 
sions between John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and Ralph de 
Wylynton of the one part, and John le Strange of the other, as 
the King learns that, by reason of their dissensions, the Earl and 
Ralph, and James and John gather armed men and go to the 
manor of Beyton, co. Wilts, to meet in warlike fashion : all who 
disobey are to be imprisoned. 2 

The Close Rolls of February 14, 1339, contain an acknowledg- 
ment by Ralph de Wylyngton that he owes to James de Audley 
and John le Strange a thousand marks, with the note ' cancelled on 
payment.' 3 In another entry of February 22 Ralph de Wylyngton, 
knight, acknowledges that he owes to James de Audley and John 
le Strange of Blackmere 400 ; this also is noted as ' cancelled on 
payment ' ; it is followed by another entry of the same date, in 
which John le Strange acknowledges that he owes Ralph de 
Wylynton 400 ; this is not cancelled. 4 

Rymer's ' Foedera ' give the wording of a Commission of Array 
of February 16, 1339 : 

q'enemys Lestranges terres sont en flote sur meer a grant force de gentz de armes, 
et a grant nombre de grosses niefs et de galeyes, prestz d'arriver en Engleterre. 

Ricardo comiti Arundell'. -\ 

Jacobo d'Audele. ) In Com' Salop de Iv hominibus J 

Johanni Lestraunge. ad anna, ccxx hominibus 

Johanni de Leybourne. \ armatis, et ccxx sagittis. 5 

Rogero Lestraunge: s 

By a patent of April i, 1339, John le Strange of Blackmere 

1 C.P.R., 1338-1340, p. 121. C. Cl. R., 1339-1341, p. 573. 

3 Ibid. p. 87. * Ibid. p. 95. 6 Foedera, ii. pt. 2, 1070. 


was associated with others to keep the peace in the county of 
Salop. 1 He was appointed with three others on August 24, 1340, 
on the commission for Salop as taxer of the ninth of sheaves, 
lambs, &c. 2 On the same day he was ordered to send his men to 
Newcastle, and to set out thence to Stirling Castle, the siege of 
which the Scotch are expected to renew. 3 

On December 20, 1342, le Strange was summoned to be at 
Portsmouth ready to sail for France with the following men on 
March i next ' A mons' Johan Lestraunge de Blankmonstier, pur 
xx hommes d'armes. xx archers.' 4 

A grant was made on January 28, 1344, to John, son of John 
Lestraunge of Blaunkmonster, King's clerk, of the free chapel of 
St. Michael, within the castle of Shrewsbury, void by the resigna- 
tion of Adam de Overt on. 5 He had difficulties almost imme- 
diately about his tithes, as a commission was issued on February 
1 6 following to make inquiry concerning the petition of John, 
son of John le Strange of Whitchurch, parson of the King's free 
chapel of St. Michael in the castle at Shrewsbury, showing that, 
whereas he and his predecessors time out of mind, in right of 
their chapel, have had all manner of tithes arising from certain 
lands of those towns, he is now hindered by Lewis de Cherleton 
and Philip ap Howel, portioners of the church of Pontesbury, 
who claim the said tithes. 6 I am unable to fit this John, the 
chaplain, into the pedigree. He cannot have been the son of the 
second baron, as the latter's son of that name became the fourth 
baron, and John, son of the last named, succeeded his father as 
fifth baron. Who then was he ? 

In July 1345 King Edward sailed for Flanders with the object 
of gaining the earldom of that province for his son Edward. He 
endeavoured to avail himself of the long-standing discontent 
between the count and the great trading towns of Flanders, but 
his chief partisan, Jacob van Arteveldt, being killed in a popular 
tumult at Ghent, the King abandoned the attempt and returned 
to England on July 17. On the 4th of that month John le Strange 

1 C.P.R., 1338-1340, p. 279. * C.P.R., 1340-1343, p. 26. 

3 Rot. Scot., i. 6010. * Rot. Franc., 16 Edw. Ill, m. n. 

6 C.P.R., 1343-1345, p. 188. ' Ibid. p. 280. 


had been summoned ' equis et armis ' to be ready to cross the sea 
with the King, he is addressed ' Johanni Lestraunge baneretto de 
Com' Salop.' 1 Whether he went on this short expedition to 
Flanders does not appear. At all events he was in England in 
the autumn, as the Patent Rolls of November 20 contain a com- 
mission, addressed to him and his cousin Roger of Knockin, to 
arrest Adam de Peshale, a common malefactor, dead or alive, 
who has broken his attachment and escaped ; 2 another com- 
mission was issued on the same day to Robert de Ferrariis and 
John Lestraunge to make inquisition concerning the trespasses 
and oppressions committed by the said Adam. 3 Evidence of the 
influence possessed by John le Strange at this period exists in 
many entries in the Patent Rolls, showing that he procured 
charters of pardon for divers people. 

We now come to the brilliant campaign of 1346, which cul- 
minated in the victory of Crecy and the siege and capture of 
Calais, in both of which events le Strange of Blackmere took a 
part. The lists of those who served therein have been exhaus- 
tively worked out from the Public Records by General Wrottesley 
in his monograph on the campaign, 4 and to this volume I owe 
the references to the original authorities relating to the four le 
Stranges who served in the royal army viz. John, second Lord 
Strange of Blackmere ; Roger, fourth Lord Strange of Knockin ; 
John, the King's sergeant, probably a member of the Norfolk 
branch of the family settled at Fransham ; and a Thomas le 
Strange, of whom I know nothing. 

The first writs for the expedition were issued on August 28, 
1345 ; by that for Shropshire John le Strange of Blackmere, John 
de Leyburne, his kinsman, 5 and the Sheriff were appointed Com- 
missioners of Array, and directed to choose 200 archers in that 
county, to provide them with bows, arrows, and other arms, and 
to cause them to be brought to Portsmouth, so that they might 
be there at three weeks from Michaelmas. 6 

1 Rot. Franc., 19 Edw. Ill, m. 4. * C.P.R., 1345-1348, p. 34. 

3 Ibid. p. 35. 

4 Crecy and Calais, from the Public Records, by Major-General the Hon. George 
Wrottesley, 1898. See p. 248. French Roll, 19 Edw. Ill, part 2. 


King Edward landed at La Hougue, near Cherbourg, on 
July 12, 1346, and marched through Bayeux and Caen towards 
the Seine; his army was formed into three divisions, the first 
under the Prince of Wales, the second under the Earls of 
Northampton and Arundel, while the third was commanded 
by the King himself. Next in rank to the commanders of 
these divisions came the earls and bannerets. In earlier days 
a banneret became so by birth or estate, and, as such, was 
entitled to display his own banner in the field, and the title 
was often used to designate an intermediate grade higher 
than that of simple knight ; but by this time it had become 
a military title, implying the command of a corps (of 
varying size) of men-at-arms. This 'brigading' of the cavalry 
under bannerets was one of the advances of military science of 
the time. The high officers of Edward II's Court had extra 
allowances if bannerets, and many of these were summoned to 
Parliament, and were what we should call barons or peers. 
Edward Ill's bannerets included quite humble knights, chosen 
for their military proficiency. They, in their turn, had in their 
retinue knights and esquires, who, with the earls and bannerets, 
were designated men-at-arms, and fought in complete armour, 
mounted on heavy horses (destriers). Each knight would bring 
with him Hobelars, lightly armed with lance and sword, and less 
expensive equipment in horses and armour, but their weapons 
were good enough to enable them to fight along with the 
cavalry. If armed with bows they were ' mounted archers,' 
and fought with the infantry, who were brigaded separately 
under centenarii and vintenarii, even if they came in a knight's 

John le Strange, lord of Blackmere, then about forty years of 
age, fought in the second division in the retinue of the Earl of 
Arundel. Before he started he procured letters of protection, 
dated June 6, I346, 1 and, two days later, similar letters were 
granted to his Herefordshire neighbour, Walter de Baskerville, 
who went out with him. 2 His retinue, when he landed at La 

1 French Roll, 20 Edw. III. * Ibid., 21 Edw. Ill, pt. i. 


Hougue, consisted of the following knights and esquires, ten in 
number : 

Brian de Cornwayle. Hamon le Strange [prob- 

Walter de Baskerville. ably his younger brother]. 

Nicholas de Huggeford. Richard de Sondford. 

Philip de Penynton. Thomas de Oldynton. 

John de Lodelowe. Richard de Wetenale. 

Vivian de Staundon. 1 

After the defeat of the French army at Crecy, near Abbeville, 
on August 26, Edward sat down before Calais, the siege of which 
lasted nearly a year, from September 1346 to August 1347. A 
general pardon was granted on September 4, 1346, to ' John 
Lestraunge of Blaunkmonstier ' for his good service in the war of 
France ; 2 and on November 16 of the same year a pardon was 
granted to him for all homicides, felonies, &c., perpetrated before 
September 4 last, on condition that he does not withdraw from 
the King's service without permission ; similar pardons were also 
accorded, at his instance, to some of his suite. 3 After they had re- 
turned to England those landowners who had served through the 
campaign were exonerated from the assessment on their lands for 
finding men-at-arms, hobelars, and archers for the King's service ; 
the writs of exoneration were entered on the Memoranda Rolls 
of Exchequer. The writ for this purpose issued to John le Strange 
on December I, 1351, states that he had crossed in the retinue 
of Richard, Earl of Arundel, in 20 Edward III, and had served 
at the battle of Crecy, and at the siege of Calais. 4 A similar 
exoneration was granted to ' Sir Brian de Cornwaille, who had served 
continuously in the retinue of Sir John Lestraunge from the date 
of the passage to Hogges in Normandy, until the King's return to 
England.' 5 A general pardon for his good services abroad was 
also granted, on the testimony of Sir John le k Strange, to the fol- 
lowing members"of his suite : 

1 French Roll, part ii. * C.P.R., 1345-1348, p. 507. 

8 Norman Roll, 20 Edw. III. 

* Norman Roll, 20 Edw. Ill, and Mem. Roll, King's Remembrancer, 28 Edw. III. 

5 Mem. Roll, King's Remembrancer, 27 Edw. III. 


William, son of Hugh de Leghes, of Calverhale. 
Henry le Webbe, of Blaunkmoustier. 
Thomas, son of Thomas Geffrey, and 
Hugh Pebbe, of Dudlebury.' 1 

In the year 1347 John le Strange made an arrangement for 
the marriage of his eldest son, Fulk, with Elizabeth, daughter of 
Ralph, baron, and afterwards first Earl of Stafford, who was 
apparently of very tender years ; an indenture of March 12, 
enrolled in the Close Rolls, 2 recites that it is agreed 

between Sir Ralph, Baron of Stafford, and Sir John Lestraunge of Whitchirche, 
that Fouke, John's son, shall marry Elizabeth, Ralph's daughter, and shall en- 
feoff Fouke and Elizabeth with 200 marks of land in Salop and Chester, of lands 
which John holds, whether jointly with Enkarette his wife, or alone ; Fouke 
and Elizabeth, after they are married, shall remain at John's charge until Eliza- 
beth is of the age of thirteen, and John shall have ward of the 200 marks of land 
until Elizabeth shall reach that age. 

On the same day a licence was granted, at the request of Ralph, 
baron of Stafford, and for loos, for John Lestraunge of Whitchurch 
and Ankaretta his wife to enfeoff certain persons in certain manors 
in Salop, to be regranted by them to John and Ankaretta, with 
remainders to Fulk their son, and heirs begotten by him of Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the baron of Stafford, and to the right heirs of 
John. 3 

A commission of Oyer and Ter miner was issued to John and 
six others on July 26, 1348, touching the counterfeiters of the 
King's sterlings. 4 

Among the petitions to Pope Clement VI is one from John le 
Strange, baron, and several others and their wives, for plenary 
remission at the hour of death ; it was granted at Avignon on 
November 13, 1348. 5 He died within a few months of receiving 
this, namely, on July 20, 1349. The inquisition on his death 
shows that he held the following lands : 6 

1 Norman Roll, 20 Edw. III. * C. Cl. R., 1346-1349, p. 246. 

3 C.P.R., 1345-1348, p. 258. * Ibid. 1348-1350, p. 170. 

5 Cal. oj Pet. to Pope, 1342-1419, i. 142. 

6 P.R.O. Chancery inq., File 98 (old No. part i., No. 78). 


John le Strange of Whitchurch, Badgeworth, Gloucestershire, \ of manor. 
Broughton, Wilts \ of a manor as of parcel of the barony of Castle Combe. 

Chawton, Hampshire. 
Whitchurch, manor extended. 
Doddington, ,, 


Sutton, hamlet, extended. 
La Peyry, near Corfham, lands 
and tenements 


Bromcroft, hamlet. 

> Salop. 



All the above are held of the manor of Corfham. 

John's heir was his son Fulk, who was nineteen years of age 
at the time of his father's death. Ankaret, John's widow, 
received on October 10, 1350, a grant of exoneration from the 
assessment to find men-at-arms, hobelars, and archers, because 
her husband had served in the retinue of Richard, Earl of Arundel, 
until the King's return to England. 1 Besides their sons Fulk and 
John, who carried on the direct line, John and Ankaret le Strange 
had two other children : a daughter, Eleanor, who married 
Reginald, second Lord Grey de Ruthin, who died July 1388 ; 2 
and Hamon, whom we have seen as a follower of his brother in 
the Crecy campaign, 3 and whose name occurs in the Patent Rolls, 
in a pardon for a homicide obtained for him by his sister on August 

5, 1381-* 

Fulk, third Lord Strange of Blackmere, was never summoned 

to Parliament, as he died under age on August 31, 1349, on ly fi ye 
weeks after his father ; he left no issue, and was succeeded by 
his brother John, then of the age of seventeen years and thirty 

1 Mem. Roll, King's Remembrancer, 25 Edw. iii. 

* Pedigree at Hunstanton I O. D. 5 I ; Complete Peerage, iv. 105. 

8 Supra, p. 315. * C.P.R., 1381-1385, p. 33. 


weeks. 1 The Shropshire inquisition says that he died on September 
6, 1349, an d that, in addition to other manors, he and his wife 
Elizabeth, who survived him, held jointly the manor of Wrock- 
wardine in chief. 2 The wardship of his lands was granted on 
October 13 to Richard, Earl of Arundel. 3 The escheator for 
Salop was directed, on October 22, 1349, to take the fealty of 
Elizabeth, late the wife of Fulk, and not to intermeddle further with 
the manor of Wrockwardine, as the King has learnt by inquisition 
that Fulk and Elizabeth held the premises jointly at Fulk's death 
by fine levied in the King's Court. 4 A moiety of the manor of 
Badge worth, co. Gloucester, was assigned in dower to Elizabeth, 
and also a moiety of the manor of Brought on, co. Wilts, with 
5 marks yearly of the manor of Corfham, co. Salop. 5 The 
escheator for Salop was ordered to take the fealty of Fulk's 
mother Ankaret, widow of John, second Lord Strange of Black- 
mere, and to restore to her the manors of Whitchurch and Dod- 
dington, as John and Ankaret held them jointly for their lives 
by fine duly levied. 6 The escheator for the county of Southampton 
was told not to intermeddle further with the manor of Chawton 
as John le Strange held it for life by fine levied, with remainder 
to his son Fulk, and his heirs by Elizabeth his wife. 7 

John, who succeeded as fourth Lord Strange of Blackmere, 
was born on January 13, 1332, as is mentioned in the Shropshire 
inquisition on the death of his brother Fulk, 8 and was consequently 
seventeen years old. He had livery of his lands in 1354,* and in 
that year, though only just of age, his name appears as one of the 
barons who assented to the nomination of proxies for treating 
with the ambassadors of France before the new Pope, Innocent 
VI, at Avignon, for the settlement of all matters in dispute. 10 He 
married, before 1354, Mary, the daughter of Richard (fitz Alan), 
Earl of Arundel, by his first wife, Isabel, daughter of Hugh, Lord 
Despencer. 11 In the Commission of Array, issued to the several 

1 P.R.O. Chanc. Inq., File 98 (old No. part i., No. 79). * Ibid. 

3 C.P.R., 1348-1350, p. 406. * C. Cl. R., 1349-1354, p. 122. 

8 Ibid. p. 120. Ibid. p. 50. 

7 Ibid. p. 53. 8 Chanc. Inq., File 98 (old No. part i., 79). 

9 Complete Peerage, vii. 271. 10 Fcedera, iii. pt. i. 285. 
11 Complete Peerage, vii. 271. 


counties on November 16, 1359, f r the war with France, the first 
name mentioned for Salop is ' Johanni Straunge de Blakemere,' 1 
and he was in the Commission of the Peace for that county, issued 
on March 20, 1361. 2 He appears to have been summoned to Parlia- 
ment once only, viz. on April 3, I36o. 3 John le Strange (IV) 
died on May 12, 1361, leaving as his son and heir a young boy, 
who is described in the Hampshire inquisition as ' John, son of 
the said John, son of John, of the age of six years and more.' 4 
The ' Complete Peerage ' states that Mary le Strange died in the 
same year as her husband John, but this is an error, for she sur- 
vived him for thirty-five years. An inquisition ' ad quod dam- 
num ' was taken at Ludlow on December 22, 1363, and another 
at Bridgnorth on March 3, 1364, as to a grant to Mary, late wife of 
John le Strange of Whitchurch, of view of frankpledge in her 
manors of Sutton-Madock and Brockton ; in each case the 
jury found that the King would lose 45. per annum if such grant 
were made. 5 She appears to have been known for the rest of her 
life as ' the lady of Corf ham ' ; among the petitions to the Pope is 
one from Mary le Straunge, lady of Corfham, widow, and sister 
of the Earl of Arundel, asking for plenary remission at the hour 
of death ; it was granted by Urban V on April 9, I364. 6 On 
March 20, 1367, John de Halle was instituted to the advowson 
of Culmington, on the presentation of Mary le Strange, lady of 
Corfham. 7 At the inquisitions held on her death in 1396 it was 
found that she held in Wiltshire a moiety of the manor of Ashton, 
and a moiety of the advowson of Codford ; while in Salop she 
held the manor of Corfham, of which a full extent is given, and 
also that of Sutton-Madock with the park (haia) of Ernestre, and 
the chace of Cliva ; that she died on August 29, and that Ankaretta, 
late the wife of Richard Talbot, knight, daughter of John le 
Strange and Mary, who is of the age of thirty-four and more, is 
their next heir. 8 

1 Rot. Pat., 33 Edw. Ill, m. 7, d. * C.P.R., 1361-1364, p. 64. 

3 Complete Peerage, vii. 271. 

P.R.O., Chanc. Inq., 35 Edw. Ill, File 165, old No. 67. 

5 P.R.O., Chanc. Inq., a.Q.D., 37 Edw. III. File 347 (7). 

6 Cal. Pet. to Pope, 1342-1419, ii. 484. 7 Eyton, v. 186. 
8 P.R.O., Chanc. Inq. Ric. II, File 95 (48). 


Ankaret, the widow of John (II), Lord Strange of Blackmere, 
died on October 8, 1361. 1 On February 12 of the following year 
the King gave a grant to his daughter Isabel of 146 135. 4^. out 
of the farm of 400 marks yearly paid by Richard, Earl of Arundel, 
for the wardship of the lands in Hampshire and Salop, which 
Ankareta, late the wife of John le Strange of Blackmere, held in 
chief of the inheritance of her grandson John during his nonage. 2 
On June 5, 1362, the King granted to Richard, Earl of Arundel, 
that, whereas he had lately had committed to him the wardship 
of the lands which Ankaret held during the nonage of her grand- 
son John, the said earl should have the marriage of the said John, 
and so from heir to heir. 3 Subsequent to the King's grant of 
February 12, 1362, to his daughter Isabel, she had married 
Ingelram, Sire de Coucy, who had been created Earl of Bedford ; 
the 146 135. 4^. which the Earl of Arundel ought to have paid 
to Isabel out of the issues of Ankaret's lands, of which he held 
the wardship, had fallen into arrear, so a mandate was issued on 
October 8, 1366, directing the earl to pay up the arrears and 
to continue to pay the said sum yearly until the lawful age of 
Ankaret's grandson, John le Strange. 4 

Elizabeth (Stafford), widow of Fulk, third Lord Strange of 
Blackmere, had married before 1360 John, Lord de Ferrers, who 
died in 1367 ; on June 24 of that year the escheat or of Wilts was 
ordered not to intermeddle further with the manor of Broughton, 
taken into the King's hand by the death of John de Ferrers, 
delivering to Elizabeth, late his wife, any issues thereof taken ; 
as the King has learnt by inquisition that the said John held that 
manor in right of the said Elizabeth, as jointly enfeoffed with 
Fulk le Strange, her first husband, of the gift of John le Strange, 
father of the said Fulk. 5 Elizabeth married, thirdly, Reginald, 
Lord Cobham, and died August 7, I376. 6 

John, fifth Lord Strange of Blackmere, while still a minor, 
married Isabel, fifth daughter of Thomas (Beauchamp), Earl of 
Warwick. He was never summoned to Parliament, but died on 

1 P.R.O., Chanc. Inq. Edw. Ill, File 165 (66). * C.P.R., 1361-1364, p. 179. 

3 Ibid. 226. * C. Cl. R., 1364-1368, p. 246. 

8 Ibid. p. 342. 6 Complete Peerage, vii. 271. 


August 3, 1375, before attaining his majority, and left no male 
heirs. The inquest on his death shows that he held the manors 
of Chawton in Hampshire, and Whitchurch, Doddington, Betton- 
Strange, and Cheswardine in Salop. 1 An agreement was entered 
into early in 1376 between the attorneys of Richard, Earl of 
Arundel and Surrey, appointed to deliver dower to Isabel, late 
the wife of John le Strange of Blackmere, the Earl's nephew, and 
the attorneys of Isabel, appointed to receive the said dower out 
of all John's inheritance liable thereto viz. that Isabel shall have 
as dower the manors of Chawton and Cheswardine, and 50 marks 
of rent yearly out of the manors of Blackmere and Doddington. 
The Earl of Arundel died before the arrangement could be con- 
firmed, viz., on January 24, and was succeeded by his son, also 
named Richard ; in consequence the following note [original in 
Latin] was written underneath the document : ' This agreement 
[supplicatio] was delivered with the assent of Richard, now Earl 
of Arundel, and of the other executors of the will of Richard, 
the late Earl of Arundel, for the delivery of the aforesaid dowry 
to the same Isabel.' 2 

On the death of John, fifth Lord Strange of Blackmere, in 
1375, that barony descended to his only daughter, Elizabeth, 
an infant of one year of age. Her marriage had been given by 
Edward III, shortly before his death, to the Duke of Lancaster 
(John of Gaunt), who, on receiving an equivalent from Richard II, 
granted the marriage to Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Notting- 
ham, and afterwards Duke of Norfolk. 3 On February 20, 1383, 
Thomas, who was himself a minor, obtained from the King a grant 
of all his lands in the King's hands, and of his own marriage, if 
he marry Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Lord le Strange of 
Blackmere, to whom he was affianced before his lands came into 
the King's hands. 4 His marriage contract with Elizabeth was 
dated March 15, I383, 5 but she died s.p. a few months later, on 
August 23, in her tenth year. 6 She was succeeded in the barony 

1 P.R.O., Chanc. Inq. Edw. Ill, File 250 (8). 

1 P.R.O., Ancient Deeds, C, 3059. * C.P.R., 1381-1385, p. 269. 

4 Ibid. p. 229. P.R.O. Rot. Pat., 6 Ric. II, No. 7. 

Complete Peerage, vii. 272. 


by her aunt, Ankaret, only sister of John, thelifth lord, she being 
then of the age of twenty-two years, and wife of Sir Richard 
Talbot, son and heir of Gilbert, third Lord Talbot ; Richard 
was summoned to Parliament, jure uxoris, from 1383 to 1387, 
as Lord Talbot de Blackmere ; he died September 7, 1396, and 
his widow, Ankaret, married secondly Thomas Nevill, Lord 
Furnivall. By her first husband she had a son, Gilbert, who, at 
the death of his father on September 7, 1396, was aged thir- 
teen and became Lord Talbot ; on the death of his mother 
Ankaret on May 23, 1413, Gilbert further succeeded her as the 
eighth holder of the barony of Strange of Blackmere. He died on 
October 19, 1419, leaving an only daughter, Ankaret, of the age 
of two years, who inherited both titles, but died two years later, 
on December 13, 1421. The barony thereupon reverted to her 
uncle, John Talbot, her father's only brother, who, having married 
Maud, suo jure Baroness Furnivall, had been summoned to 
Parliament in that barony in 1409 ; in 1421 he succeeded his 
niece in the baronies of Strange of Blackmere and of Talbot, both, 
however, being of later creation than that of Furnivall [1295], in 
right of which he had already been summoned. In 1442 he was 
created Earl of Shrewsbury in reward for his long and glorious 
military services in France under Henry V. The barony of Strange 
of Blackmere is mentioned by Shakespeare as one of the many 
titles of the great earl, in the scene describing his death at the 
battle of Chastillon, near Bordeaux, on July 17, 1453 : 

' Lord Strange of Blackmere, Lord Verdun of Alton,' * 

The three baronies became merged in the earldom, with which 
dignity they continued united for nearly two hundred years, 
ultimately falling into abeyance among the co-heirs of Gilbert 
Talbot, seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, who died without male issue 
on May 8, i6i6. 2 

1 I Henry VI, iv. 7. 65. * Complete Peerage, iii. 406 ; vii. 136, 271, 359. 

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= Margaret, d. of Henry [Oil 

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= Maud * * Roger, 4th Lord Strange of Knockin, at. : 
bro. ; succeeded to property of his uncle 
At Crecy 1546. Oft. July 29, 1349. 

= Aleyne, d. of Edmund fitz Alan, ] 
m. dr. 1350. She survived her 

= Maud, d. and h. of John, 2nd Baron Mohun de Dunster ; 
m. c. 1369. Survived her husband, and d. Sept. 20, 
1400, having m. secondly, Sir Nicholas Hauberk. 


ord de Grey ; = Richard, 7th Lord Strange of Knockin ; I 
succeeded his father. In 1432, in right 
succeeded as 3rd Lord Mohun de Duns) 

fohn, 8th Lord Strange of Knockin, 6. May 20, 1444 ; K.B. 
at Coronation of Edward IV, June 28, 1461 ; oft.s.^.m. Oct. 
16, 1479 ; buried with his wife at Hillingdon, Middlesex. 

Joan, Baroness Strange of Knockin ; at. 16 at her father's 
death ; m. dr. 1480. Survived her husband, and d. 
March 20, 1514, when her son Thomas, Earl of Derby 
succeeded to the barony of Strange of Knockin. 

homas [Stanley], 2nd Earl of Derby and loth Lord Strange 
of Knockin ; oft. May 23, 1521. 

Edward [Stanley], 3rd Earl of Derby and nth Lord Strange 
of Knockin ; ft. May 10, 1509 ; oft. 24 Oct. 1572. 







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her second 

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BEFORE proceeding with the history of the Hunstanton line it 
will be as well to give, in a condensed form, some short account 
of the seven holders of the barony of Knockin, from the third 
Lord Strange until that title became finally merged in the earl- 
dom of Derby by the marriage of Joan, last Baroness Strange of 
Knockin, with the heir of the Stanleys, c. 1482. 


The inquisition on the death of John, the second lord, shows 
that his son and heir was only fourteen years of age on his father's 
death, having been born on October 9, 1296. 1 His father, as we 
have seen, 2 died very early in 1311, and the son was summoned 
to Parliament in August of that year, and several times again 
during his minority. 3 He was certified in 1316 as lord of the 
township of Ness le Estraunge, or Ness Magna, Salop, 4 and of 
Middleton, co. Cambridge ; also as holding the lordship of Gren- 
don; co. Stafford. 5 He was noticed, in an inquisition of January 8, 
1318, as being a minor in the King's wardship. 6 

John le Strange made proof of age on August 4, 1320, when 

1 Inq. C. Edw. II, File 20 (15). z Supra, p. 265. 

3 Parl. Writs for 1311-1313. * Ibid. p. 1316. 

5 Feudal Aids, 1284, 1431, v. 14. Cat. Inq. P.M. VI. p. 73, No. 113. 



the escheator was ordered to cause him to have seisin of his father's 
lands. 1 On February 15, 1322, he was commanded to muster 
and array the knights of the lordship of Knockin, 2 but, unlike the 
rest of his family, John remained in 1322 true to the policy which 
every member of it had originally adopted, when Fulk and the 
rest made their peace with the King after 1317-18 ; John dis- 
obeyed the royal writ to fight against Lancaster, and led the 
Knockin contingent to the Lancastrian army. He and Earl 
Humphrey of Hereford were among the few Marcher chief- 
tains who still fought against the King at Boroughbridge. A 
writ of that year mentions that ' Sire Johan Lestraunge ' was a 
' bacheler ' in arms against the King, and was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Boroughbridge on March 17, 1322, when the Earl 
of Lancaster was also captured, .and was executed a few days 
afterwards. 3 

By a deed dated at Knockin on March 21, 1322, John le Strange 
gave to Emeric Pauncefot, as feoffee in trust, two-thirds of his 
manor of Ness, with reversion of the other third, held in dower 
by Isolda, his mother. By a later deed Pauncefot granted the 
same to John le Strange and his wife Maud, to hold to them and 
their heirs. 4 

John followed the example of his ancestors in making elee- 
mosynary gifts to Haughmond ; on July 19, 1322, he released 
to that abbey the vivary of Wilcote ; 5 and, on April 20, 1323, 
under the designation of ' Johannes Extraneus septimus de 
Knokyn, dominus de Nesse,' he granted to it the ' alnetum ' [alder 
wood] near the Hogh, with certain lands in Kynton. 6 

The inquisition held at Salop on the death of John le Strange 
(VII) bears date June 16, 1323. It mentions that his heir 
was his brother Roger, aged twenty-two on August 15 pre- 
ceding, but does not give the date of John's death ; the omission 
is however supplied by a second inquisition, held by writ of 
certiorari, on the petition of Maud, late the wife of the said John, 
showing that she was in joint seisin with him of two parts of the 

1 C. Cl. R., 1318-1323, p. 250. * Parl. Writs, Edw. II, vol. ii. part 2, p. 200* 

* Ibid. * C.I. P.M., Edw. II, vi. 272, No. 453 ; Eyton, x. 280. 

* Register of Haughmond in B.M. Harl. MSS. 446, fo. 19. ' Ibid. fo. 18. 


manor of Ness until the day of his death, viz. August 28, 1323. l 
On April i following Maud obtained a pardon, by fine of five marks, 
for acquiring (as has been mentioned above), together with her 
husband John le Strange, two parts of the manor of Ness from 
Emery Pauncefot, to hold in tail, with remainder to the right 
heirs of John. 2 


Roger, as we have just seen, was nearly twenty-three when 
he succeeded his brother. He had already begun active service, 
as the Patent Rolls show that he had letters of protection on 
January 15, 1322, while staying with Peter de Monteforti in the 
Marches of Wales on the King's service. 3 He too followed the 
family tradition of enlarging the possessions of their favourite 
abbey ; between 1223 and 1225 he quitclaimed to Haughmond 
all his right to Thorneford Mill and the fishery of Bassmere, in 
Middle, which his father had formerly mortgaged to the abbey. 4 
On August 9, 1328, Roger released to the abbey the vivary or 
mill of Wilcott, 5 and on the same day confirmed to it his father's 
charter of the chapel of Knockin, 6 and his father's release of the 
rent of two wethers (multones) payable at Caldecote. 7 On May 
12, 1342, he had a licence for the alienation in mortmain to the 
abbot and convent of the advowson of Hanmer ; 8 as ' Seigneur de 
Knokyn et d'Ellesmere ' he made an ample confirmation on June 5, 
J 343> of the rights of the abbot within the lordship of Ellesmere. 9 
On the death of his uncle, Eubulo le Strange, in 1335, Roger, as 
has been mentioned in a previous chapter, 10 succeeded to such pro- 
perty as Eubulo held in his own right, but not to that which he 
held in right of his wife Alice, who survived him. It is difficult 
to make out, from the inquest on Eubulo, exactly which lands 
passed to Roger, but he certainly inherited a messuage in Holborn, 11 
and licence was granted on September 27, 1336, to Hugh de 

1 C.I.P.M., Edw. II, iv. 272, No. 453. 2 C.P.R., 1321-1324, iv. 405. 

3 Ibid. p. 67. Eyton, x. 78. 5 Ibid. p. 286. 6 Ibid. p. 375- 

7 Ibid. p. 376. 8 C.P.R., 1340-1343, p. 4 2 9- 

Eyton, x. 252. 10 Supra, p. 281. u C.P.R., 1476-1485, p. 45. 


Freyne and Alice his wife (Eubulo's widow), whom he had just 
married, to settle the castle of Clifford, and the manors of Glasbury, 
Colham, Edgware, &c., with remainder to Roger le Strange of 
Knockin and his heirs. 1 Matters, however, were not arranged 
amicably between Alice and her nephew, and it was necessary to 
issue a commission of Oyer and Terminer on May 4, 1337, on the 
complaint of the Countess of Lincoln that Roger, John de Lacy, 
knight, Richard Rogeres chaumberleyn Lestraunge of Knokyn, and 
others, broke her castle of Bolingbroke, imprisoned her there, took 
away twenty of her horses, worth 200, carried away her goods, 
and assaulted her men and servants. 2 The quarrel was made up 
before long, and on June 20, 1337, Alice obtained licence to grant 
to Roger her life estate in the manors of Ellesmere and Overton 
Madok, which she held by grant of the King to her and Eubulo. 3 

Roger Lord Strange held the office of steward to Richard, Earl 
of Arundel, who had succeeded to the vast estates of the family 
of Warenne on the death of his maternal uncle, John, Earl of 
Surrey and Sussex. 4 In 1342, after the French had burnt Ports- 
mouth and threatened Southampton, Roger was summoned to be 
at Portsmouth with ten men-at-arms and twenty archers, ready 
to sail for France. 5 He was -summoned to Parliament from Feb- 
ruary 25, 1342, to March 10, 1348. 6 

The name of Roger le Strange of Knockin appears among 
those of the great lords who displayed their banners during the 
campaign of Crecy in 1346,' and the French Roll of 21 Edward III 
states that he was of the retinue of the Earl of Lancaster, 8 and 
had with him William de Chetewynde of Shavington ; 9 on 
August 10, 1347, i.e. a week after the surrender of Calais, ' Roger 
Lestraunge of Knokyn the elder ' is mentioned in the Roll as having 
letters of protection ; apparently he had fallen ill before this, and 
sent for his son Roger to supply his place, as an entry in the 
Memoranda Roll of the King's Remembrancer of 26 Edward III, 
which exonerates him from assessment on his lands for finding 

1 C.P.R., 1334-1338, p. 319. * Ibid. p. 450. 3 Ibid. p. 465. 

* C. Cl. R., 1337-1339, p. 136. 8 Faedera, ii. part 2, 1216. 

Complete Peerage, vii. 273. 7 Wrottesley's Crecy and Calais, p. 6. 
8 Ibid. p. 117. 9 Ibid. p. 118. 


men-at-arms, &c., mentions that, having been detained by grievous 
bodily infirmity, he had sent his son ' Roger Lestraunge the 
younger/ who had served in the King's retinue until the King's 
return to England. 1 Professor Tout thinks that both these 
entries apply to one person, Roger the younger, and that his 
father did not serve at all ; and, further, that neither of them 
ought to appear in the list of great lords who displayed their 
banners, because it is most unlikely that the younger Roger, who 
was hardly twenty years old, should have attained the military 
rank of a banneret. But it seems to me that the fact of their 
being recorded as serving in different retinues is conclusive as to 
two distinct persons having been present, and Wrottesley gives 
other instances of sons who represented fathers unable to take the 
field owing to age or infirmity, and expressly says that such 
son, as a rule, displayed his father's banner. 2 Roger junior had 
already seen foreign service as a lad of eighteen, when he accom- 
panied his father in June 1345 under Richard Earl of Arundel 
on King Edward's abortive expedition to Ghent. 3 ' Thomas le 
Straunge of Knokyn ' appears, on May 18, 1347, m tne French 
Roll of 21 Edward III, as having letters of protection ; he may 
have been a brother of Roger the elder. 4 

This Roger was twice married. His first wife, Maud, whose 
surname is not recorded, is stated, in the Cambridge inquisition 
on his death, to have been the mother of his son and heir, Roger ; 5 
the second wife was loan, daughter and heiress of Oliver de 

V * <J 

Ingham ; she is mentioned in the inquest on her father's death 
as being then (March 24, 1344) twenty-four years of age and 
married to Roger le Strange. 6 She survived Roger, and had no 
issue by him. She married, secondly, Sir Miles Stapleton, K.G., 
who died December 4, 1364, and was buried with his wife Joan at 
Ingham, in Norfolk, where a brass, of which little now remains, used 
to exist in Blomefield's time, bearing the following inscription : 

1 Wrottesley's Crecy and Calais, p. 169. * Ibid. p. 7. 

3 Rot. Franc., 19 Edw. Ill, pt. i, m. 14. 

4 Wrottesley's Crecy and Calais, p. 122. 

5 Chanc. Inq. p.m., Edw. Ill, File 101, No. 23. 
C.I. P.M., Edw. Ill, viii. 375. 


Priez pour les almes Monseur Miles Stapleton, K.G., et dame Johanne, sa 
femme, fille de Monseur Olvier de Ingham, fondeurs de ceste mayson, que Dieu 
de leur almes eit pitee. 1 

A copy of this brass, from an impression in the British Museum, 
taken by Craven Ord, is given in Beloe's ' Monumental Brasses of 
Norfolk,' Part iii. 2 

Eyton, in his le Strange pedigree, erroneously makes Joan the 
first wife, and Maud the second wife of Roger le Strange ; 3 but 
it is clear that Joan de Ingham was the second wife, as she survived 
him and married again. She was dowered on September 24, 
1 349, with a third part of the f ortalice and hundred of Ellesmere, 
assigned to her by the King out of the lands of her late husband 
Roger, 4 and the lands of her own inheritance which they had held 
jointly were ordered to be restored to her. 5 

Roger died on July 29, 1349, an d his heir was found to be his 
son Roger, then of the age of twenty-three years. 6 The manors 
held by him in chief at his death were Middleton in Cambridgeshire, 
Bicester, Middleton, and Tew in Oxfordshire ; Horbling and Sedge- 
brook in Lincolnshire ; and the hundred and manor of Ellesmere 
in Salop. 


The names of certain le Stranges connected with the borough 
of Oswestry have been mentioned before 7 when dealing with 
John le Strange (IV) of Knockin ; the following names, also 
connected with that town, occur during the period at present 
under review : 8 

Richard L'Estrange, occ. 1331, 1342 
Richard, son of Richard, occ. 1352 
Madoc L'Estrange 1341 

Philip L'Estrange 1342 

Thomas L'Estrange ,, 1342 

Roger L'Estrange 1352 

1 Blomefield, ix. 324. * B.M. Add. MSS. 32,478, fo. 93. 

8 Eyton, x. 263. C. Cl. R., 1349-1354, p. in. 

5 Ibid. p. 260. Chancery Inq. p.m., Edw. Ill, File 101, No. 23. 

7 Supra, p. 181. 8 Arch. Cambr. (2nd series), iii. 38-41. 



Among Lord Middleton's MSS. at Wollaton Hall, Nottingham, 
is preserved an interesting letter, dated April 15, 1332, of Queen 
Philippa, wife of Edward III, acknowledging receipt from Ida le 
Strange, her damsel, of certain crowns and other jewels. They 
must have been of great value, for no less than five crowns are 
mentioned, covered with rubies, emeralds, and pearls ; only one 
of the five had diamonds on it, and one other was surmounted 
with sapphires. Unfortunately there is nothing to show of which 
family Ida was a daughter ; probably she belonged either to the 
Blackmere or Knockin family. I am not aware of any other 
mention of her elsewhere. The letter is printed in the ' Report on 
Lord Middleton's MSS.,' issued by the Historical MSS. Commission, 1 
and is so full of details of the jeweller's art in the fourteenth cen- 
tury as to be worth reproduction. It runs as follows : 

Ph[ilipp]e, par la grace de Dieu Reyne d'Engleterre, Dame d'Irlaunde, et 
Duchesse d'Aquitaine, a touz ceux qi cestes lettres verrount, saluz. Sachez 
nous avoir recu devers nous meismes en nostre chaumbre de nostre ch[ier]e 
damoisele Ida Lestraunge les choses souzescrites queles ele avoit de de no [us]. 
... a garde [r], c'est assavoir : une corone d'or od x. fleurs de ameraudes, une 
ruble en checun fleur. Item une corone d'or od x. fleurs od emeraudes et rubies 
od viij perles, en chescune trosche [cluster] une rubie en la trosche, et d'autrepart 
une emeraude. Item une graunde corone d'or od x. fleurs od emeraudes et rubies, 
od trosches de perles, et en chescune trosche viij perles et une grosse perle en milieu. 
Item une graunde corone d'or od viij fleurs de grosses emeraudes et grosses rubies, 
et une trosche de xij perles et une rubie dedeinz, et une autre trosche d'une emer- 
aude dedeinz, et chescune trosche od un saphir survolant. Item une graunde 
corone d'or od grosses rubies, emeraudes, diamauntz, et grosses perles, la quele 
ma dame la Reyne Isabell nous d[ona] le jour de la . . . ienof 1'an quart. Item 
une Croix d'or od grosses emeraudes, rubies, et grosses perles. Item une ceynture 
d'orfceverie od emeraudes, rubies, et grosses perles. De queux choses nous 
voloms qe 1'avantdit nostre damoisele seit deschargee et quites par cestes noz 
lettres. En tesmoignance de queu chose, nous avoms [fetes faire cestes] lettres 
patentes. Don[eez] a Estaunford le xv jour d'Averill, 1'an du regne nostre tres- 
chere seigneur le Roi sisme. 

A note from ' Archaeologia/ xxxi. 377, says that these jewels 
do not occur in the inventory of Queen Philippa's plate, &c., 
taken after 1369. 

1 P. 90. 



Roger, fifth Lord Strange of Knockin, though only twenty- 
three when he succeeded his father, had already seen four years 
of foreign service l in Flanders and at the siege of Calais. He 
married, about J-35O, 2 Aleyne, daughter of his feudal lord, Edmund 
fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, and Alice, sister, and in her issue, sole 
heiress of John, Earl of Warenne and Surrey. 3 Roger was placed 
on a commission with Sir John Charlton, on March 12, 1351, to 
make inquisition touching those who had made counterfeit money 
at Shrewsbury, and to bring them before the council with their 
dies and other instruments which had been found in the river 
Severn. 4 His stepmother, Joan, who had become the wife of 
Miles de Stapleton, had a licence on July 3, 1351, to lease to him 
all his lands which she held in dower ; 5 these and other lands 
were a few days later entailed on the issue of Roger and Aleyne. 6 
On March 20, 1361, we find Roger in the Commission of the Peace 
for Salop ; 7 and, on February 10, 1367, he was placed on the Com- 
mission of Array for the same county : 8 these appointments 
were repeated for many subsequent years. He was summoned 
to Parliament from September 20, 1355, to August 9, 1382, and 
the Rolls of Parliament contain proof of his sittings. The Lord 
of Knockin seems to have been kept pretty busy in providing for 
the preservation of the King's peace on the Welsh March. He 
was bidden on his allegiance, on February 10, 1367, to cause 
a set number of fencible men to be chosen, furnished according 
to their estate with competent arms, to march when danger 
threatens ; 9 and there are many similar orders to be found in 
the Rolls. 10 

Richard Earl of Arundel, by his will dated December 5, 1375, 
left ' to my nephews and nieces, sons and daughters of Sir Roger 

1 Supra, p. 328. * Complete Peerage, vii. 274. 

3 Eyton, vii. 229. C.P.R., 1350-1354, p. 81, memb. 23^. 

8 Ibid. p. in, memb. 22. Ibid. p. 118, memb. 18. 
7 Ibid. 1361-1364, p. 64. 8 Ibid. 1364-1367, p. 430. 

9 C. Cl. R., 1364-1368, p. 371. 

10 Fcedera, iii. pt. 2, pp. 820, 883, 902, 1046, 1075 ; C.P.R., 1377-1381, pp. 40, 46, 
474. 513. 579- 


le Strange, and to my sister, Dame Alaine le Strange, wife to the 
said Roger, MD marks, over and above M marks more paid to 
them already.' 1 This will shows that Roger and Aleyne had 
several younger children, though the only one of whom I have 
found record is Roger, of whom below. 

The archives of All Souls' College, Oxford, which eventually 
became owner of the manor of Edgware, contain a grant made 
on February 26, 1377, by Roger Lestraunge, lord of Knockin, 
to his son Roger of that manor for life ; it has a fine seal with 
two lions passant on a shield, under a helm, surmounted by crest, 
a lion statant ; on either side, as supporters, are two lions sejant, 
the whole within a quatrefoil ; of the legend round it only a few 
letters are left. 2 In the account of the ceremonials at the corona- 
tion of the young King, Richard II, who was crowned at West- 
minster on July 16, 1377, when he was in his twentieth year, 
among the ' diversi domini et magnates ' who did homage to 
the King appears the name of ' Roger us le Straunge de Knockyn,' 3 
and his name is also included among the Triers of Petitions during 
the three years following. 4 

The inquisition on the death of Roger le Strange 5 shows that 
he died on August 23, 1382, leaving as heir his son John, aged 
thirty, and that he and his wife Aleyne held the following : in 
London, a large tenement with a garden in Holborn ; in Middlesex, 
the manor of Colham, and certain rents, with a fair and markets 
in the manor of Uxbridge ; in Lincolnshire, the manor of Halton ; 
in Bucks, two water-mills under one roof, in Denham on the bank of 
the Colne ; in Oxfordshire, the manors of Middleton and Bicester ; 
in Cambridgeshire, the manor of Middleton ; in Staffordshire, the 
manor of Shenston ; and in Salop and the March of Wales, the 
manors of Ellesmere with its hamlets, of Strange Ness, of Kinton, 
and the castle of Knockin with its demesne. His wife, Aleyne 
fitz Alan, survived him. 

1 Testamenta vetusta, N. H. Nicolas, i. 94. 

* Muniment Room at All Souls', Edgeware, No. 3. 

3 Munim. Gildhal, Lond., ii. part 2, p. 479. 

4 Rot. Pavl. iii. 340, 570, 726, 890. 

5 Chancery Inq. p.m., 6 Ric. II, File 27, No. 64. 


Roger le Strange, a younger son of Roger the fifth baron, has 
already been mentioned as having had a grant for life of the 
manor of Edgware. On March 8, 1382, Roger the elder and 
Roger the younger were both placed on a special commission of 
the peace for Salop, 1 and it is probably Roger the elder whose 
name appears in a similar commission on December 14, 1381 ; 2 
the younger Roger again appears after the death of his father on 
similar lists, 3 in 1382 and 1384. On July i, 1392, ' Roger Straunge, 
the King's knight,' had a grant of the marriage of Elizabeth, late 
the wife of Fulk fitz Waryn, ' the King's widow,' if she consent 
to marry him, and if not, and she marries another, then the for- 
feiture or the fine incurred ; 4 apparently she did not consent, 
as she married Sir Hugh Courtenay, of Huccombe, 5 so we will hope 
that Roger got the fine. On July 18 he had a grant of the custody 
of the castle of Newport, in South Wales, with the forest and 
park of Caus in Salop. 6 Two years later he occurs as receiving 
protection for half a year from August 7, 1394, as going in the 
King's company to Ireland on his service there. 7 King Richard 
went to Ireland in October and held a Parliament there. The 
position of Roger le Strange is a good instance of the career open 
to a younger son of a good house at the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. He made his way by obtaining, through family influence, 
the position of a ' King's knight/ i.e. the highest grade of royal 
household officers, above the ' esquires ' and ' valets ' in personal 
attendance on the King. He had the ordinary reward in grants 
of land such as Edgware, of custodies such as Newport-on-Usk and 
Caus, and of marriages of heiresses such as that of Fulk fitz Warin's 
daughter. Of these grants some were of old lands of his house, or in 
districts where le Strange influence was already strong, especially in 
the March of Wales. Richard II's knights were a very powerful and 
influential though unpopular body, and it was through them that 
the King largely carried out his autocratic designs. Roger was 
already a ' King's knight ' on August 22, 1391, 8 and it was doubt- 

i C.P.R., 1381-1385, p. 141. * Ibid. p. 85. 8 Ibid. pp. 247, 496. 

4 Ibid. 1391-1396, p. 99. * Complete Peerage, iii. 376. 

C.P.R., 1391-1396, p. 119- 7 Ibid. p. 486. 
8 C.P.R., 1388-1392, p. 472. 


less owing to his position as such that he accompanied Richard on 
his first visit to Ireland in 1394. That King's interest in Roger 
comes out in his backing Eubulo's clamour for further preferment, 
and in admitting the brother's tenuous kingship to himself. 
Roger's name is little if at all in evidence after 1394, so it looks 
as if he either retired from Court or died at an early age. 

The only daughter of Roger, Lord Strange, and Aleyne fitz Alan 
whose name has come down to us is Lucy, who became the first 
wife of William, fifth Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and died 
before March I4O6. 1 


A pardon was granted on March 26, 1378, for alienation, 
without licence from the King or the Earl of Chester, of the manor 
of Dunham by Bondon, &c. Among the claimants was Thomas 
le Strange of Knockin, Lucy his wife, and Alice her sister. These 
lands had descended to John Curson and Joan de Ingham, wife 
of Roger le Strange of Knockin, who, for a fine of 100, had pardon 
of all trespasses. 2 This Thomas may be the same individual who 
was present at the siege of Calais in I347, 3 but it is more likely 
that he was a younger brother of Roger, fifth Lord Strange of 


Richard Strange, chaplain, was presented to the chantry in 
the church of Charlton-Mackerel, in the diocese of Bath and 
Wells, on July 14, I378. 4 


A release, c. 1350, from John, Lord of Leghton, to Ivo 
Cresset, of a tenement in Garveston, is witnessed by ' Johanne 
le Straunge de Leghton,' and ' Waltero fratre ejusdem Johannis.' 5 

1 Complete Peerage, viii. 142. * C.P.R., 1377-1381, p. 164. 

3 Supra, p. 313. * C.P.R., 1377-1381, p. 263. 

5 Trans. Shrops. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc., ' Old Shropshire Deeds/ ix. 185. 


Eyton mentions no connection between any of the le Stranges 
and Leightons in Shropshire. 


John le Strange, as we have seen, was thirty years old at his 
father's death ; an inquisition ' ad Quod Dampnum ' of May 28, 
1372, in the Record Office, 1 shows that he was knighted and also 
that he was married before that date. The jury found that there 
was no reason why Roger le Strange, knight, of Knockin, should 
not grant his manor of Avington, Berks, to his son John le Strange, 
knight, and Maud his wife and their heirs. Maud was the third 
and youngest daughter, and eventual heiress of John, second 
Baron Mohun de Dunster. The covenant for his marriage settle- 
ment was dated at London on June 17, 1369, and is sealed with 
a cross engrailed by John de Mohun. 2 He was placed on the 
Commission of the Peace for Salop on December 21, 1382 ; 8 and, 
on April 29, 1385, on the commission of Array, in view of the 
imminent invasion by the French. 4 The Patent Rolls contain 
many entries of similar appointments between 1382 and 1396. 
His mother, Aleyne fitz Alan, was still alive in 1385, as a pardon 
was granted on June 25 of that year ' to Richard Earl of Arundel 
and Surrey, Alina Lestrange, mother of John Lestrange, Lord 
of Knokyn, Joan de Mohun, and Ebulo Lestrange, clerk, to 
whom the said John le Strange granted a yearly rent of 70 from 
his lands in Flint, held of the King in chief, and who entered 
thereon without licence.' 5 From a curious indenture, dated 
November 25, 1383, preserved among the Ashridge Muniments, 
and printed in the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogical it 
appears that John made terms with his mother for living with 
her at Middle, and paying her 50 per annum for the board and 
lodging of himself, his wife, and their household, which consisted 
of one squire, one ' damoisele,' two valets, one nurse, and one boy 
(garsori), and specified deductions were to be made in the event 

1 Chanc. Inq. A.Q.D. Edw. Ill, File 377 (15). 

1 MS. penes Sir Edward Bering, at Surrenden-Dering. 

3 C.P.R., 1381-1385, p. 247. * Ibid. p. 590. 

* C.P.R., 1385-1389, p. 4. Early Deeds rel. to Shropshire, v. 180. 


of any of them not living in the house. The document is of 
sufficient interest to be worth reproduction ; it runs as follows : 

Ceste endenture faite parentre ma tres reuerente Dame Alyne Lestrange, 
dame de Knokyn, dune part, et le Seigneur Lestrange monsieur Johan son 
filz dautre part, Tesmoigne que le dit monsieur Johan demeurera en Lostel ma 
dite tres reverente dame a bouche de courte : Cest assauoir lui mesmes, dame 
Maude Lestraunge sa compaigne, vn esquier, vn damoisele, deux vadlets, vn 
norice, et vn garson, de la date de fesaunte de ceste endenture, tanque a fyn dun 
an proschein ensuamte plenerment et comply : Rendant et payant a ma dite 
tres reuerente dame pour lour demoere par le temps susdit cynkaunt liueres de 
bone moneye en son manoir de Mudle a quatre termes del an, par oweles porcions : 
Cest assauoir a la quinzeyne de la purificacion notre dame proschein a venir xij 
li. xs. et en le feste de seynt Dunstan adonque proschein apres xij li. xs. et en le 
feste del Assumpcion notre dame adonque proschein ensuante xij li. xs. et en le 
feste de toux seynts adonque proschein ensuante xij li. xs. Et si auandit Seigneur 
monsieur Johan, dame Maude sa compaigne, ou ascuns socues sustynauntez 
soient hors de dit hostel : pour le temps tanque a lour auenue : oit rebatu de 
la dite summe : pour lui mesmes le iour vi]d., pour dame Maude sa compaigne 
en mesme la manere, pour Lesquier le iour iiij^., et la Damoisele attant ; pour 
vn vadlet le iour i\]d. La Norice en mesme la forme, et pour le garson le iouz id. : 
Et en cas que Lostel ma dite tres reuerente dame Lestraunge soit charge des 
suenantz au andits Seigneur son fitz, dame Maude sa compaigne ou a ascun des 
scenes susdits : autrement que nest compris en ceste endenture ; que le dit 
monsieur Johan soit charge de paier pour lour demoere a fyn de chescun quart 
desuis lymite : cest a dire pour un bachiler le iour viij . vn Esquier le iour vjd. 
Vn vadlet le iour iij^., et un garson le iour ij^. que les seruenantz seront accomptez 
par le Seneschal del Hostel ma dite tres reuerente dame que pour le temps serra 
et un autre demant oue auont dit Seigneur quele il plerra assigner. Et autre ces 
le dit Seigneur monsieur Johan veute et graunte par y cestes que si le dit payement 
soit a derare a ascun dez termes susditz en partie ou en toute ensemblement oue 
la summe de les suenantz. Chescun acompte solanc lour degree come desuis est 
dite a fyn de chescun quarte susdite qe ma dite tres reuerente dame ne soit charge 
pluis outre de la demoere : Et par tiele summe adonque aderere que ma dite tres 
reuerente dame retigne en ses meyns del manoir de Midlynton en le Counte D'Oxne- 
ford de les denieres dues an dit Seigneur monsieur Johan annuelement appaier 
par ma dite tres reuerente dame pour la moyte de dit Manoir a la vraye value 
issuit aderere : En tesmoignance de quele chose a cestes endentures les parties 
susditz entrechangeablement ount mys lour sealx : Escrite a Mudle en le feste 
de Seynte Katerine : Lan du regne le Roi Richard seconde puis le conqueste 

It is evident from the above that Middle, which for a con- 
siderable time had been in possession of another branch of the 


family, had now reverted to the elder line, and had been assigned 
to the Lady Aleyne as a dower house. 

By a charter dated July 8, 1385, John le Strange, lord of 
Knockin, granted to Richard Earl of Arundel and Surrey, to 
Aleyne le Strange his mother, and to Ebulo le Strange, clerk, his 
brother, the manor of Holborn, in the suburb of London, in fee, 
with remainder to the heirs of Alice. 1 He was summoned to 
Parliament from August 20, 1283, to July 18, 1397. He was in 
the garrison of Berwick, and served in the Scotch wars. 2 The in- 
quisition on the death of John le Strange shows that he died on 
July 28, T-397, 3 and that on his wife, Maud de Mohun, shows that 
she survived for three years, and died on September 20, 1400.* 

Mention has already been made of two brothers of John, 
sixth Lord Strange of Knockin, viz. Roger, who had a grant of 
Edge ware for life, 5 and Eubulo, who was in Holy Orders. 6 The 
latter was presented to the rectory of Wistanstow, Salop, c. 
1373, and held it until August 6, 1385 ; 7 soon after we find him 
as rector of Gresford, in the modern county of Denbigh, then in 
the March of Bromfield, which had passed from the Warennes 
to the fitz Alans. A papal letter of Boniface IX, dated from 
Rome on April 28, 1391, conveyed the following dispensation : 

To Eubulo Strange, rector of Gresford in the diocese of St. Asaph. Dispensa- 
tion to him, who is of a royal race, has for some years studied civil law, and holds 
also the free chapel of Hempton, in the Diocese of Lichfield, and a canonry and 
prebend of Lincoln, value, together with his church, 150 marks ; on the petition 
also of King Richard, who says he is his kinsman, to hold one other benefice 
without cure, even a major elective dignity with cure in a cathedral, and to 
exchange it and his said church as often as he please, for two similar or dissimilar 
incompatible benefices. 8 

I am indebted to Professor Tout for pointing out to me the 
royal descent of Eubulo, which I had been unable to trace. He 
writes to me the ' royal blood ' was very indirect and not very 
royal, but a certain distant kinship to the royal house came from 

1 Lond. and Middlesex Arch. Trans., i. 124. * Complete Peerage, vii. 274. 

3 C.P.R., 1476-1485, p. 45. * Chancery Inq. p.m., Hen. IV, File 43, No. 27. 

5 Supra, p. 332. Ibid., p. 334. 7 Eyton, xi. 364. 

8 Cal. Pap. Let., 1362, 1404, iv. 357. 



Aleyne fitz Alan's descent from Alice de Lusignan, half-sister 
of Henry III, as will be made clear from the subjoined pedigree. 

I. 2. 

King John = Isabella of Angouleme = Hugh de Lusignan. 

Henry III. Alice de Lusignan = John, Earl Warenne, d. 1304. 

Edward I. 

Edward II. William de Warenne, 

I 1256-1286. 

John, Earl Warenne, Alice de Warenne = Edmund fitz Alan, Earl 

d. 1347 

of Arandel, d, 1326. 

Aleyne fitz Alan = Roger, 5th Lord Strange of 
| Knockin. 

Eubulo le Strange, rector of Gresford. 

Professor Tout has found many similar statements as to kin- 
ship with the royal house, claimed, and admitted by various 
kings, and traceable only through the Lusignans, e.g. Gilbert 
Pecche, and Amaury de Craon. 1 

The inquest on the death of his brother John shows that the 
manor of Holborn, which had been granted in 1385 by Roger to 
Eubulo and others, was regranted by Eubulo to John, to hold 
jointly with his wife Maud and their heirs ; it was, in fact, merely 
a settlement on them, Eubulo having no beneficiary possession 
thereof. In 1398 Eubulo procured a ratification of his estate as 
parson of Gresford, 2 and also a pardon for having, with others, 
acquired from his brother John, and entered thereon without 
licence, the manor of Dunham, co. Chester. 3 The last notice 
which I find of this Eubulo shows that his cloth and his advancing 
years did not restrain the turbulent lawlessness of his race. It 

1 Tout's Edward II, p. 395. 2 C.P.R., 1396-1399, p. 321. 

3 Ibid. p. 333. 


is a pardon, granted to him on November 29, 1411, for 

in the parish of St. Botolph without Aldrychgate in Duklane, in the suburbs of 
London, lain in an ambush and killed William Bekyngham, and also for having 
on the same day and place struck the said William on the top [nodum] of the 
head with a sword called a ' bastard swerd/ inflicting a mortal blow from which 
he immediately died. 1 


Richard, seventh Lord Strange of Knockin, was a boy of six- 
teen when he succeeded his father on July 28, 1397, and he held 
the title for fifty-two years. The custody of him and his lands 
had originally been given by the King to Edward, Earl of Rutland, 
who granted it to Thomas, Earl of Worcester, and another to the 
use of Maud (de Mohun), Richard's mother. She shortly afterwards 
married Sir Nicholas Hauberk, but died, as has been mentioned, 
on September 20, 1400 ; on February 12 King Henry IV confirmed 
to Hauberk the custody of the young lord of Knockin, 2 on his 
undertaking to pay for it the sum of 400 marks into the Exchequer. 8 

During the summer of 1403 the Ellesmere tenants of Richard, 
who was not yet of full age, were involved by his steward, John 
Kynaston, in the conspiracy of the Percies and Glyndwr to restore 
Richard, if alive, or, if he were really deceased, to place the Earl 
of March upon the throne. It appears, from a pardon afterwards 
granted to the tenants, that Kynaston, under pretext of bringing 
them to the King, led them to Middle, where they did not find 
their lord. They would have withdrawn, but Kynaston threatened 
to behead and draw and hang them, and forced them ignorantly 
to go to the place where Henry Percy was, and there detained 
them. Hotspur was defeated and slain near Shrewsbury on 
July 23, and on August 13 a pardon was issued by Henry IV to 
the Ellesmere tenants. 4 

Richard made proof of age on August 16, 1404. The inquisition 

1 C.P.R., 1408-1413, p. 273. Ibid., 1399-1401, p. 424. 

3 Ibid., 1401-1405, p. 271. * Ibid. p. 253. 


taken thereon mentions that he was born at London, in the parish 
of St. Bartholomew the Less, in the ward of Bradstrete, and bap- 
tized in the same church on August i, 1381. l He was summoned 
to Parliament as Lord Strange de Knockin from August 25, 1404, 
to January 2, 1449, and the Rolls contain proof of his sitting. 2 
His name appears among those present in Parliament as witnesses 
to the two patents for settling the Crown on Henry IV and his 
four sons. 3 Richard Lord Strange was twice married. He must 
have married his first wife about the year 1408 ; the only mention 
of her parentage is in the following dispensation from Pope Gregory 
XII, dated at Siena on October 9 of that year : 

To Richard, lord le Strange, and Joan, damsel, daughter of the lord le Grey, 
of the dioceses of Lichfield and Lincoln, Dispensation to contract marriage, 
they having consent of their parents and other magnates, for the conservation of 
peace and concord in the realm Richard being a kinsman of Henry, Prince of 
Wales and for the union and conservation of the family estates (hereditates 
vestri generis), notwithstanding that they are related in the 3rd degree. 4 

Two other papal letters, dated April 6, 1413, convey Indults 
' to Richard Lestrange, nobleman, and Joan, alias Constance, his 
wife, noblewoman, of the diocese of Lichfield, to have a portable 
altar, and to choose their own confessor.' 5 There were at least 
three Lords Grey sitting in Parliament at this period viz. Grey 
de Codnor, Grey de Ruthyn, and Grey de Wilton ; but I am un- 
able to say to which of these Joan, alias Constance, should be 
affiliated. She lived until 1439, and in her will, dated on March 8 
of that year, she designates herself as the ' Lady Constance 
Lestraunge of Knockyn.' 6 

The manor of Edgware which, as we have seen, had been 
granted for life to Richard's uncle, Roger le Strange, was granted 
by Richard and Constance his wife, on December 10, 1430, to 
William Darell and Elizabeth his wife ; but, on June i, 1431, 
Richard granted to them a rent of a hundred marks from his manor 
of Dunham, with a proviso that it was not to be paid as long as 

1 Chancery Inq., 5 Hen. IV, File 45, No. 49. * Complete Peerage, vii. 274. 

3 Rolls of Parliament from Nicolas' Peerage. 

4 C. Pap. L., 1396-1404, vi. 140. 6 Ibid. vi. 345 and 387. 
6 Complete Peerage, vii. 274. 


they held the manor of Edgware. This was perhaps because the 
life-tenancy of Roger le Strange had not yet expired. 1 This 
charter bears a fine example of Richard's seal a crested helm 
over a shield, bearing two lions passant, on either side of which 
is a lion sejant guardant ; a different seal of Richard's is appended 
to the All Souls charter, Edgware, No. II. 

A commission was issued, on March n, 1414, to Richard le 
Strange and seven others in the county of Salop to arrest Lollards 
and imprison them. 2 A writ was directed to him as patron of the 
church of Hanmer, in Flintshire, which had been granted by Henry 
III to the abbots of Haughmond, and held by them until they 
were unjustly expelled by one of the ancestors of Richard ; the 
King now confirmed the advowson to the abbot. 3 

On Easter Day, 1417, Lord Strange killed Sir Thomas Trussell 
in a brawl in the church of St. Dunstan-in-the-East, London, 
' excited thereto,' according to Fabian's ' Chronicle,' ' by the Devil, 
and the evil disposition of their wives ' ; the following quaint 
description of this sacrilege and its punishment is given by another 
chronicler : 4 

Ande the same yere, a-pon Estyr daye at aftyr none, the Lord Strange and 
Sir John Trusselle, knyght, fylle at debate for hyr wy vys in the chyrche of Syn 
Donstonys in the Este, evyn at the prechyng tyme. In the same fraye Thomas 
Pedwardynne, fyssche monger, was slayne as he wolde have lettyde hem of hyr 
fyghtynge, and many men wer i-hurte ; and therefore the chyrche was suspendyd. 
And then was the Lorde Stronge a-restyd and brought into the Counter in the 
Pultrye, and the Sonday nexte aftyr he was cursyde in every chyrche in London, 
whithe boke, belle, and candelle, in one houre of the daye. And after he dyde 
his penaunsse for hys trespas agenst Hooly Chyrche. 

A full account of the brawl, which was begun by a quarrel 
for precedency of place in church between the ladies, is given 
in Bridge's ' History of Northamptonshire.' 5 

The name of Richard le Strange appears in the Commission of 
the Peace for Salop in the years 1422-4, 1426, 1439-41, 1443 ; and 
in that for Middlesex in 1445 and 1454-7.* 

1 Archives of All Souls, Oxon, 1877, p. 35 ; Edgware, 6 and u. 

* C.P.R., 1413-1416, p. 178. 8 Ibid. p. 394. 
William Gregory's Chronicle oj London (Camden Soc.), p. 115. * ii. 389. 

C.P.R., Hen. V, ii. 458 ; Hen. VI, i. 569 ; iii. 589 ; iv. 474, 477 ; vi. 671. 


On the death of John, Lord Mohun de Dunster, in 1375-6, 
that barony had fallen into abeyance among his daughters ; of 
these the eldest, Elizabeth, Countess of Salisbury, died without 
issue in 1415 ; the second, Philippa, Duchess of York, also died 
without issue in 1431, while the third, Maud, widow of John, 
sixth Lord Strange of Knockin, had died before 1401 ; so, on the 
death of Philippa, Richard le Strange, as representing his mother, 
Maud, became sole heir to his maternal grandfather, and succeeded 
to the barony of Mohun de Dunster, which from this period 
followed the descent of that of Strange of Knockin, until both 
passed into the family of Stanley. 

Richard was assessed at 6s. 8^. towards the subsidy of 1428 
in respect of a knight's fee at Coleham, Middlesex, for the cam- 
paign in France against Joan of Arc ; * and, on February 14, 
1436, his name appears in the writ requesting loans of ' cent 
livres ' from the persons there named, for the equipment of the 
army about to be sent to France. 2 

The second wife of Richard Lord Strange was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Reginald Cobham of Sterborough Castle. The 
marriage must have taken place very shortly after the death of his 
first wife Constance, whose will was dated March 8, 1439 ; as on 
August 26 following Richard had a licence to entail Ness, Ellesmere, 
and other manors on the issue of himself and his wife Elizabeth ; 3 
by her he had a son and heir, John, who succeeded him. The 
Inquisitions p.m. on Richard show that he died on August 9, 1449, 
and that his wife Elizabeth survived him. 4 She died four years 
later, on December 10, 1453. 5 

A weather-worn stone shield on the exterior of the east face 
of Ellesmere Church tower, on the string-course below the parapet, 
bears the arms of Richard Lord Strange and his second wife, viz. 
gules, two lions passant, argent, for le Strange ; quartering, or, 
a cross engrailed, sable, for Mohun ; and impaling gules, on a 
chevron, or, three . . ., for Cobham ; the stone is too much 
defaced to enable the bearings, if any, on the chevron to be made 

1 Feudal Aids, iii. 381. a Proc. of Privy Council, iv. 317. 

3 C.P.R., 1436-1441, p. 307. * Inq. p.m., 27 Hen. VI, No. 29, m. 5. 

5 Chancery Inq. p.m., 33 Hen. VI, File 153, No. 18. 


out. 1 Some branches of the Cobham family bore thereon three 
lioncels rampant, others three cross crosslets, or three estoiles. 2 


A Thomas le Strange occurs in North Wales between the years 
1415 and 1428 whom I am unable to identify. The first mention 
of him is in a list of payments for the protection of Wales during 
the reign of Henry V in the year 1415 : 546 was paid to Thomas 
Straunge and others for that purpose from March 25 to June 24 3 ; 
and on April 24 of the same year the sum of 282 145. 6d. was 
paid to Thomas Straunge for the custody of North Wales. 4 

An entry in the De Banco Plea Rolls for 1425 5 shows that 
Thomas Lestraunge, of Walton, esquire, sued Richard le Straunge 
of Knockin, knight, for the manor of Middle, which he claimed 
as heir-at-law of his niece, Alice, who had died s.p. 6 

A commission was issued on November 26, 1422, to Thomas 
Straunge, esquire, Constable of the castle of Chirk, to purvey 
horses, carts, and transport to convey fifteen prisoners of France 
from the said castle to London. 7 On July 18, 1426, and on Nov- 
ember 25, 1427, commissions were directed to Thomas Straunge, 
with others, to hold inquests as to treasons and felonies, &c., 
in Salop and the Marches. 8 Protection for a year was granted 
to Thomas Straunge, esquire, about to proceed to Ireland in 
company of John Sutton, knight, the King's Lieutenant of that 
county [sic], 9 and on July 12, 1429, Thomas Straunge, knight, 
was appointed to the office of Constable of the castle of Wicklow, 
on the frontier of the March in Ireland, with the usual fees ; 10 he 
must have been knighted during the interval. 

1 Information supplied April 30, 1914, by the Rev. F. G. Ellerton, Vicar of Elles- 

* Boutell's Heraldry (1864), p. 180, PI. xv. 

Henry V by J. H. Wylie (1914), i. 546, n. Iss. Roll, 3 Hen. V. 

8 4 Hen. VI, m. 308. 

8 De Banco Rolls, Trinity, 4 Hen. VI, m. 308 ; pedigrees from the Plea Rolls by 
Major-General the Hon. G. Wrottesley, p. 328. 

7 C.P.R., Hen. VI, i. 36. 8 Ibid. pp. 362 and 467. 

Ibid. p. 471. 10 Ibid. p. 543. 


MOHUN DE DUNSTER, 1449-1477. 

The inquisition on the death of his father shows that John le 
Strange was born on May 20, I444, 1 and was five years of age 
when he succeeded as eighth Lord Strange of Knockin and fourth 
Lord Mohun de Dunster. He was summoned to Parliament 
from February 28, 1467, to August 19, 1472, and the Rolls contain 
proof of his sitting. 2 Even during his minority his name was 
included in letters sent by King Henry VI to the lords spiritual 
and temporal requiring them to attend Parliament. 3 Before 
he was eighteen years of age he was placed in the Commission of 
the Peace and of Array for Middlesex, viz. on December 4, 1461, 
as 'John Straunge of Straunge, knight ' ; 4 and on September 21, 
1462, a licence was issued for ' John, lord le Strange, son and heir 
of Elizabeth [Cobham] le Strange, deceased, late the wife of 
Richard, lord le Strange, knight, deceased, who is nearly of full 
age, to enter into all his possessions in England and Wales, and 
the Marches of Wales. 5 From the beginning of his career he was 
a pronounced Yorkist. He was made a knight by bathing at the 
coronation of Edward IV on June 28, 1461, 6 and was one of the 
peers who took the oath of allegiance to Edward, Prince of Wales, 
as son and heir-apparent, at Westminster, on July 3, 1471. 7 His 
name appears repeatedly between 1466 and 1479 m Commissions of 
the Peace, of Array, and of Oyer and Terminer for the counties of 
Salop, Warwick, Middlesex, and Oxford ; 8 and he was appointed 
one of the Triers of Petitions in 1472. 9 

John le Strange married Jacquetta, or Jacinta, sister of Eliza- 
beth, Queen Consort of Edward IV, fourth daughter of Richard 
Wydville, first Earl Rivers, by Jacquetta, Dowager Duchess of 
Bedford, daughter of Peter de Luxembourg, Count of St. Pol 
and Conversan. 10 

1 Chancery Inq., 27 Hen. VI, File 134, No. 29. 

* Complete Peerage, vii. 274 ; viii. 516. 

3 Proc. Privy Council, vi. 282 and 292. * C.P.R., 1461-1467, p. 567. 

6 Ibid. p. 200. Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 3. 

7 Rolls of Parliament, Nicolas' Peerage. 8 C.P.R., Edw. IV, passim. 
9 Rolls of Parliament. 10 Complete Peerage, vii. 274. 


The church of Hanmer, in Shropshire, was given by John Lord 
Strange to the abbot of Haughmond on December i, 1476, for 
the endowment of a perpetual chantry there, with a daily Mass 
to be said on the altar of St. Anne, mother of the Virgin, for the 
souls of John and his wife Jacinta, of Richard, late Lord Strange, 
and Elizabeth his wife, parents of John, and of Constancia, 
former wife of the said Richard. Provided that, if the church of 
Hanmer should, by the rebellion of the Welsh or otherwise, be 
destroyed, so that it should not exceed the annual value of 10 
marks, then the said chantry should cease until the value of the 
said church exceeded that sum. 1 The above transaction affords 
some criterion of the difference in the value of money in the 
second half of the fifteenth century. If we put these 10 marks 
as the equivalent of the pay of a curate nowadays (A.D. 1914), 
say, 150 a year, it works out : 

i mark in 1476 =15 os. od. in 1914. 
xxs. ,, =22 los. od. ,, 

is. =1 2s. 6d. 

or an appreciation of 22 J times. 

A commission was issued on February 13, 1477, to ' John 
Straunge of Straunge, knight/ he being named first with sixteen 
others to inquire by oath into the capture of swans and cygnets 
on the Thames and its tributaries ' from Cirencestre to its mouth, 
by hooks, nets, lyme strynges, and other engines, the alteration 
and deletion of the marks of swans, and the taking of swans' eggs, 
and to arrest and imprison the offenders.' 2 

John Lord Strange died without male issue on October 16, 
1479, leaving as his heiress an only daughter, Joan, 3 who, thirty 
years later, caused to be erected in Hillingdon Church, Middlesex, 
a marble tombstone with a brass to the memory of her father 
and mother. The inscription no longer remains, but has been 
preserved by Weever, and was existing when he wrote in 1631.* 

1 Chartulary of Haughmond, fo. 856 and 86. * C.P.R., 1476-1485, p. 24. 

3 Chancery Inq., Edw. IV, File 70, No. 39. 

* Ancient Funeral Monuments within Great Britain, &>c., ist ed. of 1631, p. 530. 


It was probably on a brass fillet running round the edge of the 
marble slab, like that of Sir Roger le Strange in Hunstanton 
Church, which is of nearly the same date. The inscription given 
by Weever is as follows : 

Sub hac tumba iacet nobilis JOHANNES dominus le STRANGE, dominus de 
Knocking, Mohun, Wasset, Warnell, et Lacy, et dominus de Colham, vna cum 
pictura JACNETTE, quondam uxoris sue ; que quidem JACNETTA fuit soror ELIZA- 
BETHE regine Anglie, quondam uxoris regis EDWARDI quarti, qui quidem JOHAN- 
NES obiit 15 die Octobris, anno regni regis EDWARDI quarti 17, quam quidem 
tumbam JOHANNA, domina le Strange, vna cum pictura JACNETTE ex sump- 
tibus suis propriis fieri fecit 1509. 

The marble slab and brass was removed for its better preserva- 
tion some years ago from its original position, and fixed to the 
wall on the north side of the door leading from the church to the 
vestry. It will be noticed that the date of John's death given 
on the tomb, erected thirty years after that event, is October 15, 
77 Edward IV, i.e. 1477, whereas the verdict of the jury on the 
spot, given at the inquest held at the time, says that he died on 
October 16, 79 Edward IV, i.e. 1479. By the kind permission 
of the Monumental Brass Society, I am able to give a reduced 
copy of their rubbing of the brass. 1 

MOHUN DE DUNSTER, 1479-1514. 

Joan le Strange is stated, in the inquisition on her father's 
death, to have been sixteen years old and more when she inherited 
from him the two baronies of Strange of Knockin and Mohun de 
Dunster ; as was to be expected in the case of so great an heiress, 
she married shortly after her father's death, probably in 1480 ; at 
all events she was married before February 26, 1481, as the Patent 
Rolls of that date contain a licence for George Stanley, knight, 
and Joan his wife, daughter and heiress of John Lestraunge, 
knight, late Lord Lestraunge, to enter freely into all castles, 
manors, and other possessions in England, Wales, and the Marches 

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of Wales, late of the said John, which should descend to her after 
his death. 1 Joan's husband, Sir George Stanley, was son and 
heir of Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterwards created Earl of Derby 
by Henry VII, out of gratitude for Thomas's timely treason at 
the battle of Bosworth, where he is said to have picked up the 
Crown and placed it on Henry's head. George Stanley's life had 
been up to that day in great danger, since he was held by King 
Richard as a hostage for his father's loyalty. In right of his 
wife he was summoned to Parliament as a baron during his father's 
lifetime, by writs directed ' Georgia Stanley de la Strange,' from 
November 15, 1482, to January 26, 1497. He was a privy coun- 
cillor, and made Knight of the Garter in May 1487. He died, 
patre vivente, on December 5, 1497, at Derby House, London (on 
the site of the present College of Arms) . z His widow Joan, Baroness 
Strange, survived until March 20, 1514, and on her death her 
son Thomas, who had succeeded to the earldom of Derby ten 
years before, inherited his mother's baronies of Strange of Knockin 3 
and Mohun de Dunster, which thenceforth were merged in the 
earldom until the death of Ferdinando, the fifth earl, without 
male issue, on April 16, 1594 ; his brother, William Stanley, as 
heir male of the body of the grantee, succeeded to the earldom, 
but not to the older honours of the family, which fell into abeyance 
between Ferdinando's three daughters and co-heirs, among whose 
representatives the barony of Strange of Knockin still remains 
in abeyance. 


Thirty-four years later, viz. in 1628, James Stanley, eldest 
son of the sixth earl, was summoned to Parliament, vita patris, by 
writ directed to him as Jacobo Stanley de Strange, Chl'r,' under 
the erroneous belief that the barony of Strange of Knockin [of 1299] 
was vested in his father, and he was even placed in the precedency 
of that ancient barony, though this precedency was subsequently 

1 Pat. Rolls, Edw. IV, No. 27. * Complete Peerage, iii. 69, 70. 

1 Chancery Inq., 6 Hen. VIII, File 79, No. 159. 

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1 h. of William, 6th Earl of Derby, was summoned 
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in his father. This had the effect of a new ere 
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:d as 7th earl in 1642. He was beheaded Oct. 15, 





= Elizabeth, d. of Thos. [Butler], James [Stanley], 
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n [Murray], 4th Duke of Athole; 6. June 30, 1755 ; 
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disallowed. The effect of this writ was to create, in the Stanley 
family, a new barony of Strange, with precedency of 1628. This 
new peerage in its turn fell into abeyance on the death of William 
George Richard, ninth Earl of Derby and third Lord Strange, 
without male issue on November 5, 1702, between his two daughters 
and co-heirs. The younger of these died without issue in 1714, 
when the barony of Strange devolved upon her sister Henrietta, 
then the wife of John, Lord Ashburnham ; she too died without 
male issue on June 26, 1718, and the barony was inherited by her 
only surviving daughter, Lady Henrietta Bridget Ashburnham, 
who died unmarried on August 8, 1732, in her sixteenth year. 
The title then reverted to the Stanleys, in the person of the great- 
uncle of the deceased baroness, as heir general, viz. James, next 
brother to William George Richard, ninth Earl of Derby and third 
Lord Strange, who had himself on November 5 succeeded his said 
brother as tenth Earl of Derby, and now became sixth Lord Strange. 
He died without issue on February i, 1736, aged 71, when the 
earldom of Derby devolved on his cousin Edward Stanley, who 
became eleventh earl, but the barony of Strange, with the lordship 
of the Isle of Man and most of his other large estates, passed to 
the heir general, James Murray, second Duke of Athole, grandson 
of Amelia Sophia, daughter, and in her issue sole heir, of James 
Stanley, seventh Earl of Derby and first Lord Strange of the new 
creation. He sat in the British Parliament as a representative 
peer for Scotland in 1733, and in 1737 was summoned by writ as 
Lord Strange, and sat both as an English baron and a Scotch 
representative peer. James, the second duke, died without male 
issue in 1764, leaving an only surviving daughter, Charlotte, 
suo jure Baroness Strange, who married her first cousin, John 
Murray, third Duke of Athole ; she survived her husband, who 
died in 1774, and was succeeded by their son John as fourth duke. 
He, being at that time heir-apparent to his mother's English 
barony of Strange, was created, on August 18, 1786, Earl Strange 
in the peerage of Great Britain, and by that title the Dukes of 
Athole sit to-day in the House of Lords. Charlotte, Duchess 
of Athole and Baroness Strange, survived until 1805, an d her 
great-great-grandson, the present Duke of Athole, enjoys, merged 


among his many titles, the barony of Strange of the creation of 
1628, of which he is the twelfth holder. 1 

Mr. Cockayne remarks that : 

long after the barony of Strange had passed from the family of Stanley, Earls 
of Derby, in 1736, the style of LORD STRANGE continued to be assumed as the 
courtesy title of the heir-apparent of those earls during the eighteenth century. 

1 Complete Peerage, i. 187-191 ; iii. 73-75 ; vii. 269-271. 



IN the preceding chapters we have traced the story of the 
family of le Strange from its first appearance in Norfolk, circa 
noo, and its more important enfeoffments, a generation later, 
on the Welsh March in what is now the county of Shropshire. 
Some legendary stories as to its origin have been refuted, notably 
that of the descent from an imaginary Duke of Brittany ; it has 
been shown that the family did not come over with the Conqueror, 
but that the first of the name who settled in England did marry 
the daughter and heiress of the Domesday tenant of lands at 
Hunstanton which are still in the possession of her descendants ; 
the first settler came, not from Normandy, but from Anjou, and 
his very name points to the conclusion that even in his Angevin 
home he was reckoned to be of foreign extraction. The politics 
of the time are reflected in their transfer, with other Angevin 
families, by Henry of Anjou to the borderland of Wales, but they 
held on to their Norfolk property, and evidence has been given 
showing that, occasionally at least, they visited Hunstanton 
during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In the wars of the 
barons, and especially during the Welsh wars, they played a not 
unimportant part in the history of the time as a typical Marcher 
family, following nearly always the general movements which 
led the Marcher lords to take a decided line of their own, and 
that not always a consistent one, in the great problems of politics. 
The first John le Strange was one of four brothers who, during 
the reign of Henry II, were enfeoffed by that King in the manors 



of Ness, Cheswardine, Alveley, Little Ercall, Betton, Osbaston, 
Ruyton, Middle, and other places, all within the borders of 
modern Shropshire. Hamon, the second son of the founder, 
Roland le Strange, had done good service to Henry before 
he came to the throne, and consequently was the first of the 
family to receive a fief, namely, the manor of Cheswardine. 
Guy le Strange, the third brother, founded Knockin Castle, 
within the manor of Osbaston, and in 1160 succeeded William 
fitz Alan (I) in the important office of Sheriff of Salop ; in that 
capacity he was, during the frequent absence of King Henry on 
the Continent, responsible for the peace and safety of the middle 
March, and he rendered useful and loyal service to the Crown by 
holding the royal castles of Bridgnorth and Shrewsbury during 
the formidable rebellion of the King's sons in 1173-4. Ralph, 
the youngest of the four le Stranges, was employed in a position 
of trust as custodian of the King's silver mines at Carreghova. 
Thus we see that in the course of only one generation the family 
of le Strange had established themselves firmly as lords of many 
manors on the Welsh March, received in reward for strenuous 
service to Henry II. Too little has come down to us concerning 
these four brothers to enable us to form any estimate as to their 
personality, but the way in which, new-comers as they were, 
they succeeded in pushing themselves to the front, proves that 
they must have been possessed of considerable force of character 
as well as strength of arm, and their conduct and career laid a 
firm foundation for the future fortunes of the family. 

The second John le Strange had been in public life for some 
years before he succeeded his father in 1179, and for the long 
period of fifty-six years he successively served under Henry II, 
Richard I, John, and Henry III, as one of the Marcher lords in 
the debatable land of the Welsh border. During Richard's reign 
we have seen him assisting his dying cousin Ralph of Alveley 
in the protection of the royal mines at Carreghova, but he found 
time to prosecute at least three lawsuits in which he was engaged, 
showing that he was as tenacious of his own private rights as 
he was assiduous in the performance of his public duties. After 
the death of his uncle, Guy le Strange of Alveley and Knockin, 


John effected an arrangement with the heiresses who had inherited 
that frontier fortress, whereby he acquired possession of it, and 
immediately afterwards we find him styling himself lord of Knockin ; 
the growing importance of the position caused it thenceforth to 
be regarded as the principal seat of the elder branch of the family. 
During the years of King John's quarrel with the Pope, 1205 to 
1213, John le Strange did not side with most of the other barons 
against his sovereign, but occupied himself with holding the Marches 
for the King against the Welsh princes who had allied themselves 
with the barons of England. Even when the misdeeds of John 
compelled the barons to extort from him the great charter of their 
liberties, John le Strange did not waver in his allegiance ; his name 
appears as one of the only four knights on the border who had 
never borne arms against their sovereign : yet he so conducted 
himself as not to lose the respect or to incur the enmity of the 
barons, and, after the accession of Henry III, he even received 
marks of favour from those who ruled the councils of the young 
King ; for instance, he was granted an ' aid ' from the counties 
of Salop and Stafford to enable him to strengthen the fortifications 
of Knockin Castle, an object for which further provision was made 
by the King five years later. During these years le Strange was 
frequently employed as the King's representative in negotiating 
and enforcing the observance of truces with the Welsh, and also 
as Justiciar in settling disputes between them and the Crown. 
Towards the. close of his life his long and faithful services to 
King Henry and his father were rewarded by the grant in fee of 
the manor of Wrockwardine. His son, John le Strange, junior, 
entered public life during his father's lifetime ; he accompanied 
the King to Gascony in 1230, an expedition made with the object 
of recovering the lost provinces of the Crown. The long career 
of John (II), passed in steady and exemplary service on the border- 
land of Wales, consolidated the fortunes of his house, and enabled 
him to hand on to his son an example of the faithful performance 
of feudal duties and obligations. 

John le Strange (III) had already served an apprenticeship of 
twenty years in public life when he succeeded his father in 1233-4. 
He was made Constable of Montgomery Castle in 1235, wa s Sheriff of 

2 A 


Salop and Stafford from 1236 to 1245, and was frequently employed 
in settling disputes as to infractions of the truce with Llewelyn 
the Great, which he managed to effect without having recourse 
to arms. In 1240 he was appointed to the high office of Justice 
of the Palatine County of Chester, and as such occupied the posi- 
tion of a viceroy, representing the earl, who was also the King. 
The confidential relation in which he stood to his sovereign is 
shown by the patent of February 13, 1241, binding him, in the 
event of Henry's death, to deliver the castles in his custody to 
Queen Eleanor and her infant son Edward. John le Strange 
was practically military governor of the whole of the north March, 
and the measures taken by him consolidated the King's power 
in North Wales, and prepared the way for the future conquest 
of the country by Edward I. Le Strange's eldest son, John, 
and his second son, Hamon, are first mentioned in the year 1253. 
Hamon served under the King during the expedition of that and 
the following year to Gascony, and received marks of the royal 
favour there ; on his return home he was employed on the King's 
service in Scotland. The quarrel between Henry and the barons 
broke out in 1258. John le Strange the elder and Hamon re- 
mained faithful to the King, but John the younger at first espoused 
the cause of the barons; he soon attached himself to the party 
of Prince Edward, and was one of those who aided him in break- 
ing up the baronial group which had ruled the country since 
the ' Provisions of Oxford.' In 1262 Hamon was an adherent of 
Simon de Montfort, as also were several of the King's friends, 
but when Prince Henry took up arms against the barons in 1263, 
Hamon le Strange was among those who went over to the King's 
side ; the Lords Marcher, as a body, changed front and rallied 
round Prince Edward, and had an important influence on the 
struggle. Hamon received the appointment of Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire and Stafford, with the custody of the border castles. He 
was present at the defeat of the royal forces at Lewes on May 14, 
1264, but escaped from the field with Prince Edward, and raised 
a new force against de Montfort on the Welsh March. Hamon 
and his fellow Marchers continued in arms all the winter. In the 
spring of 1265 Prince Edward, who had surrendered himself after 


Lewes, effected his escape and joined the royalist army, which 
ended the struggle by defeating de Montfort at Evesham. For 
these services rewards were showered on Hamon le Strange, but 
a peaceful life at home was not to his liking ; his subsequent 
career, his joining the crusade of 1270, his marriage with the 
Queen of Cyprus, and his death in the Holy Land, have been 
narrated in Chapter IV. John le Strange the elder must have 
been about seventy years of age at the date of the battle of Eves- 
ham, and was consequently too old to take an active part in the 
final campaign. He died early in 1269, after a strenuous life of 
consistent adherence to his allegiance. 

John le Strange (IV), whom we have seen in active public life 
for some twenty years before he succeeded his father in 1269, 
had a much shorter tenure of the lordship of Knockin than any 
ot his predecessors, as he was accidentally drowned six years 
after he came into possession. During those six years England 
was practically without a King ; Henry III was in his dotage, 
and Edward I absent in the Holy Land. John's marriage with 
Joan de Somery, daughter of the co-heiress of the last Albini, 
Earl of Arundel, brought him a considerable accession of property. 
If there is little to be said of him in consequence of his premature 
death, his brothers upheld the fighting record of the family, and 
his sister, Hawyse, added influence to it by her marriage with 
the Prince of Upper Powys. Of Hamon, the crusader, sufficient 
mention has already been made. Roger of Little Ercall, the 
third son of John (111), had fought in early life against Simon 
de Montfort. During the first Welsh war of Edward I he served 
under Roger de Mortimer in the army of the middle March. Morti- 
mer died in the early part of the second Welsh war, and Roger 
le Strange succeeded him in command of the royal forces near 
Builth, and won the battle of Orewin Bridge, at which Llewelyn 
was slain. His intimate local knowledge of the country, and 
perhaps his connection with the Welsh magnates through the 
marriage of his sister Hawyse with Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn; 
caused him to be selected by King Edward as commander of the 
expedition sent to suppress the subsequent rising of Rhys ap 
Maredudd in 1287, and again his services were similarly employed 

2 A 2 


in the third and last rising of the Welsh in 1294. Soon after the 
death of his brother Hamon, Roger had received from the King 
a grant for life of the castle and manor of Ellesmere which had 
been held by Hamon, and he was the first of his family to be 
summoned to Parliament, viz. in 1295, as ' dominus de Ellesmere/ 
and under that designation he sealed the famous letter of 1301 
to the Pope. 

Roger's nephew, John (V) of Knockin, appears to have in- 
herited the fighting qualities of his race, but did not rise to the 
same distinction of independent command as did his uncle ; 
during the Welsh wars John frequently served under the orders 
of Roger, or, in the phrase of the day, was directed to ' be in- 
tendant to him.' His services were especially recognised by 
Edward as having been rendered spontaneously and gracefully, 
over and above what was required from him by the obligations 
of his tenure. After the conclusion of the Welsh wars John le 
Strange led some of his Marcher tenants to fight in Gascony for 
King Edward, who had a very high opinion of the value of the 
Welsh troops. John's estates were not confined to the original 
holdings of his family in Salop and Norfolk ; he held manors 
in several other counties. Through his grandmother, Nicola de 
Albini, he possessed part of the manor of Olney in Northampton- 
shire, and he also had lands in the counties of Stafford, Cambridge, 
Oxford, Warwick, and Gloucester. Yet the income from these 
extensive estates did not suffice to defray the expenses to which 
he was frequently put in raising and maintaining forces for the 
service of the Crown, and he was often reduced to the necessity 
of borrowing money from the Jews and Lombards. 

John le Strange served in Gascony in the expedition of 1296 
under the King's brother, Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, 
but returned in a year or two as his services were more required 
in the Scotch wars, in which he was constantly employed up to 
the death of King Edward in 1307. Peerage lawyers of a later date 
regard the barony of Strange of Knockin as having been created 
by the summons, issued from Berwick-upon-Tweed on December 
29, 1299, directing John le Strange (V) to attend the Parliament 
at London on February 27 following. His arms are blazoned 


among those of the knights recorded in the contemporary poem 
on the siege of Caerlaverock in 1300, and it was as lord of Knockin 
that he sealed the barons' letter of the following year to the Pope. 
Evidence has been given showing that John's daughter Elizabeth 
was the grandmother of the Welsh hero, Owen Glendower. John 
was summoned to the coronation of Edward II, and also to take 
part in an intended expedition against Scotland, and his son John 
was also in the King's service at the same time. In 1309 we find 
John (V), as Sheriff of Shropshire, employed in carrying out the 
severe measures against the Templars, and the Roll of Arms of 
the tournament of Stepney gives us a glimpse of him as one of 
three le Strange knights present there on May 28 of that year. 
In August 1309 he was ordered to raise a hundred men from the 
neighbourhood of Knockin for service against the Scots, but he 
died early in that month, probably in the camp at Berwick, having 
taken part in each of the campaigns of Edward I in Wales, Gascony, 
and Scotland. 

Roger le Strange, uncle of John (V), survived his nephew for 
about two years, but his fighting days had been over for some 
time ; he had served in even more campaigns than John, and in 
some had been entrusted with supreme command of the royal 
forces. In the wars of the barons he had fought on the King's 
side against Simon de Montfort, had effected his escape, subse- 
quent to the defeat of Lewes, and after contributing to the victory 
at Evesham, he received substantial grants of land and valuable 
offices in reward, notably the hundred and castle of Ellesmere, 
the shrievalty of the county and castle of York, and the custody 
of the Castle of the Peak of Derby. In right of his first wife, 
Maud, widow of Roger de Mowbray, and daughter and co-heiress 
of William de Beauchamp, he acquired further lands in Bedford- 
shire. He played a prominent part, as we have seen, in all three 
of the Welsh wars of Edward I, and his activities even extended 
to Ireland. His great services were requited by a grant of the 
important and onerous office of Justice of the Forest south of 
Trent, the discharge of the multifarious duties of which obliged 
him to be always on the move through the Midlands and all the 
southern counties of England. The expenses attendant thereon 


were not covered by the profits, and like his nephew and others 
of the family, he had to have recourse to loans. Roger's abilities 
were held in such high esteem by Edward I that he was sent as 
one of two envoys to Rome to obtain from the Pope recognition 
of the dependence of the Scottish Crown on that of England ; 
his diplomatic efforts succeeded in obtaining from Nicholas IV 
a confirmation of this recognition. He appears to have spent 
about a year in Rome ; on his return he resumed work as Justice 
of the Forest. His administration of the Forest Laws was con- 
ducted on somewhat more liberal principles than had been formerly 
the case, in that he afforded facilities for obtaining enclosures by 
private individuals in the royal forests. In 1297 he was relieved 
of his functions as Justice, probably owing to failing health, and 
for the remainder of his life he was unable to discharge any active 
duties ; but it is satisfactory to find that his past services were 
recognised by many marks of favour from the King, who, after 
Roger's death, which occurred on July 31, 1311, made provision 
for the fitting observance of his obsequies, and even granted a 
pension to his second wife, who survived him for more than 
twenty-five years. In Roger le Strange the characteristics and 
capacity shown by so many of his race reached, perhaps, their 
culminating point. As a soldier he was both a strenuous fighter 
and a good tactician. In civil life he discharged the duties of 
many diverse offices sheriff, justice, and ambassador to the 
advantage of his King and country, which were fully recognised 
and honoured by three successive sovereigns, and though his 
closing years were clouded by disease, he must have derived 
satisfaction from the continuance of the royal favour. The pity 
is that he left no legitimate descendants to carry on his honours 
and found a new branch of the family of which he was such a 
worthy representative. 

John le Strange (VI), second Lord Strange of Knockin, only 
enjoyed his honour and estates for about eighteen months. It 
has been shown that, during his father's lifetime, he had seen 
service in the Scotch wars. Immediately after his father's death 
he was summoned to Parliament, but Edward II abandoned the 
prosecution of his projected campaign against Scotland, and 


John was notified that the hundred men from Knockin, whom his 
father had been ordered to find, would not be required. The 
important arrangement by which a younger branch of the family, 
which eventually outlived the elder line, was settled at Hunstan- 
ton, has been given in full detail in Chapter VII, and a sketch 
has been given in Chapter IX of the history of the subsequent 
lords of Knockin, until the merger of the title in the earldom 
of Derby in 1514. John (VI) died early in 1311, at the age 
of twenty-nine. Besides his brother Hamon of Hunstanton he 
left another brother, named Eubulo, who attained to some 
distinction as a fighter, and was the fourth of his House to be 
summoned to Parliament as a baron. His name first appears 
in 1313 as one of the adherents of the Earl of ^Lancaster, son 
of Edmund Crouchback, in the events which brought about 
the death of Ga vest on. After the execution of Lancaster in 
1322 Eubulo married his widow, Alice, and through her acquired 
extensive manors and castles in many parts of the kingdom. She 
was the daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 
and in her own right Countess of Lincoln through her father, and 
also Countess of Salisbury through her mother. Two years after 
his marriage Eubulo was appointed by Edward II to the Constable- 
ship of Lincoln Castle, and was summoned to Parliament among 
the barons. From Edward III, in the early years of his reign, 
Eubulo and Alice received many marks of favour ; Alice was 
confirmed in the possession of considerable portions of the estates 
of her first husband which had been forfeited by his treason. In 
1332 Eubulo was relieved of his functions as Constable of Lincoln, 
and was employed by the King next year in his invasion of Scot- 
land, being present at the siege of Berwick and the battle of 
Halidon Hill. For his services he received a grant of the castle 
of Builth, in Wales, from whence he brought 2000 Welsh foot- 
men and 20 men-at-arms to assist Edward in his invasion 
of Scotland in 1335. Eubulo lost his life during the campaign 
there in the summer of that year, and as he left no children his 
honours perished with him, while such lands as he held in fee in 
his own right passed to his nephew and heir, Roger, fourth Lord 
Strange of Knockin. 


It remains now to make some mention of the le Stranges of 
the House of Blackmere ; they were descended from Robert, 
fourth son of John (III) of Knockin, by Eleanor de Whitchurch ; 
Robert had fought with his brothers Hamon and Roger against 
Simon de Montfort in the barons' wars ; like Hamon, he went 
with Prince Edward to the Crusade of 1270, but, more fortunate 
than his brother, returned in safety to end his days in England 
in 1276. His. son, Fulk, inherited Whitchurch from his mother 
Eleanor ; he served with credit as a young man in Gascony in 
1294, and also during all the Scottish campaigns of Edward I. 
Though not summoned to the Parliament held at Lincoln in 1301, 
his name as Lord of Corfham appears among those of the barons 
who sealed the letter to the Pope, and he was one of the three 
le Strange knights who were present at the tournament in 1309. 
In that year he was summoned to Parliament under the style 
of Lord Strange of Blackmere, and the rolls for the next fifteen 
years are full of writs directed to him for civil and military em- 
ployments. In the reign of Edward II Fulk was among the 
adherents of the Earl of Lancaster, and received a pardon for 
the part which he had taken against Gaveston and the King's 
friends. Like most of the Marchers, he espoused the policy of the 
lords ordainers, and on several occasions he appears to have 
evaded compliance with the royal writs requiring him to perform 
active service against the Scots. In 1321 he changed sides, like 
most of the Marcher lords, on account of their fear of Despencer's 
encroachments, and he joined the association formed by them 
to drive the Despencers out of the kingdom. Apparently he fought 
on the King's side at the battle of Boroughbridge, which resulted 
in the capture and execution of Lancaster. These services, and 
his early experiences in Gascony, procured for him in 1322 the 
appointment to the important office of Seneschal of Aquitaine, 
and he administered that province for upwards of a year, until 
stricken down there by illness from which he never recovered ; 
he probably died in France early in 1324. 

His eldest son, John, was under age when he succeeded as 
second Lord Strange of Blackmere ; he came of age on the day 
of Edward Ill's accession to the throne ; he had been trained 


at court as one of the ' valets,' or yeomen, of Edward II, and was 
continued in a similar position by the new King. The custody 
of Conway Castle was conferred on him when he was only twenty- 
four years of age, and he received a special grant of free warren 
in all his domains. There are many summonses to him to do 
service in the Scotch campaigns of Edward III. In 1345 John 
le Strange's name appears among the bannerets summoned to 
take part in Edward's abortive expedition to Flanders, and next 
year he was one of four le Stranges who took part in the campaign 
of Crecy and the siege of Calais, fighting as a banneret in the retinue 
of the Earl of Arundel, who commanded the second division of 
the army. A general pardon was granted to him ' for his good 
services in the war of France,' but he did not long survive, dying 
at the early age of forty-three. John's eldest son, Fulk, died 
under age only five weeks after his father, and was succeeded 
by his brother John as fourth Lord Strange of Blackmere. He 
died in 1361, having married Mary fitz Alan, daughter of Richard, 
Earl of Arundel, who survived her husband for thirty-five years, 
and was known as the ' Lady of Corfham.' Their son, John, the 
fifth baron, died under age, leaving a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
became Baroness Strange of Blackmere in her own right ; she 
was contracted in marriage when eight years old to Thomas de 
Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, afterwards first Duke of Norfolk, 
but died without issue while still a child, so the barony of Strange 
reverted to her aunt Ankaret, only sister of John, the fifth lord ; 
Ankaret married Richard, Lord Talbot, and their eldest son, on 
the death of his mother, became eighth Lord Strange ; he had 
issue only one daughter, also named Ankaret, who became Baroness 
Strange in her own right, but, dying an infant without issue, that 
title reverted to her paternal uncle, John Talbot, afterwards the 
celebrated Earl of Shrewsbury, so created by Henry V for his 
glorious military services in the French wars. Thus the barony 
of Strange of Blackmere became merged in the earldom of Shrews- 
bury, and so remained until the death of Gilbert, the seventh 
earl, in 1616 without male issue, when it fell into abeyance between 
his co-heirs, in which condition it still remains. 

It has been mentioned that the barony of Strange of Knockin 


also became merged in a higher but newer title, namely the 
earldom of Derby, in 1514 ; a curious state of things arose more 
than a hundred years later, which illustrates the intricacies of 
peerage law. On the death of Ferdinando, sixth Earl of Derby, 
without male issue in 1594, the earldom passed to his next brother, 
but the barony of Strange fell into abeyance between his three 
daughters as co-heirs thereof, and among their representatives 
it still so continues. James Stanley, eldest son of Ferdinando's 
brother William (the sixth earl) was summoned to the House of 
Lords during his father's lifetime as Lord Strange, by writ of 
1628, under the erroneous belief that the barony of Strange of 
Knockin was vested in his father. The mistake was discovered, 
and his precedence corrected, but it was held that the effect of 
this writ, inadvertently issued, was to create in the Stanley 
family a new barony of Strange with precedence of 1628. This 
peerage in its turn passed to an heir general instead of to an heir 
male, and became vested in the family of the Hurrays, Dukes 
of Athole in the peerage of Scotland, and it was in virtue of the 
barony of Strange that they sat in the English House of Lords ; 
in 1786 the fourth duke was raised to the peerage of Great Britain 
as Earl Strange, and it is under this title that his descendants 
still sit ; the present duke, who enjoys ten separate titles in the 
peerage of Scotland, and five in those of England or of Great 
Britain, is, among the latter, the twelfth Lord Strange of the 
creation of 1628. 

The original enfeoffments of the three le Strange brothers by 
Henry I in what is now Shropshire were at three somewhat widely 
separated centres, viz. John, the eldest, was established at Ness 
in the north-west, Hamon at Cheswardine in the north-east corner, 
while Guy became Lord of Alveley in the extreme south-eastern 
part, beyond Bridgnorth. Osbaston had been originally conferred 
on Hamon, but was inherited by Guy of Alveley, who founded in it 
the castle of Knockin, which in the next generation passed from 
Guy's daughters and heiresses to their cousin John (II) of Ness, and 
thenceforth became the seat of the eldest branch of the family. On 
the death of Hamon without issue, Cheswardine had already passed 


to his eldest brother, John (I). By sub-infeudation, mainly from 
the Fitz Alans, the fief or chatellany of Knockin soon acquired a 
very considerable accretion of territory to the north and north- 
west of Shrewsbury : Knockin, Ruyton, Ness, Melverley, Bas- 
church, and Middle, with other smaller manors, were almost 
continuous, while, a little to the north of this group, Ellesmere, 
with Colemere and Welsh-Hampton, formed the nucleus of another 
cluster of le Strange manors. Almost as many, but more separated 
from one another, were held by different members of the family 
on the west and north-west of Shrewsbury, viz. Longnor, Wrock- 
wardine, Little Ercall, Cheswardine, and Whitchurch ; while 
still farther afield to the south lay Church Stretton, with Acton- 
Scott and Glazeley, and Alveley in the south-eastern corner of 
the county. Many of these le Strange manors seem to have 
possessed some sort of exceptional franchise, though some were 
held ' in chief ' and others under the Fitz Alans. Ness, for in- 
stance, did suit to the county, but not to the hundred ; it also 
had free warren with a free court, franchise of gallows and pit, 
waifs and infangentheof. Middle, too, had free warren, and, 
though it owed suit to the county and hundred, it paid no con- 
tribution to the Hundred Court. Cheswardine did suit to the 
county, but not to the hundred, and had free warren and a park ; 
even Wrockwardine claimed free warren. Eyton points out 
that the following estates and manors had jurisdiction more or 
less analogous to the jurisdiction of a hundred : Corfham, 1 Wrock- 
wardine, 2 Middle, 3 Great Ness, 4 Little Ness, 5 and Church Stretton. 6 
It would be interesting, but is probably impossible, to ascertain how 
much of these possessions came by grant from the English Crown, 
and how much grew up by annexation from the ' Welshry ' : each 
case depends on geographical position. In the instance of Knockin, 
situated on the actual border of the debatable land, there can 
be no doubt that half, or more than half, was acquired by en- 
croachments on the principality : the inquest on John le Strange 
(IV) in 1276 specifies that the manor of Knockin was worth 20 
per annum, while the ' Walcheria de Knockin ' was worth 30. 

1 v. 160, 162, 169. * ix. 26. * x. 68. 

* x. 272, 288. 8 x. 101. * xii. 17. 


It need not be assumed that all these annexations were acts of 
conquest made against the will of the small tenants ; many of 
these may have found it much to their interest to transfer their 
allegiance from a weak Welsh landlord to a powerful English 
baron, who in return for fixed services assured them in the occu- 
pation of their lands. The Marcher lordships had grown up 
gradually from force of circumstances, and rested on no direct 
grants from the Crown ; though nominally held in capite, they 
were self -governed, and merely owed feudal subjection to the 
King ; until the prerogatives of the Lords Marcher were vested 
in the Crown by Henry VIII they were, in theory and in practice, 
independent rulers within their territories ; the King's writ did not 
run there ; the lords appointed sheriffs, constables, escheators, 
and other officers ; they held in their own name pleas of the 
Crown, and even claimed the right of making war and peace with 
their neighbours at pleasure. 1 Of the manors held at one time 
or other by the le Stranges, the group round Knockin and the 
extensive territory of Ellesmere, certainly attained to the position 
of Marcher states, and, as such, were not comprised within the 
limits of any English or Welsh county. It was not until the Act 
of Union between England and Wales (27 Henry VIII, cap. 36) 
that Knockin and all the territory up to and including Oswestry 
was included in the county of Shropshire. Professor Tout says 
that a comparison of the Hundred Rolls with the Act of Union 
of Henry VIII, which settled the shires of the west, suggests that 
the Marcher lordships only gradually acquired the remarkable 
degree of independence to which they had attained in 1535. In 
the Hundred Rolls, Ness, Ellesmere, and Middle seem to be simply 
parts of the Hundred of Pimhill, which was in the King's hands, 
and even Knockin (and for that matter Oswestry itself) seem 
loosely attached to the Hundred of Bradford, though Oswestry 
is expressly declared to be free of suit to the Hundred Court. In 
the time of Henry VIII not only is Oswestry outside Shropshire, 
and formally annexed to it by the Act of Union, but Knockin, 
once a fief of Oswestry, is a separate Marcher lordship, and sepa- 

1 See English Law in Wales and the Marches, by Henry Owen, D.C.L., 1900. 


rately included in Shropshire as part of the new Hundred of Oswes- 
try. Similarly Ellesmere, as a result perhaps of the grant to the 
le Stranges, had gone out of Pimhill Hundred to become a separate 
Marcher lordship, and was now reannexed to it. All this illus- 
trates remarkably the development and formulation of Marcher 
power in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

Having thus far given such account as the materials which 
have come down to us enable one to do, with regard to the indi- 
vidual members of the family, and having traced the descent of 
the main branches thereof, it may be worth while to set down a 
few remarks on the general part played by the le Stranges in their 
day, and notably in the history of the Welsh March. Without 
claiming for them any very prominent place in the annals of 
their time, and without venturing to assert that any of them 
were either great as statesmen or as strategists, it is surely safe 
to say that the record of their doings gives a useful insight into 
the undercurrent of events which shaped the history of their 
period during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. They seem 
to have been a typical Marcher family, following nearly always 
the general movements which led the Marcher lords to take a 
decided, if sometimes not quite a consistent line of their own in 
the great problems of general politics. Like other Marcher fami- 
lies, they often played a part somewhat beyond their resources, 
and involved themselves in debt ; Professor Tout thinks that 
this may be the reason why the west country branches of the 
family have either become extinct, or have been absorbed in 
other great baronial families. This stands in great contrast 
with the more even tenour of the ways of the Norfolk branch of 
the family which, though seldom looming so large in history, has 
happily survived to our own days. 

One would like to be able to form some idea of the personality 
of these restless, hard fighting le Stranges. What were their 
individual characteristics and aims ? What manner of men 
were they in themselves and in their dealings with others ? That 
they were fierce, brave, energetic, and turbulent, is merely to 
say that they were of their age and race, moulded by their en- 


vironment ; but they were also in some degree instrumental 
in shaping the policy of their time. They were keen in pushing 
their own interests, and successful in building up the fortunes of 
their House, yet without incurring the enmity or jealousy of their 
neighbours. Certainly in some particulars they were not over- 
scrupulous in adhering to the strict requirements of the law ; the 
King's venison, for instance, was by no means sacred in their 
eyes. This turbulence extended even to the clerical members of 
the family, as witness Eubulo of Gresford, who had no scruple 
about killing his man, even when himself getting on in years ; 
they would not have belonged to their time and district had not 
this been the case. If large donations to ecclesiastical foundations 
are to be accepted as a sign of personal piety, the repeated gifts 
made by each generation to their favourite abbey of Haughmond 
will earn for them a high place among the most pious sons of 
Mother Church. What seems to be the most distinguishing 
characteristic of the family, as well as that which entitles a de- 
scendant to look back to its story with pride and veneration, is 
that during those two centuries of constant insurrection and 
intrigue, no charge of having betrayed his trust for any base 
or interested motive was ever laid by any of their feudal lords to 
the door of any member of the House. Objection has been made 
that too much stress has been laid in preceding chapters on the 
loyalty of the family as a characteristic, in that it was at times 
very conditional. Surely this record of their services for 200 
years is sufficient to invalidate this stricture. Guy, the founder 
of Knockin, held the border castles for Henry II during the 
critical time of the rebellion of that King's sons in 1173-4. John 
(II) of Knockin was faithful even to a king like John, and was 
singled out as one of the only four Marcher lords who had never 
borne arms against him. John le Strange (III) fought on the 
King's side throughout the whole of the wars of the barons. His 
eldest son at first espoused the cause of Simon de Montfort, but 
afterwards attached himself to the party of Prince Edward ; 
Hamon (the crusader) also began by fighting under de Montfort, 
but changed front with the other Marchers in 1263. In those 
days, when the King was a captive in the hands of a faction, 


resistance to his nominal commands did not necessarily imply 
treason to the royal cause. Roger, the third brother, also fought 
on the side of Henry III against the barons ; under Edward I 
he saw service in everyone of that King's Welsh wars, and had 
under his command his own nephew, John (V) of Knockin, who 
was specially commended by Edward for having given volun- 
tarily more service than was due by the obligation of his feudal 
tenure. If in a later generation members of the family, both 
from Knockin and Blackmere, took part in the rising against the 
favourites of Edward II, such conduct is scarcely sufficient to 
indicate a lack of loyalty to the Crown. On a careful review 
of the whole record it may fairly be claimed that steady loyalty 
was a distinguishing characteristic of the family, and that if any 
conditions were attached to it, those conditions were consistent 
with fidelity to the real as opposed to the nominal interests of 
the Crown, and were in no single instance dependent on any 
consideration of personal advantage. 



AT what period the two lions passant which have always formed 
the le Strange coat of arms were first adopted it is impossible to 
say ; though, probably, at least as early as the time of John le 
Strange (II), who lived during the third crusade, in which King 
Richard took part. It was towards the close of the twelfth 
century that distinctive heraldic bearings were adopted as a 
necessity to enable the followers of a knight to recognise their 
leader, whose features were entirely concealed by the close helmet 
which at that period superseded the open one, furnished only with 
a nasal, hitherto worn by the Normans, as depicted in the Bayeux 
tapestry. The lions were certainly used by John le Strange (III) 
when he was Sheriff of Shropshire, 1236 to 1248. The earliest 
known Roll of Arms is that called the Roll of King Henry III, 
a copy of which exists in the College of Arms, made by the 
herald Robert Glover in 1586. The original Roll, made between 
1240 and 1245, has disappeared since Glover's time, but his MS. 
was edited by Sir Harris Nicolas in 1829, and an emblazoned copy 
of the arms was printed by Messrs. Harrison & Son of 23 Great 
Portland Street. In this emblazoned copy appear the following 
arms : J. le Strange, argent, two lions passant in pale, gules ; 
and John le Strange, the same, differenced by a label of five points, 
azure. It will be noticed that the tinctures in each case have been 
counter-changed ; the arms as given being those subsequently 
borne by the Blackmere branch of the family, whereas they are 
obviously intended for those of John le Strange (III) of Knockin, 

and his son, John (IV). 



Mention has been made in Chapter IV * of the bond, dated 
October 24, 1268, by which Hamon, the crusader, borrowed 
fifty marks of Hagim, the Jew ; to this bond is still attached a 
broken seal, from the legend on which all but a few letters is gone, 
but the two lions passant remain, and above the shield a small 
crescent. Hamon was the second son of his father, but Sir Alfred 
Scott-Gatty, Garter, thinks that the date of the seal is too early 
to warrant the conclusion that the insertion of the crescent, which 
in later times was used as a mark of cadency for a second son, is 
in this instance anything more than a coincidence, as it was a 
common practice in early seals to place celestial bodies above a 
shield : for instance, on the secretum of Margaret de Redvers, 
ante 1252, above the shield of her arms, which, curiously enough, 
are two lions passant, is placed a star within a crescent. 

Another seal of this Hamon has survived, attached to his grant 
of the manor of Chawton to his brother Robert. 2 Here again the 
legend is almost gone, but the lions passant are quite distinct, and 
in the space on the dexter side of the shield is a star of five points, 
and on the sinister side a crescent. By this deed Hamon did 
not raise any money for his expenses to the crusade ; he granted 
the manor to his brother for the consideration of a chaplet of 
flowers to be paid annually on the day of St. John Baptist. As 
Robert also went on the crusade it is difficult to understand why 
the grant was made to him ; perhaps it passed before Robert 
had made up his mind to go to the Holy Land. 

Eyton gives an engraving 3 of an early seal of a Henry le 
Strange of Brocton, whom I have not been able to identify ; 4 
it bears in the centre, but not on a shield, a single lion passant to 
the sinister. It may be of very early date, before the charge of 
two lions had become finally adopted as the cognisance of the 

John le Strange (V), first Baron Strange of Knockin, was 
among the knights present with Edward I at the siege of Caer- 
laverock in 1300, and the contemporary Roll of Arms displayed 
there gives his coat as follows : 

1 Supra, p. 143. * Supra, p. 145. s ii. 124. * See p. 91. 

2 B 


Johans le Estrange le ot livree Rouge o deuz blans lyons passans. 1 
[John le Strange had it coloured red, with two white lions passant.] 

A representation of his seal from a charter in the British 
Museum 2 is given in the ' B.M. Catalogue of Seals,' 3 though the 
lions are incorrectly described there as guardant ; an inspection 
of the original shows that they are simply passant. 

This John was one of the three le Strange barons who sealed 
the famous letter to the Pope in 1301, all the seals on which have 
been figured in photogravure by Lord Howard de Walden in his 
admirable monograph on that letter. By his courtesy in lending 
me the blocks I am enabled to give presentments of all three of 
them. The seals of the several barons, now separated from the 
parchment on which the letter was engrossed, but still attached 
to the original silken cords on which they were affixed, are ex- 
hibited in two glass cases in the Museum of the Public Record 
Office. They are beautifully represented, in Lord Howard's mono- 
graph, in full size, on their respective cords, and in their several 
colours, with an Introduction by himself, and a short life history 
of each of the earls and barons. 4 That of John le Strange, on 
cord xii, A 23, depicts him in armour, on a barded horse, bran- 
dishing his sword ; helm with a fan plume, vizor down. On his 
shield and on the caparisons of his charger he bears the two 
lions passant of his House, and round the seal runs the legend : 


The other le Strange seals attached to the letter to the Pope 
are those of Roger of Ellesmere and Fulk of Blackmere. That 
of Roger, on cord A 65, bears the two lions passant with a bordure 
engrailed for a mark of cadency. The shield is suspended by its 
guige from a hook, the space on either side being filled in with scroll 
work. The ' British Museum Catalogue of Seals ' gives another 
example of the same. 5 Apparently a bordure engrailed was some- 
times used as the distinctive mark of a third son. Eyton gives an 
instance from the Corbet family. 6 

1 See p. 211. * Add. MSS. 8068. * ii. 770, No. 9522. 

' Some Feudal Lords and their Seals, MCCC (the De Walden Library), pp. 85, 
140, and 166. B ii. No. 11,315. vii. 360-1. 

Plate X. 

i . 





. of 



10 lace ptigi' 370 


The shield of Fulk, first Lord Strange of Blackmere, on 
cord A 63, shows the two lions passant, without, of course, 
indicating the counterchange of tinctures by which it was 
differenced from the arms of his cousin of Knockin. An 
example of this seal is also to be seen in the ' British Museum 
Catalogue.' 1 

A list in the British Museum of the names and arms of the 
bannerets of England, c. Edward II, 2 gives the following coats 
as differenced by five members of the family : 

'Sire Johan le Estrange; de goules a ii lions passanz de 

' Sire Roger le Estrange ; meymes les armes od la bordure en- 
dente de or. 

' Sire Fouk le Estrange ; de argent, a ii lions passanz de goules. 

' Sire Hamoun le Estraunge ; de goules, a deux lions passanz de 
argent, e un baston de or. 

' Sire Johan le Estraunge ; de goules a les merelos de or, e ii lions 
passanz de argent.' 

Who the second Sir John was is not apparent. The merelos 
de or, I take it, indicate an orle of martlets, as, in the Roll of Arms 
of the tournament held at Stepney in June I3O9, 3 Sir John le 
Strange is chronicled as bearing, gules, two lions passant, argent, 
within an orle of eight martlets, or. 

The name of Fulk le Strange of Longnor appears among those 
of the knights present at the tournament of Dunstable in 1333, 
as bearing, de goules ore deux lyons rampants d' argent, coronnes 
d'or* He was the second son of Fulk, first Lord Strange of Black- 
mere, and was enfeoffed by his father in the manors of Longnor 
and Bett on-Strange. 

The seal of John le Strange (VI) of Knockin still remains 
attached to the charter, preserved at Hunstanton, 5 by which he 
granted that manor to his younger brother Hamon. As will be 
seen from the photogravure on Plate X, (5) it is a small seal, not 

1 ii. 770, No. 9521. * MS. Cotton, Calig. A. xviii, pencil fo. 3-21. 

8 Collect. Top. et Genealog., iv. 70. 

4 B M. Cotton, MSS. Otho D, iv. 92 ; Sloane MSS. 1301, 257. 6 Supra, p. 259. 

2 B 2 


quite an inch in diameter, with shield in the centre, bearing two 
lions passant, surrounded by the legend : 


Hamon, the grantee of Hunstanton, differenced his paternal 
arms by surmounting them with a bendlet, or ; and with this 
difference they were used by the Hunstanton branch until the 
main stem at Knockin died out in 1514, in the person of Joan, 
Baroness Strange of Knockin, who married George Stanley, and 
brought about the merger of her title in the earldom of Derby ; 
the le Stranges of Hunstanton then became the direct represen- 
tatives of the name, and thenceforth bore the two lions passant 
without the bendlet. 

Eubulo le Strange, the husband of Alice de Lacy, Countess of 
Lincoln, differenced his paternal arms by surmounting them with 
a label of three points, or, each point charged with a lion rampant 
of the field. 1 

Robert le Strange, fourth son of John (III) of Knockin, and 
father of Fulk, first Lord Strange of Blackmere, bore the two lions 
passant within an orle crusilly fitchee, argent* 

The bordure engrailed, as borne round the arms of Roger of 
Ellesmere, is sometimes described as a bordure indented? The 
Parliamentary Roll, printed by Sir F. Palgrave, gives the following 
coat as borne by Johan le Estraunge : Gules, within a bordure 
indented, or, two lions passant, argent, debruised by a bendlet azure* 

A paper in the ' Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological 
Society ' 5 states that Hamon, the crusader, who had a grant of the 
manor of Ellesmere in 1267, bore, gules, two lions passant, argent, 
within a bordure engrailed, or. If this be correct, Hamon may 
have passed on this mark of difference to his brother Roger, to- 
gether with the manor of Ellesmere, when he enfeoffed the latter 
in that manor on starting himself for the Holy Land in 1270. 

For drawing my attention to several of these marks of difference, 
and giving me references to the authorities for them, I am greatly 

1 E.D.N. Alphabet, Coll. of Arms, z Harl. MSS. 6137, fo - 77 b > rs - 

3 Pavl. Writs (Sir F. Palgrave), i. 1486, 4106. 

* B.M. Cotton, MSS. Calig. A. xviii, pencil fo. 3-21. 5 vii. 200. 


indebted to the kindness of Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty, Garter, whose 
wealth of information, courteously placed at my disposal, enables 
me to give many of the foregoing particulars ; they are instruc- 
tive as showing seven or eight diverse methods adopted by early 
heralds for differencing the paternal coat of a single family, while 
preserving the essential features of the original charge. 

Further indications of cadency, together with later develop- 
ments of heraldry in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
such as crest, badge, motto, and supporters 'must be reserved 
for notice when dealing with the later history of the family ; 
but one example, showing the widespread use of armorial repre- 
sentation in connection with architecture, I may introduce here, 
though it relates to a later period than that to which the present 
volume is confined. 

The le Strange shield turns up unexpectedly on the coast 
of Asia Minor in the early years of the fifteenth century. The 
mediaeval castle of Budrum, then called St. Peter Liberator, had 
been built on the site and out of the ruins of Halicarnassus by the 
knights of St. John in 1404, during their occupation of the island 
of Rhodes, as an outpost on the mainland, and a place of refuge 
for escaped Christian slaves. The walls are of great thickness, 
and adorned with the armorial bearings of the knights. The 
south-eastern tower, which rises from the rocks by the sea in 
three stories, appears to have been built by the English knights 
of the Order, as it is ornamented by a display of English heraldry 
of great antiquarian interest. High up on the western wall the 
arms and crest of England are carved in marble, and they appear 
again over the doorway on the north side, flanked by two shields 
with crosses of the Order ; while, a little lower, is a long line of 
twenty-two shields, eleven on either side, besides three smaller 
ones under the central lower shield. These armorial bearings 
were partially described by the late Sir Richard Holmes, for Sir 
Charles Newton's work on Halicarnassus, 1 and more fully by Sir 
Clements Markham in 1893, before the Society of Antiquaries. 2 
Sir Clements' cousin, Admiral Sir Hastings Markham, K.C.B., who 

1 Vol. ii., part ii. Appendix, i. 666. 

1 Proc. Soc. Antiq. (2nd series), xiv. 281-7. 


explored the castle with him, has contributed to the ' Transactions ' 
of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Freemasons a detailed paper, 
illustrated by excellent photographs. 1 Of these shields six, viz. 
three on either side of the central one, bear the Plantagenet arms ; 
the first shield, next to these on the right as you face them, bears 
the two lions passant of le Strange of Knockin, and most of the 
other heraldic bearings have been identified. It is not contended 
that scions of these twenty-two noble houses were actually en- 
gaged in the building of this fortress in Asia Minor. Richard, 
seventh Lord Strange, for example, had just made proof of age 
in 1404, and been summoned to Parliament, and it is not likely 
that he was at Budrum ; but there is evidence that Lord fitz 
Hugh, whose arms appear on the tenth shield on the right, was 
personally connected with the building of this distant Christian 
outpost. Admiral Markham adopts his cousin's explanation, that 
the appearance of all these English arms here indicates that the 
English knights of the Order, whose own arms are perhaps those 
on the three small shields below the centre, had been adherents 
of, or were in some way connected with, the noble houses whose 
bearings they associated with those of their King, Henry IV, over 
the gateway of the tower of the English langue in this remote 

It is worthy of mention that a family of Lestrange still exists 
in France ; but as 800 years have elapsed since the progenitor 
of the English stock came over from Anjou, at a period before 
heraldic bearings, if in use at all, had any hereditary fixity, it is 
not likely that any connection can be established. The French 
family belongs to Languedoc, far to the south of Anjou, and, 
curiously enough, their arms consist of lions ; the bearing, as 
given in Rietstep's Armorial General (Gouda, 1861) are, ' de gueles 
d un lion d' argent en chef, et deux lions adosses d'or, en pointed 

1 Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, xvii. 74-83. 


Names which belong to Official Lists, or seem to have any genealogical relation, are 
usually classified in order of succession, not alphabetically. Reference to extended notice 
of any individual is made by larger figures. 

ABERFRAW, Prince of, 101, 102 
Acton, Edward de, 207, 288, 304 
Adeliza, Queen, n 
jElfric, Bishop of Elmham, 15 
Aigueblanche (Aquablanca), Peter de, 

Bishop of Hereford, 131 
Ala, domina, 45 

Alanson, Robert, prior of Castleacre, 49 
Albemarle, Earl of, 75 
Albini, Cecily de, 161 

William de (III), Earl of Arundel, 

15 8 . J 59 

Mabel, wife of, 159 

Hugh de (last Earl of Arundel), 154, 

159, 160, 191, 199. See Arundel 
- Isabel, wife of, 159, 191 

Nicola de, 154, 157, 158, 159, 160, 

199. 35 6 

family of. See Arundel 
Albo Monasterio, William de, 120 
Aldithelegh. See Audley 
Aleby, Thomas de, 49 
Alemania, Henricus de, 228 
Alexander III, King of Scotland, 122 

Ill, Pope, 35, 39 
Alguzo, Guigan, 10 
Alivi, 12 

Alphonso IV, King of Castile, 120, 239 

son of Jayme I of Arragon. 228 
Andrew, son of Hubert, Provost of 

Shrewsbury, 150 

Anjou, Fulk of, King of Jerusalem, 147 
Apelton, John, son of Thomas de, 178 
Cristiana, wife of, 178 

Aqua, John de, 235 
Arnald, Thomas, 243 
Arteveldt, Jacob van, 312 
Arthur of Brittany, 71 
Arundel, Adam de, 85 

Earl of, and Sussex, William de 

Albini (I) (1138-1176), n, 13, 23, 
36, 169 

(II), (1176-1103), 14, 60, 

(Ill), (1193-1221), 158, 

Hugh de Albini (1234-1243), 

154, 159, 191, 199 

Isabel, wife of, 191 

Richard fitz Alan (1272-1302), 

48, 49, 52, 168, 1 80, 199, 200, 205, 

293. 3io. 3n. 3M. 315. 3i 8 . 320, 
321, 327, 328, 331, 335, 337 

Edmund fitz Alan (1302-1326), 69, 

164, 210, 213, 214, 222, 265, 274, 

293. 298, 323, 33L 338 
Ashburnham, Earl of, John, 348, 349 

Lady Henrietta Bridget, Baroness 

Strange, 348, 349 

Athens, Aalis, daughter of Duke of, 147 
Athole, ist Marquess of, John Murray, 


ist Duke of, John Murray, 348 

2nd Duke of, James Murray, and 7th 

Lord Strange, 348, 349 

3rd Duke of, John Murray, 348, 349 

4th Duke of, John Murray, gth Lord 

Strange, and ist Earl Strange, 348 




Athole, 5th Duke of, John Murray, loth 
Lord Strange and 2nd Earl Strange, 


6th Duke of, George Murray, nth 

Lord Strange, and 3rd Earl Strange, 


7th Duke of, John Murray, i2th Lord 

Strange, and 4th Earl Strange, 348, 


Aubigny. See Albini 
Audley (Aldithelegh), Henry de, 68, 69, 

76, 100, 101, 103, 104, 112, 114, 

117, 118 
Hugh de, 291 

James de, 123, 124, 125, 127, 130, 


Nicholas de, 307 

Katharine, wife of, 307 

James, son of, 307 

Aurifax, William, 150, 231 
Aynho, prior of (1266), 141 

BACON, Edmund, 271 
Bada, Guillegrip de, 10 

Rainerus de, 10 
Badlesmere, Bartholomew de, 244 

Guncelin de, 189, 235 
Bagge, John, 4 

Nicholas, son of Mariota, 200 
Bagod, Henry, 101 

Balian le Fran?ois, 147 

Balliol, John, King of Scotland, 122 

Edward, King of Scotland, 279, 280 
Banastre, William, 55 

Bangor, Bishop of (1204), 71 
Robert, 77 
Baniard, Galfridus, 155, 156 
Banyard, Ralph, 4 

Robert, 271 
Bardolph, Hugh, 87 

John, 179 

William, 121 
Barentyn, William de, 172 
Baret, William, 271 
Barlais, Guillaume, 147 
Barlings, abbot of, 283 

Baruth, Dame de, 147. See Ybelin 

Sire de, 147 

Eschive, daughter of, 147 

Baskerville, Walter de, 314, 315 
Basset, Philip, 127 

Ralph, 10, 128, 134, 136, 159, 303 

Richard, 140, 141 
Bassingbourne, Warren de, 134 

Bath and Wells, Bishop of, Robert 

Burnell, 289 
Baucis, Galfridus de, 100 

Willelmus de, 12 
Baus, Willielmus des, 5 

Beam, Vicomte de, Gaston de Moncada, 


Beauchamp, William de, 229, 230 
Beaufoe, Ralph de, 176 
Beaumont, Robert de, Earl of Leicester, 


Beccam, Willelmus fil. Radulphi de, 12 
Beckbury, Hugh de, 87 
Bedford, Duchess of, Jacquetta, 344 

Earl of, Ingelram de Conci, 320 
Begesoure, William de, 91 
Bekyngham, William, 339 
BellSme, Robert de, n, 23 
Belvaco, Philip de, 191 

Benet, Meurik de la, 265 
Benhale, Robert de, 179 

Eva, wife of, 179 

Benstede, Johannes de, 262 

Bereford, Willelmus de, 262 

Bernard, 86 

Berry, Ralph de, 238 

Bessin (Beysin), Adam de, 8, 80 

Beugnot, Comte, 147 

Bigod (Bigot), Roger, 12, 13, 16, 18, 

Binham, Alanus de, 12, 

Michael, portarius de, 12 
Birmingeham (Byrmyngham), William de, 

I4L 2 35 

Biset, Manasse, Dapifer, 28 
Bitton, Thomas de, Bishop of Exeter, 


Blaauw. See Barons' War 
Blakeway, John B., 206 
Blancminster, Eleanor de, 172 

Hawyse de, 115 

Thomas de, 22. SeeBlackmere, Whit- 

Blomefield, Francis, 46, 48, 83, 177, 271, 


Blore's Rutland, 272 
Blund, John le, 101 

Robert, 1 6 
Blunt, Guy le, 232 
Blumvill, William de, 253 
Bocalanda, Hugo de, 10 
Bochlandus, Walter, a Norman, 12 
Body, Robert, 238 

Boeles, William de, 81, 101 
Bohemia, Queen of, Elizabeth, 348 
Bohun, Edward de, 277 



Bohun, Humphrey, Earl of Hereford, 123, 
210, 243 

William, 277 
Bohuns, the, 193 
Bolas, 286 

Bosco, de. See Boys 

Bosse, Ricardus, 155 

Bostare, Robert de, 10 

Botiler, William le, 143, 250, 306 

Bou, John, 17 

Boys (de Bosco), 177 

Bracy, Audulph de, 68, 69 

Braosa (Braose), William de, 81, 121 

Brascy, Robert de, 172 

Braunche, Andrew, son of Nicholas of 

Somerset, 287 
Bray, Thomas de, 144 
Bressingham, William de, 96 
Bretun, John le, 126 

Bridgman, Hon. and Rev. G. T. O., 162 
Bridgwater, Earl of, John Egerton, 323 
Brigida, Richard de, 62 
Brisingham, Thomas de, 138 
Britannia, Johnde, 245 
Brittany, mythical Duke of, i, 2, 3, 9, 

35 1 

Brocton, Agnes de, 91 
Bromfield, Griffith de, 120, 121, 123 
Bruce, Robert, 217, 275, 297, 299 
Brun (Bruna), Matilda le, Pedigree I, 5 

Ralph le, 14 

Reginald le (c. 1174), Pedigree I, n, 14 

Simon le, fitz Ralph (temp. Henry I), 

Pedigree I, n 

William de, parson of Hunstanton 

(1178), 44, 60 

William le (1241), in 
Brus, David de, 310 
Buildwas, abbot of, 35 
Bule, Richard le, 51 

Buleman (Bulman), Robert, 4, 155 
Bunch, Hamo fitz, 12 
Burgesius, of Florence, 230 
Burgeys, Henry, 270 
Burgh, Bartholomew de, 225 

Hubert de, 81, 86, 101 

William de, 47 
Burgton, John de, 265 
Burlingham, Geoffrey de, 5 
Burnell, Hugh, 186 

Robert, 228 

Bishop of Bath and Wells, 289 

Burnham, Philip de, 22, 45, 46, 150 
Cecilia, wife of, 150 

William de, 5 

Butterwyk, Alexander de, 177, 178 

Buwardsley, Philip de, 91 
Warin de, 8, 63, 64, 92 
Bygar, Walerand de (1229), 93 

CADWALLADER, Prince of N. Wales, 31, 


Caley (Caly), Hugh de, 15 
Calthorp, William de, 151 
Camis, Briencius de, 12 

Fabianus de, 12 

Rueldus de, 12 
Campville, Richard de, 28 
Canisii, Brien, 36 
Cantelupe, Nicholas de, 285 

William, Lord, 100 
Millicent, wife of, 100 

Juliana, daughter of, 100 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, Anselm, 88 
Stephen Langton, 72 

Henry Chichele, 277 

John Peckham, 231, 236 

Careles (Carles), John, 207, 288, 304 

family, 304 

Carthew, G. A., 39, 46, 47, 49, 94 
Castlehaven, Earl of, Mervyn Tutchet, 

Cathcart, gib. Lord, 348 

Jane, daughter of, 348 

Cayly, Willelmus, 260 
Cesarea, Nicholas, Prince of, 147 
Champoneys, Thomas, 258 
Chandos, Baron, Grey Bridges, 323 
Charles IV (le Bel), 301 
Charlton, John de, 164, 296, 331 
Charmes, Reginald de, 258, 262 
Chartres, Giulin, Comte de, 147 
Chaucombe, Amabel de, 158 
Cheney, Hugh de, 175 

Roger de, 219 
Cherleton, Lewis de, 312 

Chester, Clemence, Countess of, 158, 159 

Earl of, Randolph de Blondeville, 75 
John le Scot (1237), 103 

Walter, Bishop of, 28 
Chetewynde, William de, 327 
Chichele, Henry, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 277 

Chiping, Peter, 177 
Christiana, 86 
Churchull, John de, 144 
Clare, William de (1258), 124 

Richard de, Earl of Gloucester (d. 

1262), 124, 125 

Gilbert de, Earl of Gloucester (d. 

1295). 133. 136 



Clare, Gilbert de, Earl of Gloucester, 

Eleanor, sister of, 299 
Clement V, Pope, 293 

VI, Pope, 308, 316 
Clerke, Guy le, 235, 236 

Clermont, William de, Canon of St. 

Chad, Salop, 150 
Clifford, Margaret, daughter of 2nd Earl 

of Cumberland, 323 

Richard de, 227 

Roger de, 118, 128, 131, 134, 135, 136, 

192, 235 

Walter de (I), 290 

fair Rosamond, daughter of, 292 

108, 137 

(Ill), 292 

Maud, daughter of, 292 

Clinton, Goiffedus de, 10 

Clotley, Ralph de, 86 

Cloychs, Roger, 253 

Cnut, King, 15 

Cobham, Reginald, Lord, 288, 320, 342 

Cocus, William, 4 

Cole, William, 280 

Combermere, abbot of (1255), 121 ; 

(1272), 223 
Constance, the Lady (widow of Henry 

of Almain), 228 
Constantin, Christiana, late wife of 

Richard de, 88 
Conteshale, Andrew, 178 
Copyn, Brother James, Danish Envoy, 

Corbet, Hugh, 170 

Peter, 202, 203 

Robert, 66, 73, 77 

Thomas, son of, 77, 85, 100, 119, 

120, 130, 137, 157 

of Moreton, 302, 304, 309 

Amice, daughter of, 309 

Thomas, 250, 260 

Robert, son of, 250, 288 

Corbett, John, of Longnor, 304 

Joseph, Archdeacon of Salop, 207 
Corfham, the Lady of (Mary le Strange), 


Cornwall, Earl of, Edmund, 202, 233, 236 
Cornwayle, Brian de, 315 
Cotentin, Thomas de, 76 
Cotes, Simon de, 144 
Courtenay, Hugh, 333 
Cranage, D. H. S., 41 
Craon, Amaury de, 338 
Creissio, Hugo de, 45 
Cresset, Ivo, 334 
Crevequer, Stephen, 243 

Crokesle, Johannes de, 240 
Crowe, John, 251 
Crowland, abbot of, 278 
Crumwell, Ralph de, 158, 159, 199 

Margaret, wife of, 158, 159, 199 

Curson, John, 334 

Cyprus, Hugh II, King of, 147 

Isabelle, Queen of, 147 

Cyveiliog, Hugh de, Earl of Chester, 

DARCY, Norman, 286 
Darell, William, 340 

Elizabeth, wife of, 340 

Datton, William, 301 
Daubeney, Hugh de, 199 
Daumary, Nicholas, 267, 268 
David II, King of Scotland, 280 

son of Griffith ap Llewelyn, 113, 121, 

127, 143, 163, 191, 192, 198 

son of Llewelyn the Great, 109, no, 

112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 

130. See Llewelyn 
Deneys, Richard le, 52 
Derby, Earl of, William de Ferrers 

(1213), 73 

ist Earl of, Thomas Stanley, 347 

5th Earl of, Ferdinando Stanley, 347 

6th Earl of, William Stanley, 323, 


6th Earl of, William Stanley, James, 

son of, summoned as Lord Strange, 


8th Earl of, Charles Stanley, 2nd 

Lord Strange, 348 

9th Earl of, William Stanley, 3rd 

Lord Strange, 348, 349 

loth Earl of, James Stanley, 6th Lord 

Strange, 348, 349 

nth Earl of, Edward Stanley, 349 
Dering, Sir Henry, 176 
Despencer, Hugh le, 241, 242, 243 
(Ill), 278, 299 

Hugh, Lord, 318 

Isabel, daughter of, 318 

Despencers, the, 273, 276, 277, 278, 360 
Desys, Roger, son of Ralph, 151. See 

Hys, Ys 

Deyncourt, Willem, 286 
Douglas, the Regent, Archibald, 280 
Downman, E. A., 65 
Dublin, Archbishop of, Henry de London, 

Dugdale, William, i, 2, 6, 9, 61, 83, 

85, 271 



Dunham, Reginald de, 95 
Dunny, William, vicar of Hunstanton, 
200, 20 1 

Thomas, brother of, 200 

Dunstan, William de, 56 

EARL MARSHAL. See Pembroke 
Edmund Crouchback, son of Henry III, 

143, 146, 148, 207, 241, 356. See 

Lancaster, Earl of 
Ednyved, 215 n. 
Edward, son of Henry III, 109, 120, 123, 

124, 128, 132, 133, 134, 136, 140, 

142, 145, 146, 238, 354 
afterwards Edward I, 145, 146, 

148, 187, 188, 189, 193, 194, 195, 

197, 202, 204, 205, 207, 209, 211, 

214, 217, 236, 237, 239, 242, 243, 

245. 338, 355. 357 

Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward 

II, 214, 217, 246, 255, 260, 272, 273, 
275, 276, 295, 297, 299, 300, 302, 


Ill, 276, 278, 279, 281, 305, 308, 310, 

312, 314, 315, 321, 359 
Edward, son of, 312, 314 

- IV, 344 

Edward, son of, 344 

Hugo of Thorp, chaplain, 178 
Egerton, Rev. G. H., 218, 219 
Eiville, Roger d', 153, 184, 186 
Eleanor (of Provence), Queen of Henry 

III, 104, 109 

(of Castile), Queen of Edward I, 

120, 189, 229, 234, 354 
Elesworth (Ellesworth), Simon de, 240, 


Elfrych, James, 191 
Elizabeth (Wydville), Queen of Edward 

IV, 344, 346 

Ely, Bishop of (Longchamp), 62 
Erdington, Giles de, 137, 170, 171 

Henry de, 158, 159, 174, 199, 235 
Maud, wife of, 158, 159, 199 

Thomas de, 73, 74 
Ernesley, Richard de, 183 
Erpingham, Robert de, 271 
Eshe, Roger atte, 179 
Eskermiscur, Alexander le, 200, 201 
Essex and Hereford, Earl of, 116 
Esstrang, Radulphus de (at Ingham), 85 
Estrangia, Domina, 56 

Everard, John, 137 

Evreux, Almeric, Count of, 100 

Bertrada d', 159 

Exeter, Bishop of, Thomas de Bitton, 

287 and n. 
Extranea, Emma, 180 

Heiliwisa, 56, 57 

Lucia, 139 
Extraneus I. See Strange 
Eylesbury, Walter de, 146 

Eyton, R. W., 2, 3, u, 24, 42, 46, 47, 
48, 129, 172, 173, 208, 225, 276, 
291, 38, 329, 365 

FALESIA, Haimon de, 10 
Farndon, William de, 236 
Fauconberg, John, Lord, 280 
Fauconberge, Wauter de, 286 
Felton, Robert de, 52, 267, 268, 308 

John, son of, 52, 267, 268, 308 

Ferrariis, Robert de, 313 

Ferrars, Earl of, 118 

Ferrers, John de, Lord, 288/320 

Robert de, 198 

Eleanor, widow of, 233 

Thomas de, 144, 198 

William de, Earl of Derby, 159 

Alice, wife of, 159 

Fettiplace, Thomas, 288 

Fitz Aer, Robert, 62 

Emma de Say, wife of, 62 

Robert, son of, 62 

Fitz Alan, William (I), (d. c. 1160), 5, 

9, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 

37, 48, 352 

Christiana, wife of, 25 

(II), (1160-1210), 34, 35, 36, 38, 

39, 41, 49, 59, 63, 64, 71, 83, 85, 87, 

92, 93, 208 
John (I), (1240-1268), 50, 76, 8o., 

85, 99, ioo, 101, 105, 112, 115, 119, 

John (II), (1268-1272), 167, 187, 

Isabella, wife of, 167. See 


Fitz Baldewin, Thomas, 95 
Fitz Flaald, Alan, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 23, 

34. 35. 38, 39, 46, 4 8 
Fitz Gerald, Maurice, 137 
Fitz Herluin alias Ralph de Hunstanton 

(1086), Pedigree I, u, 12, 13, 14, 16, 

19, 45 

Fitz Norman, Robert, 71 
Fitz Otto, Hugh, 232, 236 
Fitz Philip, Adam, 135, 136 

John, 108 

Fitz Ralph, Henry, 177 

3 8o 


Fitz Reginald, Geoffrey, 84 
Fitz Richard, Simon, 93 

William, 4 

Fitz Robert, Hugh, 73 

forester of Shropshire, 107 

Fitz Roger, Gwido, 5 

Fitz Walter John Ratcliffe, Lord, 323 

Fitz Warin (Fitz Waryn), Fulk, 2, 68, 69 

(HI), ( II97) , 85 

(1245). 118 

the younger (1253), 120, 

125, 136, 202 
Elizabeth, widow of (1392), 


William (1333), 309 

Fitz William, Robert, 90 
Fitz Wimer, Roger, 5 
Flandus, Alan, son of, 48, 49 
Florencia, Nutus de, 191 
Foix, Gaston de, 302 
Foliot, Edmond, 217 

Jordan (1299), 52, 96, 251 
Fonte, Saxi de, 176 

Fougeres, William de, 89, 158, 159 

Agatha, wife of, 158, 159 

France, King of, Philip the Fair, 214 
Franceys, Henry, Master of Bridgnorth 

Hospital, 41 

Francheville, Simon de, 94, 96 
Frankton, Stephen de, 196, 197, 202, 


Fraunceys, Walter le, of Frompton, 149 
Frederick, Thomas, 348 

Jean, daughter of, 348 

Freville, Roger de, 50 
Freyne, Hugh de, 283, 284, 327 
Fromilode, Simon de, 149 
Furnivall, Thomas Nevill, Lord, 322 

Maud, Baroness, 288, 322 

GADERGOD, Thomas, 178 

Gairdner, James, 197 

Gamel, provost of Shrewsbury, 150 

Gamot, Christiana, 200 

Gascony, Duke of, 301, 302 

Gatesden, John of, 250 

Gaveston, Piers, 218, 264, 267, 272, 295, 

299, 359, 360 

Geffrey, Thomas, son of Thomas, 316 
Geneva (Genville, Joinville), Peter de, 115 

Maud de Lacy, wife of, 115 

Geoffrey, son of Henry II, 38 
Gerard, Petrus, 166 
Germeyn, Simon, 243 
Germun, John, 88 

Gerners, William de, 51 

William, son of, 51 

Gervase Coch, 22, 42. See Sutton 

Griffith ap, 83 

Giffard, John, of Brimsfield, 193, 195, 
292, 293, 306, 307 

Peter, 269 

Gilbert, son of Annote, 207 
Gilbertes, John, son of Thomas, 207 

Alice, wife of, 207 

Gipeswico, John, son of Geoffrey de, 97 

Glasseleye, Alan de, 200 

Glendower (Glendwr, Glyndwr), Owen, 

184, 192, 215 and n., 216, 223, 254, 

339, 356 

Glenlyon, James Murray, Lord, 348 
Gloria, Peter de, 148 
Gloucester, Earl of, 102, 299, 307. See 


Gocelin, clerk of Hunstanton (1265), 200 
Godric, 6 

Goldyngton, William, son of Ralph de, 253 
Gostwyk, John de, 243 
Gough, Richard, 218 
Gregory, Pope, 239 

XII, Pope, 340 
Grendon, Robert de, 120 

Grey, John de, 119, 123, 233, 261 

Lord le, 340 

Joan, daughter of, 340 

de Codnor, Lord, 340 

de Ruthin, Lord, 340 ; Reginald, Lord, 

288, 317 

de Wilton, Lord, 340 

Reginald de, 199, 202 

de, family, 212 

Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn (de la Pole, 
Prince of Powys), 98, in, 114, 116, 
118, 121, 125, 130, 145, 153, 162, 
163, 188, 189, 193, 237 

Owen, son of, 237 

John, son of, 237 

ap Madog, 184, 192, 223, 252, 323 

ap Griffith, 215, 216 

Gruffydd, Llwyd, 176 

of Maelor, 215, 216 
Gulafre, Roger, 94 
Gunton, John de, 52 

Gwalterii, Bourencinus, of Lucca, 235 
Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys, 68, 72, 

73, 7 8 
Gwynedd, Owen, 3, 31, 32 

HADLEY, William de, 83 

Hagim, son of Mosseus, the Jew, 143, 369 


Halgton, Thomas de, 265 
Halhtone (Haughton), Robert de, 167 
Hall, Edward (Continuator of Trivet) , 273 
Halton, Henry de, 283, 286 
Hamburgh, Nicholas de, 270 
Hamilton, 3rd Duke of, 348 

Katharine, daughter of, 348 

Hamo clericus, 5 

Hangelton, Richard de, 310 

Hardel, Peter, 224 

Harecurt, William de, 88 

Harley (Harele), Richard de, 219, 258, 


Harold, King, 15 
Harrod, Henry, 162, 200 
Harsick, John de, 213 
Hastang, John de, 267, 268, 308 

- Thomas, son of, 267, 268, 308 

Thomas de, 153, 184, 216, 222, 323 
Hastings, Anne (Ratcliffe), 323 

Henry de, 144, 224 

family, 212 

Hauberk, Nicholas, 323, 339 
Haughmond, abbots of : 

R. (undated), 37 

Alured (undated), 37 

Ralph (c. 1195), 87 

(1244), 116 
(1297), 208, 242 

Hawems, Richard de, 246 

Hawise Gadarn, 296 

Hay, Robert de la, 102 

Hayes family, 10 

Hedleg, William de, 84 

Hemingburgh, Walter de, 197 

Henley, William de, prior of Hospital 

of St. John, 203, 236 
Henry I, 8 

II, ii, 31, 37, 122, 204, 351 
Eleanor, Queen of, n 

- Henry, eldest son of, 37 
daughter of, 61 

Ill, 75, 76, 80, no, in, 112, 120, 

121, 228, 338, 352, 353, 355 

IV, 339, 340, 374 

- VI, 344 

- VII, 347 

of Almain, 127, 132, 133 

Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry V, 


Herbert, Florentia, 81 
Herbertus (1166), 36 
Hereford, Bishop of (1236), 102 
(1241), 109 

Earl of (Bohun), 242, 299, 325 
Hereward, William, 306 

Hert, Radulphus, 209 

Robert, 71 
Higginson, John, 39 
Hodnet, Odo de, 145 

William de, 261 
Holebrook, Richard de, 233 
Holm, Nicholas of, 208 
Holme, Georgius de, 260 

Roger, son of Nicholas de, 270 
Holmes, Sir Richard, 373 
Home-Drummond, Henry, 348 

- Anne, daughter of, 348 
Hoo, William de, 138 
Hook, Walter F., Dean of Hereford, 236 
Hopton, Thomas, 248 
Hord, Willielmus, 258, 262 
Horwood, Alfred J., 152 
Hothum, William de, 252 
Howard, Dorothy, daughter of Duke of 
Norfolk, 323 

John, Sir, 177, 271 
jun., 177 

Howard de Walden, Lord, 292 and ., 370 
Howel ap Meyrick, 192 
Hubert, Archbishop, 41 
Hudson, Rev. William, 237 
Huggeford, Nicholas de, 315 
Humez, Richard de, Constable, 28 

William de, 158, 159 

Agatha, sister of, 158, 159 

Hunstanton, Peter de, 5 

Ralph de. See Herluin 

Walter de, 5 

William fitz William de, 12 
Hunte, Walter le, 241 
Huntingdon, Earl of, David, 159 

Maud, wife of, 159 

Henry Hastings, 323 

Huntingfelde, W. de, 76 
Huntingfield, Roger de, 213 

Hys, Roger des, 4, 151. See Desys, Ys 

INFANTE, Robert, provost of Shrewsbury, 


Ingalthrop, Thomas de, 260 

Ingham, Oliver de, 323, 328 
Innocent VI, Pope, 318 
Insula, Simon de, 186, 200 
Isabeau, Queen of Jerusalem, 147 
Isabel, daughter of Edward III, 320 
Isabella of Angouleme, Queen, 71, 338 
daughter of Philip of France, Queen 

of Edward II, 162, 214, 246, 275, 

276, 277, 278, 330 
Ivo, Rainald son of, 13 


JACOBIN, Acius, of Florence, 191 

Jermem', Warin de, 93 

Joan, illegitimate daughter of King John, 

wife of Llewellyn ap lorwerth, 68, 


Joan of Arc, 342 
John, King, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 

79, 84, 338, 352 
XXII, Pope, 302 

KANCIA, Walter de, 183, 228 
Kendale, Robert de, 245 

Margaret, wife of, 245 

Keveolog, Hawisia de (de la Pole), 165 

Kinaston, Humphrey (wild), 218 

Kmeley, Walter de, 109 

Kirketon, Alexander de, 227 

Knockin, John of, 265, 266 

Roger de, 266 

Knovill, Bogo de, 172, 188, 202, 206, 288 

Eleanor le Strange de Blancminster, 

wife of, 206 

Kyatrino, Pelegrin, of Lucca, 191 
Kynaston, Richard, 339 
Kynenarstone, Griffin de, 258, 262 

LACY, Alice de, 272. See Strange, le, 

Henry de, 282 

John de, Earl of Lincoln, 159, 327 

Walter de, 115 

de. See Lincoln, Earl of 
Lancaster, Duke of (John of Gaunt), 321 

Earl of, Henry Plantagenet, 308, 327 
Edmund, brother of Edward I, 

198, 199, 227 

Thomas Plantagenet, 220, 254, 

267, 272, 273, 275, 285, 295, 296, 
298, 299, 300, 325, 359, 360 

Lankes, William de, 92 

Lathe, Thomas de la, 213 

Latimer (Latymer), William de, 227, 291 

Lawe, John de la, 92 

Ralph de la, 80 

Lee, John de, 4, 155, 156, 301 
Lefwinus, praepositus, 5 
Leghes, Hugh de, 316 

William, son of, 316 
Leghton, John, Lord of, 334 

Richard de, 269 
Leicester, Earl of, Edmund, 290 

Henry Plantagenet, 304 

. See Beaumont, Montfort 

Leighton, Richard de, 252 

family of, 252 

Leoninus, son of Leoninus, 146 

Leringsete, Galfridus de, 12 

Leuvise, Agnes, 94 

' Levediesneve ' Lestrange, Geoffrey the, 


Lexington, John de, 106 
Leybourn, Roger de, 128, 134, 135 

Simon de, 248 
John, son of, 248 

Catherine, daughter of, 248 

Leyburne, John de, 313 

Leylonde, Richard de, 305, 311 

Litchfield, Bishop of, 309 

Lincoln, Bishop of (1284), 233 ; (1324), 


Countess of. See Lacy 

Earl of, Henry de Lacy, 175, 199 
Lisewis, William de, 47 

Llewelyn, son of Meredudd (1242), 

ap lorwerth, the Great (d. 1240), 68, 

71, 72, 73, 76, 78, 80, 100, 101, 102, 

103, 104, 105, 175, 299, 354 
Joan, illegitimate daughter of 

King John, wife of, 103 
David, son of, 101, 103, 106. 

See David 
Griffith, son of, 106 

ap Griffith (d. 1282), 119, 121, 123, 

124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 132, 137, 
142, 145, 162, 187-198, 202, 204 
Lloyd, Edward, 186 

Kenyon, Mr., 69 
Llwyd, Morgan, 269 
Lodbrook, John de, 221 
Lodelowe, John de, 315 
Lodewyche, Geoffrey de, 200 

Roger de, 200 
Longchamp, Henry de, 141 
Longespee, Maud, 195 
Loppington, Alexander de, 54 

Richard de, 55 
Loreng, Roger le, 243 
Louel, Johannes, 260 

Louis IX, King of France, 121, 130, 132, 

Lovel, William, 267 
Lucca, merchant of, 201 
Lucy, Geoffrey de, 248 

Reginald de, 248 

Richard de, 28 

Walter de, 248 

Eleanor, daughter of, 248 

Matilda, daughter of, 248 


Ludlow, John de, 201, 205 

Isabel, wife of, 205, 206 

Lawrence de, 261 

Agneta, widow of, 260, 261, 262 

William, son of, 260, 261, 262 

Matilda, wife of, 261 

- William de, 257, 258, 260 
Lusignan, Hugh de, 338 

Alice, daughter of, 338 

Lusignans, the, 338 

Luvel, John, 234 

Luvet, Henry, 76 

Lymberg (Lumbe), Adam de, 302, 303, 


MADOG ap Griffith, 78, 118, 215, 216 

illegitimate son of Llewelyn ap Griffith, 


Maelgwm, son of Maelgwm, 108 
Malpas, Audoenus de, 12 
March, Earl of, Patrick Dunbar, 279 
Marescal, Peter, 85 
Mareschal, Ralph le, 250, 251 
Margaret, daughter of Henry III, 122 
Mariscalla, Alicia, 94 
Markham, Clements, Sir, 373 

Hastings, Sir, 373 
Martin, prior of Thetford, 15 
Matilda, Empress, 25 
Maulay, Peter de, 73 
Maunsel, Robert, 90 

Mabel, wife of, 90 

Meredudd Goch, 120 

Meschin, Ranulph de, Earl of Chester, 
157, 158, 159, 160 

Mabel, daughter of, 157, 158 

Metz, Guarin de, 2, 3, 8 

Middleton, Lord, 330 

Mohun de Dunster, John, 2nd Lord, 

335. 342 

Elizabeth, daughter of, 342 

Philippa, daughter of, 342 

Maud, daughter of, 342 

- Joan de, 335 
Mold, Roger de, 192 
Moncrieffe, Thomas, Sir, 7th Bart, 348 

Louisa, daughter of, 348 

Monmouth, John of, 100, 108, 113, 116 
Montalt, Joan de, 161 

Robert de, 213, 267, 270 

Roger de, 114, 161 

Robert, son of, 161 

Robert, son of, 161 

Roger, son of, 161 

Montfort, Eleanor de, wife of Llewelyn 
ap Griffith, 189 

Peter de, 124, 145, 225, 231, 326 

Simon de, Earl of Leicester, 116, 120, 

124, 126, 127, 128, 130-136, 141, 
144, 224, 299, 354, 357, 360 

Montgomery, Baldwin de, 120 

Montibus, Eubulus de, 272 

More, Roger de la, 83 

Simon de la, 12 

Willelmus de la, 12 
Morgan of Caerleon, 102 
Morley, William, 348 

Mary, daughter of, 348 

Morris, George, 84 

J. E., 32, 187, 193, 205 
Mortain, Robert de, 7 
Mortimer, Constantine de, 213 

Edmund de, 193, 195 

Isabella de, 231 

John de (1313), 267 

Robert de, 63, 76 

Roger de, 127, 130, 132, 133, 135, 142, 

176, 187, 188, 190, 192, 193, 194, 

228, 267 

wife of, 195 

Earl of March, 275, 276, 296 

of Chirk, 220 

family of, 212, 299 
Moryn, William, 221 

Mowbray, (Moubray), Matilda de, 246 

de, 246 

John, son of, 246 

William de, 229 

Roger, son of, 229, 230 

Mucegros, Walter de, 137, 139, 204 

Mules, Johannes de, 210 

Murray, Charlotte, Baroness Strange, 348, 


George, 348 

of Glencarse, Amelia, 348 

Mustrell (Musterol, Mustroyl), Adam de, 

I55 J 5 6 . l68 
Hamon, son of, 4, 156 

NECTON, Roger de, 51, 52 
Nevill, Hugh, son of John de, 241 
Newton, Charles, Sir, 373 
Nicholas IV, Pope, 237, 239, 358 
Nicholaus, filius praepositi de Ringstead, 

I0 5 

Nicolas, Harris, Sir, 211 
Noel, Thomas, 22, 39, 42 
Noiers, William de, 16, 18 


Norfolk, Duke of, Thomas de Mowbray, 


Earl of (1279), 242 
Norman, John, 200 
NonnanviH, Thomas de, 230 
Northampton, Earl of, 314 
Northumberland, 2nd Duke of, 348 

Emily Frances, daughter of, 348 

Norwich, Bishop of, John of Oxford, 60 

Note, William, 253 

Nottingham, Earl of, Thomas de 

Mowbray, 288, 321, 361 
Nutus of Florence, 230 

ODDINGESELES, William de, 118 
Offechirche, William de, 179 
Oilli, H. de, Constable, 28 
Oirri, Fulk de, 22, 29, 45, 46, 75 
Matilda, wife of, 29 

Geoffrey de, 150 
Oketon, John de, 227 
Oldynton, Thomas de, 315 
Ord, Craven, 329 
Orderic-Vitalis, 10 
Orget, Roger, 89 
Osgodby, Adam de, 255 

Ossory, Earl of, Thomas Butler, 348 

Elizabeth, daughter of, 348 

Otho, Cardinal (1237), 104 
Ottobone, Cardinal, 142 
Overton, Adam de, 312 
Owen ap Meuricus, 237 

Edmondes, Rev., 195 

son of Griffith ap Llewelyn, 127 

son of Hoel, 109 

Oxford, Earl of, Robert de Vere, 214 

PAGRAVE, Willelmus de, 36 

Pain, Randulphus, 258 

Palgrave, Francis, Sir, 145 

Pandulph, William, 78 

Parkin, Charles, 46 

Pateshull, Hugh, Bishop of Coventry, 

Pauncefot, Emeric, 325, 326 

Grimbald, 233 

Paynel family, 10 

Pebbe, Hugh, 316 

Pecche, Gilbert, 338 

Peckham, John, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 231, 236 

Pedwardynne, Thomas, 341 

Pembroke, Earl of, Aymer de Valence, 299 

Richard Marshal, 101 

Penynton, Philip de, 315 
Percies, the, 339 
Percy, Henry (Hotspur), 339 
Perepunt, Simon de, 14 
Perers, Richard de, 51 
Joan, wife of, 51 

Robert de, 253 
Pershore, abbot of (1254), I21 
Peshale, Adam de, 313 
Petigard, Roger (jun.), 178 
Petraponte, Alan de, 70 
Peverel, William, 2, 3 

Melette, niece of, 2 
Philip ap Howel, 312 

Philip Augustus, King of France, 66, 71 

Philip V, King of France, 301 

Philippa of Hainault, Queen of Edward 

HI, 330 

Pichford, Ralph de, 46, 85, 86, 98, 105 
Margery, wife of. See Strange, le, 

of Knockin 

Burgia, daughter of, 85, 105 

Pinto, Beatrix, 288 

Plaiz, Hugh de, Pedigree I, 14, 63 

Helewisa de, daughter of, Pedigree 

I, 14 

Ralph de, son of, Pedigree I, 14, 15 

Ralph de, le Neven, 15 

Plantagenet, Henry, 285 
Plumstede, William de, 253 
Podio, Aynerus de, 212 
Poer, Alan le, 89 

Amicia, wife of, 89 

John, son of, 89 

Pole, Griffith de la, of Powys, 269, 296, 


Lewis, de la, 189, 238 

Owen de la, 163, 164, 202, 205 

Griffith, brother of, 164, 194, 195 

Griffith, son of, 164 

Hawyse, daughter of, 164 

Pope Boniface VII, 211 

Nicholas. See Taxation 
Powis, Maurice de, 84 

Roger, 28 
Poygne, Robert, 183 
Pres, Philip de, 109 
Pride, Rogerus, 166 
Priketone, Roger de, 177 

QUINCY, Robert de, 159 

Hawyse, wife of, 159 

Margaret, daughter of, 159 



RALPH the Earl, de Guader, 16 
Rampaigne, John de, 68, 69 
Ramsey (Rameseye), abbot of, 60, 238 
Randulphus, Galfridus, 258 
Ranulphus, parson of Hunstanton, 12 
Ratlesdene, Thomas de, 177 

Richard de, 177 

Sabina de, 177 
Reading, Robert of, 272, 273 
Redvers, Margaret de, 369 

Reiner, son of Martin, provost of Shrews- 
bury, 150 

Renham, Geoffrey de, chaplain, Hun- 
stanton, 200 

Revesby, abbot of, 283 

Reviers, Richard de, 10 

Reyner, Bishop, 83 

Rhiwallon (Rivallonus, Rualdus, Roland), 

Rhys ap Griffith ap Ednyved Vychan, 

158, 162, 175, 176, 184 
Gruff yd Llwyd, son of, 176 

ap Maredudd, 202, 203, 355 
Richard I, King, 42, 61, 62, 66, 67, 


King of the Romans, 129, 132, 134 

son of Henry II, 38 

- II, King, 321, 332, 333, 334, 337 

Ill, King, 347 

' Rogeres Chaumberleyn Lestraunge 

of Knokyn,' 327 

- the Smith of Hunstanton (1285), 200 
Rishanger, William de, 128, 132 
Riuallon of Dol, 7 

William, son of, 7 

Riuallonides, Geoffrey, 7 

Rivaulx, Peter de, 101 

Roche, Robert de la, 208, 260 

Roches, Peter des, Bishop of Winchester, 


Rogerus Faber (c. 1170), 5 
Rohere, Richard della, 191 
Romayn (Romano), Peter de, parson of 

Rougham, 96 
Romseye, abbess of, 234 
Ros, Robert de, 122 
Rougham, Thomas, son of John, son of 

the parson of, 96 
Round, J. Horace, 7, 9, 10 
Rupa, John, Baron de, 348 
Dorothea Helena, daughter of, 

Rus, Alan le, 95 

Richard le, 51 
Rushbury, Hubert de, 87 
Russell, William, 91 

Rusticus, Ricardus, provost of Shrews- 
bury, 150 

Rutland, Earl of, Edward, 339 
Rye, Walter, 46, 166, 176, 201 
Ryvers, Roger de, 210 

SACKVILLE, Jordan de, 47 
Sad, Roger, 178 

Mirielle, widow of, 178 

Helewisa, daughter of, 178 

St. Amand, Amaury de, 104 

St. Armand, Guy de, 248 

St. Asaph, Bishop of, Reyner (c. 1205), 70 

(1240), 7 1 . IO 8 

Anian, Eineon (1287), 173, 289 

(1318), 215 

St. Benet of Ramsey, 18 
St. John, John de, 238, 239 

Robert de, 86 

family, 10 

St. Martin, Richard de, 273 
St. Pierre, Urian de, 267 

Margaret, daughter of, 267 

St. Pol and Conversan, Count of, Peter 

de Luxembourg, 344 
St. Wynewalocus, Prior of, 238 
Salisbury, Countess of, 272. See Lacy 

Elizabeth Mohun, 342 

Sancto Petro, Urianus de, 141 
Sanford, Nicholas de, 301 

Ralph de, 91 
Saues, Gilebertus de, 73 
Say, Emma de, 62 

Philip de, clerk of Roger le Strange, 238 

rector of Halnet, 250 

Schawburia, Robert de, 44 

Wido, brother of, 44 

Schohies, William, 13 

Schreue, Nicholas, 177 

Scott-Gatty, Alfred, Sir (Garter King 

of Arms), 369, 373 
Scrop, Henricus le, 262 
Scudamore, Alice, daughter of Owen 

Glendower, 216 
Secheford (Seggeford, Sedgeford), William 

de, 155, 260, 270 
Segrave family, 212 
Sewald (Seward, Siward), 16, 46 
Shernbourne, Andrew de, 4 
Shirleye, Ralph de, 222 
Shrewsbury, abbot of, 29, 69, 77 

Hugh, 64 

(1284), 234 

ist Earl of, John Talbot, 322, 361 

7th Earl of, Gilbert Talbot, 322 

2 c 


Shrewworthin, Luvekinus de, 149 
Sibeton, Johannes de, 262, 293 
Silkeston, Robert de, 286 
Snoring, Naringes, Basilia de, 95 
Snowdon, Lord of, 101, 102 
Snyterton, Thomas de, 260 
Somery, Joan de. See Strange of 
Knockin, John IV 

John de, 159 

Hawyse Paganel, wife of, 159 

Ralph, son of, 158, 159 

William, son of, 159 

Nicholas, son of, 159 

Roger de, son of Ralph, 128, 154, 155, 

i57 158, 159, 167 
Nicola de Albini, wife of, 159, 160, 


Margaret, daughter of, 159 

Joan, daughter of, 159, 160 

Mabel, daughter of, 159 

Matilda, daughter of, 159 

Sondford, Richard de, 315 
Soor, John le, 221 
Spalding, prior of, 279, 281 
Spark, Robert, 270 
Spencer, John, 323 

Alice, daughter of, 323 

Sporle, prior of, 238 
Sprenghoese, Roger, 80 
Stafford, Baron and Earl of, 316 

Nicholas, Lord, 200 
Stamford, John de, 244 
Stanford, Albin de, 151 

Stanley, Amelia Ann Sophia, 348, 349 
- Anne, 323 

Elizabeth, 323, 348 

Frances, 323 

George, summoned as Lord Strange 

of Knockin, 323, 346, 347 

Henrietta, Baroness Strange, 348 

James (1628), 347, 348, 349 

Thomas, Lord. See Derby 

William, 347 
Stanton, Henricus de, 262 
Stapleton, Miles, 323, 328, 329, 331 

Oliver de, 329 

William de, 171 

Burga, wife of, 171 

Staundon, Vivian de, 315 
Staunford, John de, 246 
Stepelton, Robert de, 201 

Stephen, Chaplain de insula de Wilfreton, 

King, 25 
Stevenson, Mr., 124 
Stigand, Bishop, 16, 18 

Stonham, John de, 51, 52 
Strange of Alveley and Weston : 

Guy le (Eudo or Wido), (1155-1179), 

Pedigree I, 3, 9, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 

29, 30. 3L 33. 34. 35. 36-43, 47, 

48, 54, 64, 87, 95, 352 

Mary, wife of, Pedigree I, 22, 39, 40 

Ralph, son of (1179-1195), 22, 35, 

40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 54, 62, 64, 65, 

88, 95. 352 
Guy, son of, 35, 40 

Hamon, son of, 35, 37, 39, 40 

Peter, son of, 22, 37 

Roger, son of, 22, 39, 40 

Margaret, daughter of, 22, 39, 

40, 42 
Joan (or Juliana), daughter of, 

22,^40, 42 

Matilda, daughter of, 22, 40, 42, 

Strange of Berrington : 

Hugh le, 181 

John, brother of, 181 
Strange of Betton : 

Fulk le (son of Fulk of Whitchurch), 

207, 288, 300, 303, 304, 370 

Margaret, daughter of, 207, 288 
Joan, daughter of, 207, 288 

Eleanor, daughter of, 207, 288 
Strange of Blackmere (or Whitchurch), 

289-322, Pedigree, 288 

Robert le (1266-1276), 98, 153, 170- 

175, 288, 289, 360 
Alianora de Blancminster, wife 

of, 98, 153, 172, 173, 174, 175, 288, 

289, 290, 360 
John, son of (1276-1289), 153, 

173, 174, 185, 207, 288, 289, 290 
Robert le, son of, 153, 174, 175, 

185, 206, 272, 288 

Fulk le (ist Lord Strange of Black- 

mere), 153, 172, 173, 174, 185, 206, 
211, 220, 247, 248, 250, 257, 258, 
260, 262, 264, 272, 288, 289-305, 

Eleanor Giffard, wife of, 153, 288, 

292, 293, 303, 304, 307 

John le (2nd Lord Strange of Black- 

mere), 206, 288, 294, 303, 305-317, 

320, 360, 361 
Ankaret le Botiler, wife of, 288, 

306, 316, 317, 318, 320 
Fulk, brother of. See Strange of 

Hamon, brother of. See Strange 

of Cheswardine 



Strange of Blackmere, John le Elizabeth, 
sister of, 288, 302, 304, 309 

Fulk le (3rd Lord Strange of Black- 

mere), 288, 316, 317-318, 320, 361 

Elizabeth Stafford, wife of, 288, 

316, 318, 320 

John le (4th Lord Strange of Black- 

mere), 288, 304, 317, 318-320, 361 
Mary fitz Alan, wife of, 288, 

318, 319, 361 

Hamon le, brother of, 288, 317 

Eleanor le, sister of, 288, 317 

John le (5th Lord Strange of Black- 

mere), 207, 288, 319, 320^-321, 361 

Isabel Beauchamp, wife of, 288, 

320, 321 

Elizabeth (Baroness Strange of Black- 

mere), 288, 321, 361 

Ankaret (Baroness Strange of Black- 

mere), 288, 319, 322, 361 

Gilbert, Lord Talbot (8th Lord 

Strange of Blackmere), 288, 322, 

Ankaret (Baroness Strange of Black- 

mere), 288, 322, 361 

John Talbot, afterwards Earl of 

Shrewsbury (zoth Lord Strange of 
Blackmere), 288, 322 
Strange of Cheswardine : 

Hamon (third son of Fulk, ist Lord 

Strange of Blackmere), 207, 247, 
248, 288, 297, 300, 303, 304, 306, 

307, 315 

Margaret, wife of, 288, 293, 304 

Strange of East Walton, Norfolk, 176- 


Benedict le, 176, 177, 180 

Ida, wife of (1228), 177, 180 

Roger, son of, 176, 180 

Roger le, son of Roger (before 1331), 

90, 1 80 
Martin, nephew of, 178, 

1 80 
William, son of (d. before 1312), 

90, 176, 177, 178, 180 
Matilda, wife of (1327), 

178, 1 80 

Roger le, son of William (1327), 

177, 178, 199, 180 

Joan, wife of (1346), 179, 180 

Thomas, son of (1348), 178, 180 

William, son of (1353), 178, 180 

Roger le, perpetual vicar of East 

Walton (1316), 177 

Robert le (1346), 176 

John le (1376), 179, 180 

Strange of Ellesmere : 

Hamon le (second son of John III of 

Knockin), (1253-1272), 98, 140- 
149, g.v. 
Isabel d'Ybelin, wife of, 98 

Roger le (third son of John III of 

Knockin), (1260-1311), 98, 153, 163, 
167, 185, 187, 188, 189, 192, 193, 
194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 202, 203, 
205, 211, 215, 223-249, 252, 266, 
355. 357. 358, 372 

Maud de Beauchamp, first wife 

of, 98, 153, 229, 230, 245, 246, 357 

Matilda * * *, second wife of, 98, 

153, 245, 247, 248, 249 

John, illegitimate son of, 247, 248, 

303. 306 

Lucia, illegitimate daughter of, 247, 

248. See Leybourne 
Strange of Ercall. See Strange of 

John le (1305-1309), 249, 250, 257, 

258, 260, 262 

Matilda, wife of, 250 

Strange of Fransham, 94-96 

Roger le, 94, 95, 96 

Alice, wife of (1206), 94, 96 

Richard Rufus, nephew of, 94, 


John, son of (1242), 95, 96, 251 

Beatrice, wife of (1244), 95, 


Alexander le, son of John (1275- 

1296), 96, 250, 252 

Roger le (1302-1324), 250, 251 

Henry le (1292-1316), 251 

Joan, wife of, 251 

Strange of Hunstanton : 

Roland (Rhiwallon, Ruallus) le (c. 

1 1 12), Pedigree I, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, n, 20, 
22, 23, 32, 36, 45, 352 

Matilda le Brun, wife of, Pedigree I, 

5, 22, 32, 36, 83, 169 

Hamon le, second son of John V of 

Knockin, 220, 256-269 
Strange of Leighton : 

Roger le (1299), 252 
Roger, nephew of, 252 

John le (c. 1350), 334 

Walter, brother of, 334 

Strange of Litcham, Norfolk : 

Ralph le (I), son of Siward, 44, 45, 

47. 48, 53. 177 

Durannus (Durand) le (c. 1160), son 

of Ralph (I), 5, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53 

Prudentia, wife of, 47, 48, 49, 53 

2 c 2 


Strange, Ralph le (II), son of Durannus, 

48, 49, 50, 53, 94 

Agnes, wife of, 47, 48, 53, 94 

Ralph le (III), son of Ralph (II) 

(1225), 47, 49, 5. 53 
Roger, brother of, 49, 53 

John (I), son of Ralph (III), (1259- 

1294), 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 93, 
Isabella, wife of (1278-1316), 47, 

49, 5 1 - 52, 53 

John le (II), son of John (I), (1293- 

1305). 47. 48, 5. 5 1 . 5 2 . 53, 93, 
dementia, wife of (1316), 47, 48, 

51, 52, 53, 93, 286 
Ralph (IV), brother of (1302), 47, 

48, 53, 286 
Strange of Longnor. See Strange of 


Fulk, second son of Fulk, ist Lord 

Strange of Blackmere, 207, 288, 
300, 303, 304, 370 
Margaret, daughter of, 207, 288, 

Joan, daughter of, 207, 288, 304. 

See Careles 
Eleanor, daughter of, 207, 288, 

304. See Acton 
Strange of Loppington : 

Adam le, 54 

*** de Loppington, wife of, 54 

William, son of, 55 

John, son of, 55 

Strange of Middle : 

John le (1329-1338), 308, 310, 3ii 

Edward le (1348), 308, 309 
Strange of Ness and Knockin : 

John le (I), (1135-1178), Pedigree I, 3, 

5, 9, ii, 12, 13, 14, 20, 22, 23-57, 
223, 351 
Hawise, wife of, Pedigree I, 22, 35, 

58, 114 
Guy, brother of. See Strange of 

Mary, wife of. See Strange 

of Alveley 
Hamon, brother of (1153-1159), 

Pedigree I, 3, 5, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 

28, 29, 30, 32, 36, 39, 43, 48, 70, 206, 

240, 352 
Ralph, of Little Ercall, brother 

of (1160-1182), Pedigree I, 5, 12, 

20, 22, 23, 36, 42, 43-45, 46, 208, 

SS 2 
Roland, son of, 22, 44, 46 

Strange of Ness and Knockin : (continued,}. 
Matilda, daughter of, 22, 44, 

45, 46. See Oirri 
Emma, daughter of, 22, 44, 

45. See Burnham 

John le (II), (1178-1234), 35, 39, 41, 

47, 58, 59-97, 64, 98, 290, 352, 353, 

Amicia, wife of, 58, 61, 82, 83, 

85, 98 
Hamon, brother of, 58, 63, 67, 

83-85, 8 4 , 252 

Ralph, brother of, 58, 66, 83, 85 

unnamed niece of, 73 

William, clerk, brother of (1188- 

1223), 41, 61, 86-91, 87, 208 
Amicia, daughter of (1235), 58, 

89. See Poer 
Margery, daughter of, 46, 85-86, 

98, 105. See Pichford 

John le (III), (1234-1269), 72, 86, 

98-140, 151, 153, 223 
Lucia de Tregoz, wife of, 98, 100, 


Hamon, brother of (1221-1229), 98 

Hamon (Crusader), son of (1221- 

1272), 77, 98, 120, 121, 122, 124, 
126-137, J 39> 140-149, 153, 163, 
169, 170, 171, 175, 185, 198, 224, 
225, 226, 231, 288, 291, 354, 372. 
See Strange of Ellesmere 

Roger, son of (1260-1311), 136, 

140, 145, 153, 169. See Strange 
of Ellesmere 

Robert, son of (1260-1276), 125, 

136, 138, 140, 145, 146, 148, 153, 
154, 155, 165, 167, 169, 170-175, 
224, 372. See Strange of Black- 

Hawyse, daughter of (1242-1310), 

125, 140, 145, 153, 163, 164, 165, 
224, 296, 355. See Griffith ap 

Alice, daughter of (1260-1275), 

125, 140, 153 

John le (IV), (1253-1275), 3, 4, 98, 

120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 137, 
154-176, 256, 354, 355 

John le (IV), Joan de Somery, wife 

of, 98, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 
160, 186, 191, 199, 221, 355 

Margaret, daughter of (1284), 175, 

176. See Rhys ap Griffith 

John le (V), (1271-1309), (ist Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 153, 157, 163, 
184-223, 254, 257, 271, 292, 323, 355 



Strange of Ness and Knockin: (continued). 

John le (V) (continued). 
Alianora ***, first wife of (1276), 

153, 184, 185, 186, 221, 323 
Maud d'Eiville, second wife of, 

(1299-1309), 153, 184, 186, 210, 216, 

221, 222, 254, 256, 271, 323, 369 

Hamon, of Hunstanton, son of 

(1282-1317), 184, 206, 207, 223, 
254, 265-270, 271, 323, 359, 372 

Margaret Vernon, wife of, 184, 

206, 207, 254, 259, 268, 323 

Eubulo, son of (1313-1335), 184, 

223, 254, 271-286, 323, 326, 327, 

359, 372 
Alice de Lacy, wife of (1294- 

1348), 184, 223, 254, 271-286, 323, 

326, 327, 359 
Elizabeth, daughter of (1304), 

184, 215, 216, 223, 254, 323, 356. 

See Griffith ap Madog 

John le (VI), (1282-1311), (2nd Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 184, 212, 218, 
223, 254, 255-287, 308, 323, 358 

Isolda (Yseult, Ysoude), wife of, 

184, 254, 256, 257, 258, 260, 261, 
262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 269, 323, 325 

Hamon le, son of Hamon (I) of 

Hunstanton, 268, 269 

Edmund le, son of Hamon (I) of 

Hunstanton, 268, 269 

John le (3rd Lord Strange of Knockin), 

(1296-1323), 323, 324-326 
Maud , wife of, 323, 325, 326 

Roger le (4th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), (1289-1349), 281, 284, 

285, 323, 325, 326-329, 359 
Maud ***, first wife of, 323, 328, 

Joan de Ingham, second wife of, 

323, 328, 329, 331, 334 

Roger le (5th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), (1326-1382), 323, 327, 
328, 329, 331-334, 338 
Aleyne fitz Alan, wife of, 323, 331, 

332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338 
Roger, son of (1377-1394), 323, 

332, 333, 337, 340, 34i 
Eubulo, son of (1385-1411), 323, 

334, 335, 337, 338 
Lucy, daughter of (1405), 323, 

334. See Willoughby d'Eresby 

John le (6th Lord Strange of Knockin), 

(1352-1397), 323, 332, 335-339 
Maud de Mohun, wife of, 323, 

335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 342 

Strange of Ness and Knockin : (continued). 
Richard le (7th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), (1382-1449), 277, 323, 

339-343, 344, 345 
Constantia, or Joan, Grey, first 

wife of, 323, 340, 345 
Elizabeth Cobham, second wife 

of, 323, 342, 344, 345 

John le (8th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), 1444-1479), 323, 344-346 
Jacquetta Wydville, wife of, 323, 

344, 345 

Joan le (Baroness Strange of Knockin), 

(1463-1514), 323, 345, 346-347 

Thomas, Earl of Derby (loth Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 323 

Edward, Earl of Derby (nth Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 323 

Henry, Earl of Derby (i2th Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 323 

Ferdinando, Earl of Derby (i3th Lord 

Strange of Knockin), 323 
Strange, barony of, by writ of 1628, 347- 

Strange of Oswestry : 

John le (1258), 181 

Richard le (c. 1292), 181 

John le (1302), 181 

Juliana le (1302), 181 

William le (1302), 181 

Richard le (1331-1342), 329 
son of (1352), 329 

Madoc le (1341), 329 

Philip le (1342), 329 

Thomas le (1342), 329 

Roger le (1352), 329 

Strange of Whitchurch. See Strange 

of Blackmere 
Strange, Adam, son of Hamon (1172), 39 

( II 77), 54, 55 

Agatha le (1229-33), 9 2 

held Wulfricheston, 92 

Sibilla, sister of, 92 

Alan, 92 

Geoffrey, of Exeter (1242), 149 

Guy le, son of mythical Duke of 

Brittany, 2 

Guy and Roger his son, Castleacre, 


Guy le (1916), 147 

Hamo le (1179), 54 

Henry le (c. 1205), 91 
(1245), M9 

son of Ralph of Brocton (c. 1205), 

9i, 369 
Styleman L" Estrange, 256 



Strange, Hormus, 92 

(c. 1177), 35, 54 

John, brother of, 54 

Hugh le (1203), 93 

son of Hugh, of Fransham (1291), 


Ida, damsel of Queen Philippa (1332), 


John le, at Badger (1174), 54 

a canon (c. 1176), 35, 55, 310 

at Snoring (1242), 95 

son of Ralph (1272), 182 

de la March = John V of Knockin, 


vicar of Frome (1310), 286, 287 

King's clerk (1334). 3 12 

King's sergeant (1346), 313 

? of Litcham, 251 

son of Thomas le (1216), 55 

of Rode, Somerset (1229), 86 

Mabel le, daughter of Warin de 

Buwardsley, 8 

Matilda le, prioress of Carrow (1198), 

45- 46 

sister of William le (1199), 88 

wife of Richard de Leighton 

(1299), 252 

Nicholas le (1206), 94 

Peter le, son of Hamon, 37 

Philip, son of Ralph le, 251 

Philip le (1265), 150 

Reginald le (c. 1157), 55 

Richard le, in Devon (1159), 55, 56 
son of Durand le, of Shrewsbury 

(c. 1230), 150 
son of Thomas le, of Shrewsbury 

(c. 1230), 150 
chaplain (1378), 334 

Robert le (? of Litcham), (c. 1240), 

15. 151 

Roger le, rector of Hodnet (1244), 


? of Litcham (c. 1250), 149 

Matilda, wife of, 149 

son of John le (1305), 253 

Simon le (1233), 97 

Stephen le (1275), Yorkshire, 182 

Thomas le (1302), 252 

of Knockin (1378), 334 

Lucy, wife of, 334 

Alice, sister of, 334 

(1415). 343 

of Walton (1425), 343 

constable of Chirk (1426), 343 
(1346), 313, 328 

William le (1190), 87 

Strange, William le : (continued) . 

William and John, sons of, 87 

. (1224), 90 

in Devon (1292), 182, 183 

Stratton, John de, 138 
Street, George Edmund, 173 
Strongeford, William de, 244 
Sturney, John de (Admiral), 271 
Stuteville, William de, 49 
Suffolk, William, 2nd Earl of, 288 
Suleye (Sully, Sudeley), Walter de, 158, 

159. 199 

Mabel, wife of, 158, 159, 199 

Surrey, Earl of, John de Warenne, 311, 


Sutton, Gruffyd de, ap Gervase Coch, 
22, 42 

Ivo de, 294 

John, Lieutenant of Ireland, 343 

Madoc de, 138, 170 

Richard de, 51 
Swatman, Alan, 162 

Swinfield, Richard de, Bishop of Here- 
ford, 131 

TALBOT, Gilbert, 3rd Lord, 322 

Richard, son of, 4th Lord, 288, 

319, 322, 361 
Tany, Luke de, 193, 233 
Tatteshall, Robert de, 51 
Thetford, Bishop of (1086), 16, 18, 19 
Thirne, Reginald de, 84 
Thomas ap Madoc, 231 
Thorp, Johannes de, 179, 213 

Alicia, wife of, 213 

Thouars, Claud, Due de, 348 
Tiptoft, Robert de, 203 
Titchwell (Tychewelle), Herveus de, 4 
Barbota, wife of, 4 

Gilbert de, 4 

Wido de, 44 
Toftes, Roger de, 4 
Toni, Robert de, 251 

Tout, Professor T. F., 7, 25, 66, 86, ill, 
128, 142, 163, 175, 215, 216, 271, 
273, 302 n., 328, 338, 364, 365 

Townsend, Francis, 274 

Tregoz, Robert de, 100, 139 

Juliana, wife of, 139 

John, son of, 139 

Lucia, daughter of, 139 

Tremouille, Charlotte de la, 348 

Trenchefil, Philip de, 210 

Trikingham, Lambert de, 262 

Tristram, William, 4 


39 1 

Trokelowe, John de, 194 and n. 
Tronwell, John de, chaplain, 2o 
Trossebot, William de, 10 
Trussel, William, 120 
Trussell, John (or Thomas), 341 
Turberville, Hugh de, 134, 135 
Turbus, William, Bishop of Norwich, 12 
Turville, G. A., Archdeacon of Dublin, 

Tychewell, Gilbertus de, 155. See Titch- 

Tyre, William of, 147 

UBBESTON, John de, 191 
Urban IV, Pope, 131 
V, Pope, 319 
Urtiaco, Henry de, 238 

VALE ROYAL, abbot of, 231 
Vaux (Vallibus), John de, 128 

Peter de, 157 

Nicholas, Lord V. of Harrowden, 


William, 248 

Ventrer, Adam le, 170 
Vere, Geoffrey de, 33, 36, 37 
Vernon, Margaret, 266 

Ralph, 254, 267 

Richard de, 267 

Robert, 267 
Vychan, Ednyved, 175 

Eineon, 81 

Griffith ap Griffith, 216 

Gruffydd, 215, 216 

WAKE, Thomas, 278 

Waleran, John, nephew of, 16, 17, 18 

Waleranum Teutonicum, 101 

Wallace, William, 207 

Walsham, John de, parson of Little 

Snoring, 51 

Walsingham, Thomas of, 272 
Wappenbury, Richard de, 22, 42 
Warenne, William de (II), Earl of Surrey 

(d. 1138), 5, 45 
John de, Earl of Surrey (d. 1305), 

127, 128, 192, 194, 195, 215, 216, 


Earl of Surrey, Alice, daughter of, 


Warenne, John de, Earl of Surrey (d. 

1347). 273. 297, 304, 331, 338 

Earl of Surrey, Alice, sister of, 331 

Warwick, Earl of, Guy Beauchamp, 221 

Thomas Beauchamp, 320 

William de Beauchamp (d. 1298), 


Ela, Countess of, daughter of William 

de Longespee, 234 
Waryn, Richard, of Grimston, 177 

Isabella, wife of, 177 

Webbe, Henry le, 316 

Welle, Adam de, 286 

Welles, Felicia de, widow of Adam de, 


Wellesborne, Philip, vicar of, 179 
Wenlock, prior of (1236), 102 ; (1244), 


Henry (1309), 256, 257, 258, 261 

Wesenhamtorpe, Adam de, 50 

Alan de, 50 

Westacre, prior of, William, 177 

Wetenale, Richard de, 315 

Whitchurch (or Blancminster), William 

de, 172 

Berta, daughter of, 172 

Eleanor, daughter of, 172. See 

Strange of Blackmere 

Johanna, daughter of, 172 

Matilda, daughter of, 172 

Wigmore, abbot of, 35 

Wileley (Willilegh), Andrew de, 171 

Burga, daughter of, 171 

Nicholas de, 85, 105 

William, the chaplain of Hunstanton 

(1265), 201 

the chaplain of Litcham, 5 

I, King, 1 6 

Williams, Edward, Rev., 173 
Willoughby, John, 2nd Lord, 280. See 

d'Eresby, William, 5th Lord, 323, 


Wirham, Henry de, 51 
Wiveleshoe, Humfrey de, 150 

Matilda, wife of, 150 

Wombridge, prior of, Philip, 300 

Worcester, Earl of, Thomas, 339 

Wretham, William de, 138 

Wright, Thomas, 211 

Wrottesley, George, General Hon., 313 

and n., 328, 343 n. 
Wydville, Richard, Earl Rivers, 344 
Wylugby, Johan de, 286 

Richard de, 279 
Wylynton, Ralph de, 311 



Wyndesor, Phelipot de, valet of John 
le Strange (V), 214 

YBELIN (Isabeau), Isabelle d', 147, 153. 
See Baruth, Dame de 

Jehan d', Sire de Baruth, 147, 148 

Baudouin d', 147 
Yevan ap Meiler, 215 
Yol (Zoel), Roger, 178 
Margaret, widow of, 178 

York, abbot of St. Mary's, 279 

Archbishop of (1272), 228, 299 

Duchess of (Philippa de Mohun), 342 
Ys, Roger des, 155. See Desys, Hys 

ZOEL. See Yol 
Zouche, Roger de la, 71 

Alan, son of, 121, 182 

Zuche, William la, 120, 144 
Eudo, brother of, 144 



Abdon, 33 

Aberedw, 195 

Abennule, 127 

Acre, 237 

Acton-Round, 293 

Acton-Scott, 33, 200, 363 

Aderdeleye, 305 

Admaston, 186 

Album monasterium. See Oswestry, 

Alcrynton, 179, 221 
Aldescote, 186 
Alkborough, 283 
All Souls' College, 277, 332 
Almain, 208, 239, 270 
Alnetum, near St. Asaph, no 
Alveley [Aluedelea, Alvithelegh], 27, 33, 

36, 37. 38, 39, 4, 4i, 42, 87, 209, 

352, 363 
Church, 87 
Alwett, 33 

Amesbury, Great, 282 
Amiens, 127 

Amubdeby (Amotherby), 182 
Anglesey, 189 
AngoulSme, 73 
Anjou, 10, 71, 80, 351 
Aquitaine, 301, 302, 303, 306 
Argegvoet, 163 
Ashby, 71 

Ashford (Derbyshire), 114 
Assheton (Ashton), 306, 319 
Astleye, 234 
Aston, 181 
Avignon, 316, 318 
Avington, 282, 335 
Aylesford, 56 

Aylesswethesthorp (Ashwellthorpe), 178 

and ., 179 
Aynho, 141 

BACTON, 206 

Badenhoo, 283 

Badger, 54 

Badgworth, 307, 309, 317, 318 

Balderston, 71 

Baldreton, 209 

Balscote, 179 

Bangor, 233 

Bannockburn, 297 

Barbotesgate in Hunstanton, 4 

Barcote, 186 

Barling's Abbey, 283, 284 

Barnham (Bernham), Suffolk, 4, 15, 63 

Barrow-on-Soar, 158, 160, 161, 167 

Barsham, East, 152, 201 

Baschurch, 363 

Basingwork, 188 

Bassmere, in Middle, 326 

Bayeux, 314 

Bedford, 139, 229, 245, 246, 247, 253 

Bedfordshire, 193, 236, 243, 244, 245 

Beeston Castle, 106, 112, 113 

Bere Castle, 190, 198, 205 

Bereford, 246 

Berkhampstead, 134, 277 

Berkshire, 282 

Bernoreby (Barnetby), 108 

Berrington, 33, 181 

Berwick-on-Tweed, 210, 212, 214, 220, 

264, 279, 295, 297, 337, 359 
Berwyn, Mts., 194, 195 
Betton-Strange, 29, 30, 70, 206, 207, 

303, 304, 309, 321, 352 




Bexwell, 13 

Beyrouth (Baruth), 147 

Beyton, 311 

Bicester, 329, 332 

Bilemere, 209 

Bilney, 178 

Binham, n, 34, 43 

Birch-wood, at Ruyton, 69 

Bircham Newton, 20 

Bireton, 209 

Bisham, 277, 280, 281, 282 

Bittering, 48, 51 

Blackmere, 321 

Blakeney, 212, 271 

Blancmoster. See Oswestry 

Blandford, 282 

Blendworth, 298 

Bobbington, 108 

Bocton (? Brocton), 301 

Bolingbroke Castle, 283, 286, 327 

Booton, 13 

Bordeaux, 114, 149, 207 

Boroughbridge, 272, 300, 325, 360 

Boston, 212 

Bosworth, 347 

Bottington, 163 

Bradebrugg, bridge of, 234 

Bradele, 179 

Bradenham, forest of, 241 

Bradford Hundred, 364 

Bradnop, 42 

Brancaster (Broncestre), 20 

Brecon, 190, 192, 194, 195 

Breconshire, 282 

Bridgnorth (Bruges), 37, 38, 41, 88, 103, 

109, 127, 130, 133, 140 
Free Chapel at, 87, 88, 119 
Brighe, 317 
Brill, 270 
Brimsfield, 292 
Brinsfield, 212, 307 
Brisingham, 96 
Bristol, 75, 134 ; Castle, 278 
Brittany, 2, 80 
Brocton, 90, 91, 300, 319 
Bromcroft, 317 
Bromfield, 192, 194, 202, 215, 337. See 


Bromham, 244, 246 
Brothercross Hundred, 20 
Broughton, 317, 318, 320 
Bucgeton (Buxton), 93 
Buckingham, 139, 202, 234 
Buckinghamshire, 282, 332 
Budrum Castle, 373, 374 
Buildwas Abbey, 35, 40, 59, 66, 85, 212 

Builth, 77, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 

Castle, 125, 190, 192, 193, 205, 277, 

280, 281, 282, 284, 359 
Burcestre, 282 
Burton-on-Stather, 283 
Buttington, 165, 167 

CAEN, 314 

Caereinion, 163 

Caerlaverock, 210, 211, 243, 292, 357, 369 

Caerleon, 102 

Calais, 313, 315, 327, 331, 361 

Caldecote, 157, 209, 326 

Calverhale, 316 

Cambridge, 186 

Cambridgeshire, 200, 213, 221, 264, 282, 


Camel, park at, 234 
Campden, 168, 202, 205 
Campesse, priory of St. Mary, 63 
Cantreds, the four, no, 142 
Cardigan Castle, 108 
Carlisle, 209, 210, 217, 218, 243, 291, 

293. 297 

Carnarvon Castle, 189 
Carreghova, silver mines, 41, 42, 62, 64, 


Castle, 62, 63, 73 
Carrow Abbey, 45, 46 
Castile, 239 

Castleacre, 5, 32, 34, 39, 43, 95 
Castle Combe, barony of, 317 

Rising, 161, 162 
Catherington, 298 
Caus, 66, 333 
Caysho (Bedford), 244 
Cefn-y-bedd, 196 
Ceri, 127 

Charlton-Mackerel, 334 
Chartley (Salop), 234 

(Staffordshire), 144, 198, 199, 227, 228 
Chateau-Gaillard, 66 

Chaucumb, 148 

Chawton (Chalgton), 145, 146, 148, 170, 
171, 172, 175, 290, 291, 294, 297, 
298, 304, 306, 309, 310, 317, 318, 

321, 365 
Cheapside, 198 
Chelmsford, 234, 240 
ChepernolT, 224 
Chersworth wood, 67 
Cheshire, 137, 291 
Chester, 109, 116, 118, 123, 188, 192, 

202, 222 



Chester, Justice of, 106, 115, 116, 117, 119 

loan by burgesses, 117, 201 
Cheswardine (Chesewortham), 24, 25, 

28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 61, 64, 67, 71, 

83, 92, 121, 125, 200, 2O6, 209, 222, 
224, 226, 236, 240, 244, 247, 248, 
264, 297, 301, 303, 306, 309, 321, 
35 2 . 363 

church, 61, 67, 209 
Chet, forest of, 234 
Chinon, 61 

Chirk Castle, 343 

Church Stretton, 144, 145, 163, 164, 209, 

224, 363. See Strattondale 
Churchstoke, 131, 132 
Cilmeri, 196 
Cirencestre, 345 
Clanfield, 298 
Clare, Honour of, 267 
Clifford Castle, 275, 277, 282, 327 
Cliva chace, 319 
Clotley, 1 86 

Clun Castle, 106, no, 115, 293 
Clwyd River, in 

upper, 192 
Clyes chace, 297 
Codford, 306, 319 
Coiddwr, 163 
Colchester, 241 

Colham, 275, 277, 282, 327, 332, 342 

Colston-Bassett, 282 

Condover, 30 

Conway Castle, 189, 205, 307, 361 

River, in 

Coolmere (Colemere), 145, 148, 224, 225, 

231, 282, 363 
Corfham, 206, 292, 293, 298, 301, 304, 

309, 3I7 3i8, 319, 363 
Corsham (error for Corfham), 292, 293 
Corwen, 194 
Cotentin, the, 10 
Cotes, 52 

Coventry, 293, 300 
Cowlinge, 276 

Crecy, 313, 315, 317, 327, 361 
Criccieth Castle, 189, 311 
Culmington, 304 
Cwmhir Abbey, 197 
Cydewain, 127 
Cyveiliog, 163 

DALKEY, 107 
Dean, forest of, 233 
Dee, River, 188, 194 
Delarnere, forest of, 231 

Dendover, 118, 163 
Denham, 282, 332 
Derby, 234 

house, London, 347 
Derbyshire, 228, 230, 246 
Devonshire, 55, 182, 234 
Dinas Bran, 188, 192 
Diserth Castle, in, 116, 118 
Docking, 20 ; Hundred of, 20 
Doddington (Duddington), 306, 317, 318, 


Dol, 7, 9, 10 
Doncaster, 299 
Dorsetshire, 87, 90, 282 
Dover, 103, 132, 134 
Downham (Norfolk), 13 

(Suffolk), 214 
Drayton (Sussex), 141 
Dryslwyn Castle, 202, 203 
Dublin, 92, 107 
Dudlesbury, 316, 317 
Dunfermline Abbey, 214 

Dunham (Cheshire), 222, 334, 338, 340 
Dunnesmore, 209 
Dunstable, 371 
Dupplin Moor, 279 

EAST WALTON, 176-180 

Eaton (Nettingetana, Gnattingdon), 20 

Edgefield, n, 12, 34, 43 

Edgware, 275, 277, 282, 285, 332, 333, 

34. 34i 

Edinburgh, 217 

Ellardine, 83, 138, 170, 171 

Ellesmere, 43, 119, 120, 130, 141, 144, 
145, 148, 193, 197, 198, 224, 225, 
226, 235, 246, 248, 266, 268, 276, 
277, 282, 284, 326, 327, 329, 332, 

339. 342, 355. 357 3^4. 3&5 
Elleworthyn, 154 
Elvestorp. See Ingoldisthorpe 
Ercall, High, 172, 173 
Quids' or Little, 29, 43, 44, 45, 75, 

121, 200, 223, 226, 236, 288, 352, 


Eardington, 87, 88 
Erdiston, 93 

Ernestre chace, 297, 319 
Essex, 234, 240, 241 
Estdone pasture in Chawton, 290 
Estland (= Pomerania), 271 
' Estrenche ' wood, 310 
Ethiopia, 68 

Evesham, 136, 179, 188, 224 
Exeter, 55, 149, 286, 287 

39 6 


Eye, Honour of, 283 
Eyedale, 229 


Falkirk, 209, 291 

Felton, 93 

Fenton-Botiler, 265 

Flanders, 208, 242, 312, 313, 331, 361 

Flint, le, Castle (la Roche), 188, 189 

Flintshire, 335 

Flitcham, 212 

Ford, 66 

Foston, 84, 143 

France, 202, 204, 214, 239, 312, 327, 342, 

Fransham, 49, 52, 63, 94, 95, 250, 251, 


Freebridge, Hundred of, 20 
Fring (Frenge), 20 
Friskeneye, 280, 284 
Frome, 286, 287 
Fulham, 303 
Fundenhale, 179 

GALLOW Hundred, 20 

Galloway, 210 

Galtres, forest of, 231 

Garveston, 334 

Gascony, 80, 113, 120, 140, 192, 202, 

203, 205, 207, 236, 237, 241, 242, 

290, 291, 297, 301, 353, 354, 355, 

35 6 . 36o 

Gate Burton, 281 
Gatesthorp, 156 
Gaytonthorpe, 178 
Geddington, 116 
Gesewde, 42 
Geyton (Gayton), 161 
Ghent, 312, 328 
Gissing, 94 

Glasebury, 275, 277, 327 
Glazeley, 33, 200, 214, 363 
Glencry, deer park, 107 
Gloucester, 99, 106, 108, 127, 136, 150, 

168, 200, 210 

Gloucestershire, 56, 167, 179, 221, 265 
Glyndyvrdwy, 184, 215, 216 
Goderone Lane, London, 232 
Goldecote, 179 
Golding, 87 
Goldington, 236 
Golstan (Goldstone), 200, 223 
Gransete, 282 
Grauncestre, 276 

Greenhow, South, Hundred of, 48, 50, 

52, 93, 286 
Grendon, 324 
Gresford, 337, 338 
Gressenhall, 96, 251 
Grippeswold (= Greifswald), 271 
Guienne, 214, 301 
Gwynedd, 163, 205 


Halicarnassus, 373 

Halidon Hill, 280, 358 

Halnaker, Honour of, 10 

Halton Castle, 106 ; Manor, 283, 332 

Hampshire, 304, 319, 320 

Hampton, 224, 225, 231, 282 

Hanle, 233 

Hanmer, 326, 341, 345 

Harlech Castle, 190 

Harpecote, 250 

Hartismere, 138 

Hatteleye, 236 

Hatton, Hungry, 223 

Haughmond Abbey, 25, 34, 35, 39, 41, 

44. 45. 47. 125, 264, 298 
Haveringland, 13 
Hawarden, 161, 192 
Hawley Castle, 133 
Hay, 74 

Haynes (Hawnes), 244, 246 
Heacham (Hecham, Hitcham), 20, 151, 

212, 238, 270 

cell of Cluniacs at, 151 

Thorp mill at, 151 
Hemme, the, 91, 250 
Hempton, free chapel at, 337 
Henton, 145, 148 
Hereford, 143, 203, 293 
Herefordshire, 282 
Hertfordshire, 182 
Hillingdon church, 345 
Hitchin (Hicce), 244, 245 
Hodnet, 149, 250 

Hoke, 90 

Holborn, 282, 356, 332, 337, 338 
Holewelle, Great, 236 
Holkham, 20 
Holland, parts of, 278 
Holme, 20, 59, 60, 161, 168, 212, 213, 238, 
270, 271 

Church, 61, 82, 87, 100 

port of, 208 
Holmer, 282 

Holy Land, 171, 225, 239. See Palestine 
Hopton, 156, 200, 222 



Horbling, 283, 329 

Hougne, la (Hogges), 314, 315 

Hoxne, 306 

Huccombe, 333 

Hull, 224 

Hunstanton, temp. Canute, 15 

in Domesday, 17-20 

3, 4, 9, ii, 12, 13, 15, 16, 25, 45, 63, 

103, 151, 161, 166, 168, 169, 191, 
200, 208, 213, 223, 238, 253, 256, 
257, 258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 267, 
269, 270, 271, 272, 294/351, 359 

Church, 17, 35, 60, 155, 156, 200, 

208, 264 

market at, 78 

mill at, 44, 45 

port, 208 
Huntingdon, 116, 234 
Hynton, 250 

INGHAM, 85, 328 

Ingoldisthorpe (Elvestorpe), 20 

Ipswich, 138 

Ireland, 107, in, 135, 192, 224, 232, 

278, 333. 334. 343 
Isenbrigg, 212 
Isle of Man, 348, 349 

KARAKAWAIN, Karrecovan. See Carreg- 

Katerington, 175, 310 

Kempston, 5, 6 

Kenilworth, 134, 140 

Kenninghall, 161 

Kent, 56 

Ketton (Rutland), 272 

Kidderminster, 274 

Kilworth, 137 

Kingsbury, 282 

Kingshaugh, 73 

Kingston Lacy, 282 

Kingston-on-Hull, 271 

Kinnerley, 231 

Kinton, Kynton, 83, 85, 156, 167, 185, 
200, 204, 222, 264, 265, 325, 332 

Knockin (Cnukin), 39, 42, 43, 47, 64, 
119, 157, 167, 205, 208, 209, 215, 
220, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 262, 
265, 269, 294, 325, 332, 353, 364 

Castle, 64, 65, 69, 76, 78, 114 
plan of, 65 

Chapel, 41, 64, 83, 88, 202, 209, 264, 

Kynaston, 30 


Lancaster, forest of, 84 

La Reole, 120 

Lathom House, 348 

Launditch, Hundred of, 48, 50, 52, 93, 286 

Lavingham, 94 

Lee, the, 223 

Leicester, 38, 89, 137 

Leicestershire, 89, 92, 167 

Leighton, 252 

Buzzard, 246 
Lewes, 132 

monastery, 151 
Lexham, 251 
Leyes, 200 
Leyton, 186 

Lilleshall Abbey, 55, 61, 82, 87, 89, 90, 


Limousin, the, 67 
Linchelade, 246 
Lincoln, 211, 243, 244, 274, 280, 292, 

296, 297, 298 

Castle, 275, 280, 283, 359 

prebend of, 337 

Lincolnshire, 275, 277, 278, 279, 282, 

283, 332 
Lingbrooke, 207 
Linley, 83 
Litcham (Lechesam, Lucheam, Lycham), 

5, 34, 44, 45, 46-53, 85, 95, 98, 

105, 125, 286 

Netherhall manor in, 46 
Liverpool, chace of, 229 
Llanbadarn Castle, 192, 203 
Llandebo, 163 
Llandovery, 192, 193 
Llanelwedd, 195 
Llangollen, 188, 194 
Lockeleye, 179 

London, 137, 170, 189, 210, 214, 224, 
232, 235, 236, 332 

Tower of, 137, 170, 295, 332 
Long forest of Shropshire, 157, 164 
Longham, 51, 52 

Longnolre, Longnor, 33, 77, 84, 206, 207, 

298, 300, 303, 309, 363 
Loppington, 54 
Ludlow, 115 

Lydbury, North, Castle, 109, 131 
Lynn, 212, 271 
Lythes, 175 

MAELOR Saesneg, 205, 276. See Brom- 

Maesbrooke, 33 


Maine, 71 

Mancetter, Manecestr' (Warwickshire), 

Marbury, Merbury, 170, 174, 175, 289, 

March of Brittany, 10 

Wales, 10, 24, 34, 36, 43, 61, 64, 72, 

104, 108, no, 116, 123, 142, 187, 
230, 249, 269, 282, 326, 331, 332, 

344. 35 1 . 352, 353. 3^5 

Marlborough, no, 112 

Marmoutier, 7 

Massingham, 13 

Medburn, 89, 90 

Melverley, Milverley, 33, 263, 265, 363 

Menai Straits, 193 

Mendham, 213 

Merugge, 195 

Middle, Myddle, Mudde, 33, 35, 61, 68, 
86, 101, 121, 122, 156, 167, 187, 
204, 210, 218, 220, 265, 308, 309, 

335. 336, 343. 352, 363, 364 
Middlehope Mill, 157 
Middlesex, 275, 277, 282, 332 
Middleton (Bedfordshire), 236 

(Cambridgeshire), 186, 200, 213, 221, 

264, 266, 324, 329, 332. See 
Mileham, 36, 45, 48, 49, 50, 51 

Honour of, 23, 48, 105, 168, 213 
Mixen, Myxle, 42 

Mold, Mohaut, Montalt, 112, 114, 192 
Monmouth, priory of, 9 
Montford, 106 
Montgomery, 77, 102, 104 

Castle, 81, 86, 101, 102, 108, 109, 118, 

119, 126, 130, 131, 135, 138, 193, 
194, 198, 353 

Ford, 102, 123, 130, 140 

Honour of, 131, 132 
Moreton, Morton, 33, 39, 162, 302 

Toret, 250, 301 
Morf, forest of, 242 
Mortain, 7 
Mottram, 267 
Muddleswode, 209 

Mudelynton, Middleton (Oxon.), 282, 329, 
332, 336 

Nettingnetuna. See Eaton 
Nevin, vill of, 307 
Newark, 75 
Newbury, 282 
Newcastle-Emlyn, 203 

on-Tyne, 220, 269, 270, 275, 279, 

281, 294, 295, 297, 300, 303, 309 

-under- Lyme, 143 
Newport Castle, 333 
Newton-Harcourt, 183 
Nicosia, in Cyprus, 147, 148 
Nith, River, 211, 217 
Niwetuna. See Bircham-Newton 
Norfolk, 34, 35, 42, 43, 75, 138, 167, 

168, 191, 213, 270, 351 

forest in, 233 
Normandy, 36, 66, 67, 71, 351 
Norslepe near Knockin, 71 
Northampton, 132, 133, 140, 167, 217, 

234. 249 

Northamptonshire, 275, 276, 277, 282 
Northumberland, 297 
Norton, 317 
Norwich, 274 

Nottingham, 28, 117, 304, 310 
Nottinghamshire, 282 

OAKHAM, 234 
Olney, 199, 222 
Olreton, 200, 222 
Orewin bridge, 194, 196 
Osbaston, 29, 30, 36, 54, 352 

mill, 209 

Oswestry, 36, 37, 43, 63, 68, 69, 70, 74, 
83, 119, 122, 124, 181, 187, 188, 
193, 225, 293, 364 

Church of St. Oswald, 63, 87 

constable of, 72, 106, no, 115, 188, 


Hundred of, 365 
Overton, 276 

Madok, 284, 327 
Oxford, 74, 124, 126 

Oxfordshire, 179, 221, 275, 277, 282, 

NAGINTON, 26, 29, 31, 44, 209 PALESTINE, 145, 146, 171, 224. See 

Naringes. See Snoring Holy Land 

Necton, 251 Palgrave, Little, 251 

Ness, 24, 28, 32, 33, 35, 61, 67, 156, 167, Peak, Castle of the, 188, 228, 229, 230, 

186, 200, 204, 222, 264, 265, 324, 246, 249, 357 

325, 326, 332, 352, 363, 364 Peaton, 317 



Penkhull, 143 
Perth, 280, 284 
Peverec, water of, 70 
Peverel Castle, i 

- Honour of, 143 
Peyry, la, 317 
Pickenham, South, 213 
Pimhill Hundred, 364, 365 
Platte, mill of, 156 
Plattebrug mill, 70 
Poitou, 80, 82, 99, 149 
Pole Castle (now Powys), 66, 164, 296. 

See Welshpool 
Polslo, 56 

Pomfret, Pontefract, 272, 273, 300 
Pontesbury, 312 
Porchester forest, 290, 304, 306 
Portsmouth, 67, 80, 113, 204, 205, 312, 

313. 327 
Powys, 187, 205, 296. See Pole 

Marches of, 202, 203 

Principality of Upper, 114, 188 
Pultrye, the, 341 

Py lardy nton, 179 


Radnor, 74, 187, 192, 202 
Ragelyth bosc, 164 
Ramsey. See St. Benet's 
Rednall wood, 156 
Rhos, 175 

Rhuddlan, no, in, 112, 113, 189, 198 
Rhuthallt, 215 

Ringstead, 13, 16, 20, 44, 63, 105, 161, 
213, 238 

Church of St. Andrew, 150 
Rochester Castle, 236 
Rockingham forest, 233, 234 
Rode, 86 

Rome, 237, 238, 239, 240, 249, 357 
Ronhale, 244 
Rougham, 96, 250, 251 
Rowelton, 154 
Rowton, 64, 138, 170, 171 
Roxburgh, 252, 310 
Runcton, North, 40 
Rutland, forest in, 233, 234 
Ruyton, Ruton (of the eleven towns), 
33, 35. 68 > 6 9, 156. 167, 214, 352 

Heath mill, 156, 157 

mill, 70, 156, 209, 363 
Ryarsh (Kent), 236 

ST. BARTHOLOMEW the Less, 340 

Benet of Ramsey, abbey of, 3, 16 

Botolph without Aldrychgate, 339 

Dunstan's in the East, 341 

Edmund's, abbot of (1200), 49 

Florent, 7, 8, 9, n 

Macaire, 121 

Waleric, Honour of, 282 
Salcey, 233 
Saltfleteby, 282 

Sarum, 234 

Scartho, 282 

Scheringham, 95 

Schevyndon, Shavington, 221, 327 

Scotfield, 230, 246 

Scotland, 140, 192, 207, 209, 210, 211, 
212, 217, 243, 256, 264, 269, 278, 
279, 281, 291, 293, 295, 297, 302, 


Sedgebrook, 283, 329 
Sedgeford, Secesford, 20, 238 
Selewode forest, 234 
Severn, River, 132, 331 
Shanketon, Shangton, Sanketon, 71, 82, 


Shawbury, 159 
Shenyndon, 179, 265 
Sheriff Hales, 25 
Shernbourne, 20 
Shenstone, 332 
Shipbrooke, 266 
Shotwick (Cheshire), 232 
Shrawardine, 31, 106, 115 
Shrewsbury, 31, 35, 37, 68, 70, 74, 76, 

77, 78, 80, 89, 150, 198, 235, 257, 


Abbey, 31, 82, 156, 206 

Castle, 37, 38, 103, 108, 109, 118, 

119, 127, 130, 133, 134, 135, 136, 

137, 140. 35 2 

Church of Friars Preachers, 124 
.St. Julian, 89 

St. Mary, 75 

Shropshire, Salop, 34, 75, 82, 167, 187, 

202, 208, 221, 240, 291, 298, 309, 

320, 332, 352, 364 
Sicily, j2 3 7 
Siena, 340 
Smithdon Hundred, 16, 17, 19, 166, 213, 


Sneth Castle, 81 
Snetterton, Snitterton, 13, 63, 161, 


Snettisham, 20, 238, 270, 271 
Snoring, Little, Naringes, 51, 52, 95, 

96, 251, 286 



Snowdon, Snowdonia, 72, 117, 187, 189, 

193. *94 

Solway Firth, 211 
Somersetshire, 82, 86, 87, 90 
Somerton Castle, 283 
Soudley Magna and Parva, 223 
Southampton, 36, 234, 298, 327 
Spalding, 271, 281 
Sporle, Sparle, 8, 9, 36 
Stafford, 222 

Staffordshire, 34, 148, 200, 255, 332 
Stamford, Estaunford, 220, 295, 330 
Stanfield, 48, 51 
Stanhoe, 20 
Stanton Lacy, 261 
Starston, 13 
Stepney, 220, 266, 271, 294, 357, 360, 

37 1 

Stirling Castle, 215 
Stockton, 236 
Stoke, 143 
Stokesay, 261 
Stotfold, 244 
Strata Marcella, 165 
Strattondale, Stretton, 141, 148, 164. 

See Church-Stretton 
Stretton-upon-Avon, 37, 39, 85 
Sturemere, 180 
Sudeley, 159 
Suffolk, 75 
Summerfield, 20 
Sundorn, 26 
Sussex, 148, 291 
Suthle wood, 67 
Sutmere. See Summerfield 
Sutton, 48, 170, 206, 284, 293, 301, 304, 

309. 317 

chace, 241 

(Salop), 138, 174, 300, 319 


Teddesmere, 71, 209 

Testerton, 51 

Tew, 329 

Tewein (Tuam), 232 

Tewkesbury, 221 

Thetford priory, 14, 15 

Thorneford mill, 326 

Thornhagh, 304 

Thornham, 20, 191, 212, 270 

Tideswell, 229 

Titchwell (Tigeswelle), 20, 191, 270 

Titteshall, 48, 51 

Totebache (Worcester), 179 

Tottington, 12, 14, 15, 63, 125, 213 

church of St. Andrew, 63 

Touraine, 71 

Towy, vale of, 202 

Treffnant, 163 

Trentham, 34, 35 ., 61, 80 

Trevgarnedd, 175 

Tunis, 145 

Tweedmouth, 264 

Tysho, 179 

UXBRIDGE, 282, 332 

VlNEtCOTE, 209 

WADENHOE, 276, 282 
Walcote, 1 86 
Wallingford, 134 

Honour of, 282 
Walpole, 267 

Walton d'Eiville, 186, 221, 265 

(Norfolk). See East Walton 
Wai war, 116 

Warin, Sheriff of Shropshire, Honour 

of, 23 

Warwickshire, 92, 179, 221, 265 
Watton, 95 
Wauton, 95 

Weasenham, Wesenham, 48, 50, 52, 213 
Webblescote, Webblescowe, 47, 61, 209 
Webscott, 35, 86 
Wellingham, 48, 50, 52, 286 
Wellington, Welynton, 24, 25, 233 
Welsh-Hampton, 145, 226, 363 

March. See March of Wales 

Pool, 205. See Pole Castle 
Wem, 306 

Wentnor mill, 66, 85 
Westacre, 39, 95, 178 
Westbury, 282 

Westminster, 88, 295, 296, 299 
Weston, 42 

Turvill, 306 

under Redcastle, 38 
Westumscete, 224 
Westwinch, 95 

Whitchurch, 172, 173, 174, 193, 206, 
261, 297, 298, 301, 303, 304, 305, 
309. 317. 3i8, 321, 363 

Whittington, 43 

Wicklow Castle, 343 

Wiggenhall, 177, 270 

Wilcott, 70, 325, 326 



Wileley, Willey, 171 

Wilfreton, Insula de, 204 

Wiltshire, 282, 319 

Winch, East, 46 

Winchester, 67, 124, 234 

Windsor, 234, 278 

Wirral forest, 107 

Wistamstow, 337 

Witchingham, 13 

Wode Street, London, 232 

Wollascote, 89 

Wollatson Hall (Notts), 330 

Wolrighton, 200 

Wombridge priory, 77, 82, 100 

Worcester, 71, 76, 81, 103, 106, 109, 
135, 187, 188, 189 

Worcestershire, 144, 179 

Wormegay, 40, 121 

Wreningham, 179 

Wrockwardine, 67, 70, 77, 78, 79, 81, 
84, 85, 99, 144, 145, 165, 170, 171, 
173, 1 86, 200, 206, 288, 290, 298, 
301, 304. 309, 318, 353, 363 

Wroxton, 179 

Wulfricheston, 92 
Wulton (Bedfordshire), 246 
Wunedon, 91 
Wychwood forest, 234 
Wye, River, 190, 195 
Wykey, 33 

Wylye, Hundred of, 230 
Wylynton (Bedford), 246 
Wymbrghtoneswode, 164 
Wythiford, 61, 62, 69 
Wyvelcote, 200, 222 

YALE, 192 

Yarmouth, Great, 271 

Little, 271 

Ybelin, 147 

York, 209, 222, 226, 227, 264, 270, 291, 

297. 298, 300, 303, 357 
Yorkshire, 182, 248 
Yrfon, River, 196 

ZIERIKSEE (Sirice), ship of, 270 

2 D 


ABERFRAW, lord of, 102, 142 

Aid for fortifying Knockin Castle, 76, 78 

King's, 32 
Albam firmam, 50 

Albini estates, 154, 157, 161 

All Souls College, Archives of, 341 

and n. 

Alnetum, 325 
Altar, portable, 340 
Alveley, grant of, photograph of, 27, 


prebend of, 87 

Angevin origin of the le Stranges, 8, 

9, 25, 351 

Aquitaine, seneschal of, 302, 306, 360 
Archceologia Cambrensis, 165 
Archaeological Institute, 165 
Archer, foot, age of, 187 
Archers, 278, 312, 313, 314, 315 
Armour, 231 
Arms, College of, 347 

of le Strange, 204, 211, 218, 219, 


Roll of, 220, 368, 369, 371 

Array, Commission of, 311, 313, 318, 

33i 335 344 

supervisor of, 274 

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, 374 

Ashridge muniments, 335 

Assarts, 100, 226 

Assize of bread, &c., 186. See Liberties 

Middlesex (1199), 88 

Assizes de Jerusalem, 147 

BALEYN, 284. See Whale 
Banneret, 313, 314 
robes as a, 274 


Bannerets of England, British Museum 

list of, 371 
Baron, title of, 294 
Barons' Wars, 126-136 

History of (Blaauw), 134 

Bayeux tapestry, 188 
Beauchamp, barony of, 193, 230 
Bedford, barony of, 230, 236, 244 
Beloe's Brasses of Norfolk, 329 
Bendlet, Or, borne by le Strange of 

Hunstanton, 372 
Binham Chartulary, n 
Blaauw's History of the Baron's Wars, 134 
Blackmere, Strange of ; barony, creation 

of, 294, 360 

merger of, 361 

Blancas (blanched money), 56 
Blancminster, Eleanor le Strange de, 

tomb of, at High Ercall, 172 
Bloodshed, pleas of, 186 
Blundevill = Blonde Ville = Album 

monasterium = Oswestry, 157 
Bordeaux, Constable of, 302, 306 
Bow, long and short, 188 
Bradford Hundred Roll, 121 
Bread and beer, assize of, 290 
Bretaschia, 109 
Breton connection of le Stranges. See 


Bridge's History of Northamptonshire, 341 
Bridgnorth, Trinity Hospital, founded 

by Ralph le Strange, 41 

seal of, 41 

Bucks, 107, 231, 233, 241, 243 

CADENCY, marks of, 369, 370 
Caerlaverock, poem on siege of, 210, 211 



Calendarium Genealogicum, 171 

Cambria triumphans, 205 

Cannock, 65 

Carnarvon, exchequer of, 311 

Castleacre Chartulary, 5, 39, 47, 49, 94, 

Castle Rising, residence of Queen Isabella 

at, 162 
Castles, girdle of, round North Wales, 

III, 112 

Celibacy of clergy, 88, 89 
Chester, barony of, 160 

loan by burgesses, 117, 201 

office of Justice of, 106, 354 
Close Rolls, 8 1 n. 

Cobham arms, 342, 343 

Cog, a, 208 

Complete Peerage, 319 

Corn, taker of, in Salop, Norfolk, and 

Cambridge, 207 
Council, Great, 272 
Counterfeiters of the King's sterlings, 

316, 331 

Court Rolls at Hunstanton, 151, 152 
Cowell's Interpreter, 166 
Crenellate, licence to, 218 
Criminous clerk, 200, 201 
Croisades, Recueil des Historiens des, 

Crown jewels of Queen Philippa, 330 

Plea Rolls, 201 

Crusade of 1270, 141, 145, 146, 360 
Cwm, a, 196 

DEBTS contracted, 201, 230, 231, 235, 

Deer, 233. See Does 

fallow, 107, 126 

leap, 229, 234 
Deodand, 166 

Dering Charters, 176, 177, 178 

Destrier, Dextrarius, 162, 314 

Dictum de Kenilworth, 138, 140, 141, 

144, 171, 224, 235 
Differencing of le Strange Arms, 372, 

Dispensation to marry within prohibited 

degrees, 302, 309, 340 
Docking charters, 152 
Does, 107, 126, 233, 241 
Dogs, lawing of, 234 
Domesday, 12, 13, 15, 17-20, 351 

acre, 17 
Dotninus, title of, 294 

Dugdale's Baronage, additions to. See 

Monastic on, 61 
Dunstable, Annals of, 128, 132 

tournament of, 371 

EARLIEST feoffment of a le Strange in 
Shropshire, 25 

grant to. See Alveley 
Ecclesiastical extortions, 119 
Edmondson's Baronagium, 264 
Edward Lloyd Tenure Roll, 186, 235. 

Ellesmere, a Marcher State, 364 

group of manors, 363 

Encaustic tiles with le Strange arms, 


Essarts, 76. See Assarts 
Estover, 233 
Evesham, battle of, 133, 136-141, 171, 

188, 204, 235, 355, 357 
Exchequer Calendars, 146, 232 
Eyton the first to trace real origin of 

family, 3, n 

FABIAN'S Chronicle, 341 

Fairs held on anniversary of patron 

saint, 245 
Fencible men, 331 
Feodary of 1316, 298, 300 
Feudal Aids, 199, 213, 235, 267 
Firewood, 234 
Fitz Alan fief, 114 
Fitz Alans and le Stranges, 9 
Flemings, 270 
Forest Assize Roll, 157 

common passages in, 234 

Justice of, duties of, 233, 234, 249, 


Laws, liberal policy of Edward I, 

242, 35 8 

trespass in, 157 
Forestage, 67 

France, invasions of, 73, 113, 114 

truce (1298), 209 
Franchises, 224 

exceptional, acquired by le Stranges, 


Frankpledge, 50, 186, 199, 240, 276 
Free warren, 121, 204, 206, 224, 290, 

309, 363 

French Roll of Edward III, 327 
Fring Charters, 152 
Furcas, 122 



GALLOWS, Pleas of, 122, 186, 290, 363 

Gaol Delivery Roll, 200 

Gascon Rolls, 204 

Gascony, Seneschal of, 301, 302, 303 

Gersuma (a fee), 226 

Gesta Fulconis Filii Warini, 68, 69 

Gilliflower, clove of, rent, 51 

' Good Peers,' meeting of, 299 

Griffith of Bromfield Pedigree, 216 

Guanock, 65 

Guards Doverant, 71 

HALIDON Hill, battle won by archers, 
280, 358 

Hart, 229 

Haughmond Abbey, grants to, 25, 26, 
28, 29, 30, 54, 55, 60, 61, 64, 67, 70, 
82, 83, 84, 85, 92, 157, 181, 185, 208, 
224, 325, 326, 341, 345, 366. See 
Index of Places 

Chartulary, 26, 35, 41, 44, 54, 64, 

88, 150, 181, 208 
Hawk, soar, rent, 51 

sparrow, rent, 51, 225 
Hay (enclosure), 233, 319 
Heacham Court Rolls, &c., 152 

Henry I, King, created new aristocracy, 
8, 10, 23, 25 

II, King, transfers new men to Welsh 

March, 23, 24, 25, 26 
Heraldry of le Stranges, 368-374. See 


Heriot, 225, 226 
Heybote, 310 
Hide of land, 17 

Historical MSS. Commission, 152 
Hobelars, 314, 315 
Holme Charters, &c., 208 
Homicide, composition for, 80 
Homines ad arma, 272 
Horse, price of, 162, 166 
Hostages hung by Henry II, 37 
Housebote, 310 
Hue and Cry, pleas of, 186 
Hundred Court, Suit to, 363 

Rolls, 229, 253, 364 

Hunstanton Charters, Rolls, &c., 152 

manor, 166, 186, 253 

settlement of on Hamon le 

Strange, 256-263 

two distinct manors in, 25, 169 

INDENTURE, meaning of, 259 
Indults, 340 

Infangentheof, 204, 240, 363 
Infantry, 188, 202, 204 
Interdict, the, 71 
Ireland, deer sent to (1244), 107 

hogs sent to (1172), 37 

invasion of (1172), 37 

Treasurer of, in, 116 
Iron mine, 304 

JEWS, borrowing from, 143 
John, King, his quarrel with the Pope, 

KING'S Household, 307, 333 

Knight, 333 
Knight's fee, 29 

Knockin, a Marcher State, 364 

Castle, 30, 65, 82, 352, 353 

Chapel, Norman work at, 41 

fair and market at, 119 

fee of, 162, 363 

soldiers from, 220 


Earl of, pardon to his adherents, 

272, 296 
Leicestershire, land in, held by John le 

Strange (II), 71, 82, 84 
Leland's Collectanea, 2, 9 
Le Strange family, characteristics of, 

365. 366 

lands in the March, status of, 43] 
Lestrange, de, French family of, 374 
Levediesneve, the, 270 

Lewes, battle of, 132, 136, 140, 188, 195, 

224, 354. 357 

Mise of, 132 

Liber niger Scaccarii, 32, 37, 43 
Liberationes constitutes, 57 
Liberi tenentes at Ellesmere, 225 
Liberties, royal, 50, 204 
Lilleshall Chartulary, 35 n., 80 
Lincoln, Constableship of, 274, 275 

earldom of, not enjoyed by Eubulo 

le Strange, 274 

descent of, 284 

third penny of, 274, 283, 284 
Lincoln's Inn, origin of name, 282 
Lollards, 341 

London citizens' forfeiture for adherence 

to de Montfort, 137, 170 
Loyalty of the le Stranges, Eyton's 

tribute to, 24, 82, 366 



Lynn Corporation Accounts, 180 
Muniments, 95 

MAGNA Charta, name of John le Strange 

(II) not attached to, 74 
Majesty, title used in thirteenth century, 


Majores Barones, 298 
Manor, sources of revenue from a, in 

thirteenth century, 160 
March, custom of the, 43 
Marcher Barons' change of front (1263), 

128, 129, 354 

family, le Stranges a typical, 351, 365 

lordships, growth of, 364, 365, 366 

almost independent, 364 

Married clergy, 88 

Memoranda Roll of Exchequer, 315, 327 

Men-at-arms, 312, 314, 315 

Middle Castle, description of, 218, 219. 

See Myddle 
Milites Regis, 307 
Mohun de Dunster, barony of, 342, 347 

arms of, 342 

Money, purchasing power of, in twelfth 

century, 34, 43 

fifteenth century, 145 

Montgomery, lordship of, 309 
Montgomeryshire collections, 165 
Mortmain, statute of, 209, 232 
Motfee, 122 
Muniment Room at Hunstanton Hall, 

3, 151, 152, 169, 176, 251, 268 
Muntarii, 121 and n. 
Myddle, History of, by Richard Gough, 


NARROW Seas, supremacy of England 

over, 299 

Ness, description of, 31 
New aristocracy created by Henry I, 

8, 10, 25 

feoffment, knights' fees of, 33, 43 

men transferred to Welsh March by 

Henry II, 23, 25 
Nomina Villarum, 222, 297 
Norfolk feoffment of le Strange under 

Earl of Arundel, 63 

le Stranges of merely local importance, 


witnesses to Knockin Deed, 259 
Northampton, Council of (1177), 39 
Norwich taxation, 237 

thieves in thirteenth century, 200 

OAKS, 233, 234, 306 

Ordainers, the, 267, 297, 360 

Orewin Bridge, battle of, 195-7, 355 

Origin of family of le Strange, i, 3, 8 

Originalia Roll, 81 

Oswestry, the most advanced post on 

the north-west March, 36 
sale of King's stores, at, 72 
Outremer, Lignages d', 147 
Oxford. See Provisions of Oxford 

PACK-SADDLES for army, 303 
Palatine jurisdiction, 106 
Pannage, 230 
Papal Letters, calendar of, 293 

See, exactions of, 104 
Passagium carectarum, 164 
Patent Rolls, 81 n. 

Peace, Commission of the, 319, 331, 333, 

335, 341, 344 
Pedigree by Roger L' Estrange of Hoe, 

2, 266 
Pesson, 164 

Pimhill Hundred Roll, 55, 121 
Pipe Rolls, 27, 30, 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 

40, 42, 54, 61, 62, 65, 67, 70, 73, 

87, 90, 103, 118, 146, 202 
Pit, franchise of, 122, 163 
Plea Rolls, 42, 61, 63, 140, 185, 189 
Pleas of the Crown, 240 
Poitevins, 101 
Pope Boniface VIII, letter of the barons 

to, 211, 212, 243, 249, 292, 355, 360 
Porpoise from Ireland, 107 
Powys, Princes of, 162, 296 

Owen de la Pole resigns Principality 

of, 163 

Prcestitum, 30 
Protection, letter of, 80 
Provisions of Oxford, 124, 125, 129, 143, 


RALPH le Strange, confusion as to several 

of this name, 46, 47 
Ramsey, Chartulary of, DO, 105 
Rebellion of 1173-4, 352 
Red Book of the Exchequer, 33, 36, 44, 


' Regard, out of,' 67 
Rege Captivo, Patents of Henry III, 

136, 144 

Rhys ap Maredudd, rising of, 202-3 
Ringstead Charters and Rolls, 152 



Roll of Arms of Caerlaverock, 210, 211 

Henry III, 368 

Rome, Roger le Strange, Envoy to, 238- 


Rose Rent, 50, 174, 256, 262, 263 
Ry, feoda de, 94 

Sagittam barbatam rent, 168 
Sagittarii, 188 

St. Asaph, Red Book of, 215 
St. Florent Charter, 7, 8 
Salop Chartulary, 31, 87, 156 

taxer of the ninth of, 312 
Scotch War, subsidy for, 301 
Scotland, 122, 123, 209, 255, 361 
Scots, 270 

Scottish throne, succession to (1291), 

237, 238, 239, 240 
Scutage, exemption from, 75 
Scutiferi Regis, 307 
Sea-power, advantage of, in 
Seal, importance of loss of, 171 
Seal of Thomas Corbet, 77 

Hawyse de la Pole, 165 

Henricus fiT Radulphi, 91 

Fulk le Strange, of Blackmere, 292, 

37. 37 1 

Henry of Brocton, 369 

John (III), 204 

(V), 370 

(VI), 259, 371 

Hamon, the Crusader, 369 

Robert, 170 

Roger of Ellesmere, 370 

Roger (5th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), 332 

Richard (7th Lord Strange of 

Knockin), 277, 341 

Sedgeford Charters, &c., 152 

Serfs (nativi), 51 

Servientes, 37, 76 

Settlement of Knockin and Hunstanton 
(1309), 256 

Severn, diversion of the, 120 

Shakespeare mentions Strange of Black- 
mere, 322 

Ship from Norfolk, 212 

' la Welyfare del Brele,' 270 

of Flanders and Zeeland, 270 

of St. Mary, 149 
Shrewsbury, bailiffs' accounts, 166 

Deanery of St. Mary's, 88 

free chapel of St. Michael, 312 

liberties of, 206 

MSS. of Corporation, "2 50 

Shrewsbury, oaks for repairs, 76 

Parliament of, 163 

Shropshire Archaeological Society, 206 

Assize Roll, 88 

Churches. See Cranage 

Drawings of Ancient Monuments, 173 

feoffments of le Stranges in, 24, 362 

forestership of, 212 

Forest Roll, 126 

Roll of Tenants, temp. Edw. I, 186 
Shropshire, sheriffs of : 

Guy le Strange, 22, 31, 35, 36, 
38, 40, 352 

Geoffrey de Vere (1164), 37 

Thomas de Erdington (1219), 74 

John le Strange (II), (1216), 74 
(Ill), (1236), 102, 109, 119 

Robert de la Hay (1235), IO2 

Hamon le Strange (1263), 129 

Thomas Corbet (1266), 137 

Bogo de Knovill (1276), 172, 188 

Richard de Harley (1301), 219 

John le Strange (V), (1308), 219 

Roger de Cheney (1316), 219 
Silver mines at Carreghova, 41, 42, 73 

plate of Alice de Lacy, 285 
Snettisham Charters, &c., 52 
Snowdon, lord of, 102, 142 
Soldiers' pay, 113 

' Some Feudal Lords and their Seals,' 

by Lord Howard de Walden, 370 
Sparrow-hawk rent, 305 
Spears, 188 
Sporting rights, 67 

Spurs, tenure by pair of, 221, 264, 304 
Stags, 107, 126, 157, 229, 233 
Stapeldon, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 

his Register, 287 

Stapleton brass at Ingham, 328, 329 
Statute Merchant Bond, 256, 260, 261, 

262, 271 

Stirling Castle, siege of, 215, 312 
Strange, barony by writ of 1628, 347- 

35. 362 

earldom of, 349, 362 

John, 8th Lord Strange of Knockin, 

tomb of, in Hillingdon Church, 346 

of Knockin, barony of, 210, 347, 

35 6 362 

Roger le, tomb in Hunstanton Church, 


Stretward, 122 

Subsidy for Crusade of 1270, 146 
Suffolk Fee Rolls, 214 
Surnames, origin of, i 
Swans on the Thames, 345 



TAXATION of Pope Nicholas (1291), 63, 


Templars, 219, 357 
Terra dates, 27, 28, 30, 144 
Testa de Nevill, 24, 32, 85, 94, 105, 143, 

180, 181, 182 

Thief at Hunstanton beheaded, 200 
Tithe on hay and mills, 102 
Tottington Charters, 152 
Tournaments. See Stepney, Dunstable, 

Tout, Professor T. F., great help as 

regards Welsh history, vi, 7, passim 
Triers of Petitions, 332, 344 
Trivet, Continuator of, 273. See Hall 
Trouvere legend, 9 

UNDERWOOD cut for safety of travellers, 

Valettus Regis, 305, 307, 308, 361 

Venison, 229, 234, 242 

service of taking, 297, 305 

WAIFS, 240, 363 

Wakheria (Welshry) de Knohyn, 167, 

Wales, Act of Union, 364 

last rising in, 204, 207 

no lasting conquest of, before Edward 

If 103 

Prince of, title of, 102, 142 

statute of, 198 

Warenne family estates, 327 

Warren, 186 

Waverley, annals of, 137 

Weever's Funeral Monuments, 345 and 


Welshpool (la Pole), 163 
Welsh prisoners, 117 

Rolls, 175 

soldiers employed by Henry III in 

Gascony, 113 

pay of, 113 

employed by Edward III 'in Scot- 
land, 281, 357, 359 

War, first of Edward I, 187-189 
second of Edward I, 191-198 

' Wars of Edward I,' by J. E. Morris, 


Westminster, Council of (1102), 88 

Wethers, rent of, 326 

Whale, 191, 280. See Baleyn 

Whitchurch, manor of, 172 

Wigornia, Annales Prioratus de, 76 

William I, King, grants by, 7 

Wine, 107, 232 

Wombridge, Chartulary of, 300 

Women, unless heiresses, seldom men- 
tioned in records, 20 

Woods near roads cut down, 112. See 

Worcester, ordinance of, 135, 136 

Wreck of sea, 270, 276, 280 

Wrockwardine, manor of, 70, 78, 79 

YBELIN, House of, 147 
Yeoman, King's, 265, 266, 305, 306, 307, 







Le Strange, Hamon 
Le Strange records